diarrhoea

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Panama:

  • marañón
  • po'm kajou
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  ripe fruit (thickened peduncle), fresh juice1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)2 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit of Anacardium occidentale is widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 SOLÍS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

2 A SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Ngöbe-Buglé. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá.

3 MELO CAVALCANTE AA, RUBENSAM G, PICADA JN, GOMES DA SILVA E, FONSECA MOREIRA JC, HENRIQUES JA, 2003
Mutagenicity, antioxidant potential, and antimutagenic activity against hydrogen peroxide of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice and cajuina. Environ Mol Mutagen 41(5):360-369.

4 SATYNARAYANA D, MYTHIRAYEE C, KRISHNAMURTY V, MADHAVAKRISHNA W, 1978
Studies on the polyphenols of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale). Leather Sci (Madras) 25:51-54.

5 KUBO J, LEE JR, KUBO I, 1999
Anti-Helicobacter pylori agents from the cashew apple. J Agr Food Chem 47(2):533-537.

6 KUBO I, OCHI M, VIERA PC, KOMATSU S, 1993
Antitumor agents from the cashew (Anarcadium occidentale) apple juice. J Agr Food Chem 41(6):1012-1015.

7 MAC LEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982
Volatile flavour components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale). Phytochemistry 21(10):2527-2530.

8 PRICE RL, HOLANDA LF, MOURA FE, MAIA GA, MARTIN CB, 1975
Constituents of Brazilian cashew apple juice. Cienc Agron 5(1):61.

9 GARG SC, KASERA HL, 1984
Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Anacardium occidentale. Indian Perfum 28(2):95-97.

10 ARYA R, BABU V, ILYAS M, NASIM KT, 1989
Phytochemical examination of the leaves of Anarcadium occidentale. J Indian Chem Soc 66(1):67-68.

11 MARTÍNEZ Y, MARTÍNEZ O, ESCALONA A, SOTO F, VALDIVIE M, 2012
Composición química y tamizaje fitoquímico del polvo de hojas y retoños del Anacardium occidentale L. (marañón). Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales. 17(1)1-10.

12 SOLÍS PN, RODRÍGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004
Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GARCÍA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas nuevas frescas de Anacardium occidentale. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 GONCALVES JL, LOPES RC, OLIVEIRA DB, COSTA SS, MIRANDA MM, ROMANOS MT, SANTOS NS, WIGG MD, 2005
In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol 99(3):403-407.

15 EICHBAUM FW, 1949
Biological properties of anacardic acid O-penta-decadienyl-salicylic acid and related compounds. Memorias do Instituto Butantá 19:119-133.

16 LAURENS A, MBOUP S, GIONO-BARBER P, SYLLA O, DAVID-PRINCE LM,1982
Study of antimicrobial activity of Anacardium occidentale L Ann Pharm Fr 40(2):143-146.

17 DE SOUZA CP, 1992
The use of the shell of the cashew nut, of Anacardium occidentale, as an alternative molluscicide. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, Brazil 34(5):459-466.

18 TYMAN JH, KIONG LS, 1978
Long chain phenol: part XI; Composition of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) from various sources. Lipids 13:525-532.

19 KUBO I, KINST-HORI I, YOKOKAWA Y, 1994
Tyrosinase inhibitors from Anacardium occidentale fruits. J Nat Prod 57(4):545-551.

20 GARCÍA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas nuevas frescas de Anacardium occidentale. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 GARCÍA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda (3000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas nuevas frescas de Anacardium occidentale. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

22 LIOGIER HA, 1990
Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico y del Caribe. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Iberoamericana de Ediciones. p201.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • kannèl

Dominican Republic:

  • canela

Dominica:

  • Ceylon cinnamon
  • cinnamon

French Guiana:

  • kannèl

Martinique:

  • kannèl

Guadeloupe:

  • kannèl
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bark (splinters), decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on published scientific information available.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhoea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Avoid ingestion if the following conditions are present: gastroduodenal ulcer or gastritis; allergy to the plant.

In the event of accidental poisoning by ingestion of essential oil or of preparations containing essential oil, medical attention is required.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, or while breast feeding or by children under 3 years of age.

Not for use for more than three consecutive days.

The bark (powdered or fragmented) of Cinnamomum verum is widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction with 3 grams of bark fragments in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water, boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot.  Leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup twice a day.

The daily dose average of bark for adults is 2 to 4 grams28.

 

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 GERMOSÉN-ROBINEAU L, GERÓNIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 LEUNG A, 1980
Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics. Hoboken, USA: Wiley Interscience Publication.

5 NAMBA T, KIKUCHI T, MIKAGE M, KADOTA S, KOMATZU K, SHMIZU M, TOMIMORI T, 1987
Studies on the natural medicinal resources from Sri Lanka (1). On anatomical and chemical differences among each grade of Cinnamomi veri cortex. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 41(1):35-42.

6 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p44.

7 RAJ RK, 1975
Screening of indigenous plants for antihelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part II. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 19(1):47-49.

8 ATTA AH, ALKOFAHI A, 1998
Anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 60(2):117-124.

9 SHARMA A, GHANEKAR AS, PADWAL-DESAI SR, NADKARNI GB, 1984
Microbiological status and antifungal properties of irradiated spices. J Agric Food Chem 32(5):1061-1063.

10 GEORGE M, PETALAI K, 1949
Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

11 NAMBA T, SAWA K, GEWALI MB, HATTORI M, NARUSE Y, KAGAMIMORI S, 1989
Studies on development of immunomodulating drugs (II). Effect of Ayurvedic medicines on blastogenesis of lymphocytes from mice. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(3):250-255.

12 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

13 SUGAYA E, ISHIGE A, SEKIGUCHI K, IIZUKA S, SUGIMOTO A, YUZURIHARA M, HOSOYA E, 1988
Inhibitory effect of a mixture of herbal drugs TJ-960 (SK) on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice. Epilepsy Res 2(5):337-339.

14 SUGAYA E, ISHIGE A, SEKIGUCHI K, IIZUKA S, ITO K, SUGIMOTO A, ABURANDA M, HOSOYA E, 1988
Inhibitory effect of TJ-960 (SK) on pentylenetetrazol-induced EEG power spectrum changes. Epilepsy Res 2(1):27-31.

15 RAHARIVELOMANANA PJ, TERROM GP, BIANCHINI JP, COULANGES P, 1989
Study of the antimicrobial action of various essential oil extracts from Madagascar plants. II. The Lauraceae. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar 56(1):261-271.

16 REITER M, BRANDT W, 1985
Relaxant effects of terpenoid on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneim-Forsch 35(1):408-414.

17 SUGAYA E, TSUDA T, SUGAYA E, USAMI M, TAKAMURA K, 1979
Local anaesthetic action of the Chinese medicine Saiko-Keishi-To. Planta Med 37:274-276.

18 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oil. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

19 GARCÍA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las astillas de Cinnamomum verum . Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 SIVASWAMY SN, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

21 UNGSURUNGSIE M, SUTHIENKUL O, PAOVALO C, 1982
Mutagenicity screening of popular Thai species. Food Chem Toxicol 20(5):527-530.

22 SHAH AH, AL-SHARCEF AH, AGEEL AM, QURESHI S, 1998
Toxicity studies on mice of common species: Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark and Piper longum fruits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 52(3):231-239.

23 SÁNCHEZ-PALOMERA E, 1951
Concept of the mucous barrier and its significance. Gastroenterology 18:269-286.

24 NIR Y, POTASMAN I, STERMER E, TABAK M, NEEMAN I, 2005
Controlled trial of the effect of cinnamon extract on Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 5(2):94-97.

25 NATURAL STANDARD MONOGRAPH 2007
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp.). www.naturalstandard.com (12jan2012)

26 SEETHARAM K, PASRICHA J, 1987
Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

27 STAGER J, WUTHRICH B, JOHANSSON S, 1991
Spice allergy in celery-sensitive patients. Allergy 46(6):475-478.

28 World Health Organization, 1999
Cortex Cinnamomi. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol. I.
Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. pp95-104.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

French Guiana:

  • citron
  • citron vert

Panama:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Venezuela:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Colombia:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Puerto Rico:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Honduras:

  • lima
  • limón
  • limón agrio

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • lime

Dominica:

  • lime

Dominican Republic:

  • limón, limón agrio, lima

Saint Martin:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Martinique:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi

Guadeloupe:

  • sitron-vè
  • sitwon péyi
  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè

Haiti:

  • sitwon péyi
  • ti sitwon vè
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, orally3-5,7-10,34-36,42

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

4 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

5 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

6 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

8 HAY YO, 1998
Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

9 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

10 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

11 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

12 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

13 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

18 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

19 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA, CRC Press. p45.

20 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986
Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

21 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOZA A, VASQUEZ Y, GUPTA MP, 2005Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. var. mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

24 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

25 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

26 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

27 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

28 ADESINA S, 1982
Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

29 GUPTA M, 1987
Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México: Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

31 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007
Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

37 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009
Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989
Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

40 PELLECUER J, 1995
Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Cuba:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Mexico:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Puerto Rico:

  • naranja agria
  • naranja de babor

Dominican Republic:

  • naranja agria, naranja de babor

Martinique:

  • oranger amer
  • zowanj anmè

Grenada:

  • sour orange

Haiti:

  • zowanj gospo
  • zowanj si
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, orally2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

2 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

7 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986
The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

10 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992
Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

11 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991
Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

12 WIDMER WW, 1991
Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

13 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990
Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

14 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M, 1990
Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

15 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

16 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975
Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

17 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

18 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del zumo del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

19 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

20 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983
The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000
Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

23 SANKAWA U, 1980
Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

24 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979
Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

25 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995
Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

26 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980
Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

27 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986
Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

28 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997
The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

29 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996
Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

30 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996
Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

31 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

32 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

33 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 GARCIA-GONZALEZ M, FALLAS LV, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009 Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 PENZAK SR, JANN MW, COLD JA, HON YY, DESAI HD, GURLEY BJ, 2001Seville (sour) orange juice: synephrine content and cardiovascular effects in normotensive adults. J Clin Pharmacol 41(10):1059-1063.

37 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

38 CALAPAI G, FIRENZUOLI F, SAITTA A, SQUADRITO F, ARLOTTA MR, COSTANTINO G, INFERRERA G, 1999Antiobesity and cardiovascular toxic effects of Citrus aurantium extracts in the rat: a preliminary report. Fitoterapia 70(6):586-592.

39 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000
Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis. Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

40 SATO A, 1989
Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

41 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982
Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

42 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982
Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

43 STOHS SJ, PREUSS HG, 2010
The safety of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) and p-synephrine. HerbalGram 89:34-39.

44 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • naranja dulce (ou china)

Haiti:

  • zowanj
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit, juice, orally1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to available information:

Use for conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough, headache, sprains, strain and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In any application to the eye, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk or increasing irritation with the application of Citrus spp juice.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus sinensis are widely used for human consumption and are an industrial source of essential oil.

For headache, flu and fever:

Prepare decoction or infusion with 5-20 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to the 5-20 grams of leaf, cover pot and cool down.  Drink 2-3 cups a day36.

For conjunctivitis:

Instill (apply) in the eye 2-3 drops of fresh juice of fruit, 3 times a day.

For diarrhea, flu, cough, sprain, twist and fever:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI AM, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1984
Influence of the fruit juice of several Citrus species on steroidogenesis in the rat. Plant Med Phytother 18(1):8-14.

4 STEWART I, 1985
Identification of caffeine in Citrus flowers and leaves. J Agric Food Chem 33(6):1163-1165.

5 NICO KJ, CHANDLER BV, 1978
Roots as a probable site for Citrus limonoid biosynthesis. International Citrus Congress, Sydney, Australia. International Society of Citriculture 1:40-42.

6 ABDEL-ALIM MA, ABDEL-HAFEZ OM, EL-KHRISY AM, 1990
The constituents of Citrus sinensis leaves. Fitoterapia 61(5):470-471.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982
Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOIU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1990
Nigerian sweet orange leaf oil composition. J Essent Oil Res 2(5):199-201.

9 GUANGHAN L, YU W, LEIMING Y, SHUANGLONG H, 1994
Determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by stripping voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode. Food Chem 51(2):237-239.

10 RADFORD T, KAWASHIMA K, FRIEDEL PK, POPE LE, GIANTURCO MA, 1975
Distribution of volatile compounds between the pulp and serum of some fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1066.

11 ROUSEFF RL, SEETHARAMAN K, NAIM M, NAGY S, ZEHAVI U, 1992
Improved HPLC determination of hydroxycinnamic acids in orange juice using solvents containing thf. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1139-1143.

12 SWATSITANG P, TUCKER G, ROBARDS K, JARDINE D, 2000
Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds in Citrus sinensis. Anal Chim Acta 417(2):231-240.

13 OOGHE WC, OOGHE SJ, DETAVERNIER M, HUYGHEBAERT A, 1995
Characterization of orange juice (Citrus sinensis) by polymethoxylated flavones. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2191-2195.

14 OOGHE WC, DETAVERNIER CM, 1999
Flavonoids as authenticity markers for Citrus sinensis juice. Fruit Process 9(8):308-313.

15 WIDMER WW, 2000
Determination of naringin and neohesperidin in orange juice by liquid chromatography with UV detection to detect the presence grapefruit juice: collaborative study. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem Int 83(5):1155-1165.

16 GROSS J, CARMON M, LIFSHITZ A, SKLARZ B, 1975
Structural elucidation of some orange juice carotenoids. Phytochemistry 14(1):249-252.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Tránsito Intestinal en ratones, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996
Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

19 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS JI, 1978
Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35(6):1219-1220.

20 PEREZ C, ANESINI C, 1994
In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):41-46.

21 KAWAKAMI M, SUZUKI K, ISHIZUKA T, HIDAKA T, MATSUKI Y, NAKAMURA H, 1998
Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36(6):306-308.

22 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986
Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

23 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996
Goodman & Gilman, Las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9ª edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editores. pp1670-1671.

24 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, de hojas frescas de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

25 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 MIYAGI Y, OM AS, CHEE KM, BENNINK MR, 2000
Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice. Nutr Cancer 36(2):224-229.

27 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989
Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

28 PORTAL JA, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, BETANCOURT J, 1995
Estudio genotóxico in vitro de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Medi Ciego 1(1):3-6.

29 PORTAL JA, 1995
Evaluación genotóxica in vitro e in vivo de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

30 PELLECUER J, 1995
Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

31 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Citrus sinensis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Nicaragua:

  • 'kukus

Dominica:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • coco-tree
  • coconut tree

Honduras:

  • cocotero

Dominican Republic:

  • cocotero

Guatemala:

  • cocotero
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit water, fresh, orally2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to available information:

Use for asthma, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

There is no information available on this resource for asthmatic crisis.

Use for urinary infections is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, urinary infection or renal stones, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urinary infection symptoms last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use as an orally administered medicine during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

External use for arthritis, flu, burns and nacíos (boils) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)6 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should boils persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research31

For asthma:

Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day.

For urinary ailments:

Drink 250 mL (1 cup) of coconut water 4-6 times a day31.

For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

3 AKER CH, GARMENDIA M, DEVES R, FERNANDEZ P, FRITHZ E, HERNANDEZ M, SIMEON A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Bosawas. Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua UNAN-León, León, Nicaragua.

4 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

7 MOURA FE JA, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975
Unsaponifiable matter of crude and processed coconut oil. J Sci Food Agr 26(4):523-531.

8 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

9 SAITTAGAROON S, KAWAKISHI S, NAMIKI M, 1985
Generation of mannitol from copra meal. J Food Sci 50(3):757-760.

10 TAKEUCHI K, 1961
Amino acids in the endosperm of some Amazonian Palmae. Chiba Daigaku Buurii Gakuba Kiyo Shizen Kagaku 3:321-325.

11 JANSZ BR, JEYARAJ EE, PIERIS N, ABEYRATNE DJ, 1974
Cyanide liberation from linamarin. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 2:57-65.

12 KINDERLERER JL, KELLARD B, 1987
Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut. Chem Ind (London) 16:567-568.

13 MANNAN A, AHMAD K, 1966
Studies on vitamin E in foods of East Pakistan. Pak J Biol Agr Sci 9:13.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

15 CAMBAR P, ALGER J, 1989
Efectos broncopulmonares del aceite de coco en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

16 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del agua de fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

17 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la pulpa tierna del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

18 OLMEDO D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005
Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

19 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del aceite del fruto de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

22 VENKATARAMAN S, RAMANUJAN T, VENKATASUBBU V, 1980
Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shell Cocos nucifera L. J Ethnopharmacol 2(3):291-293.

23 JAIN SK, AGRAWAL SC, 1992
Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 46(1):1-6.

24 CACERES A, GIRON LM, MARTINEZ AM, 1987
Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatments of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol 19(3):233-245.

25 RODRÍGUEZ M, SÁNCHEZ C, 1982
Diuresis del agua de pipa (Cocos nucifera) en ratas. Rev Méd Panamá 7(3):186-19l.

26 KETUSINH O, 1954
Risks associate with intravenous infusion of coconut juice. J Med Ass Thailand 37(5):249-271.

27 MORTON J, 1981
Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. Springfield, USA: III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

28 BOOTH AN, BICKOFF EM, KOHLER GO, 1960
Estrogen-like activity in vegetable oils and mill by-products. Science 131:1807-1808.

29 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso del aceite del fruto de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005
Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, de aceite del fruto fresco de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del aceite del fruto puro de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 SALERNO JW, SMITH DE, 1991
The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibiting of human colon cancer growth in vitro. Anticancer Res 11(1):209-215.

34 LOCNISKAR M, BELURY MA, CUMBERLAND AG, PATRICK KE, FISCHER SM, 1991
The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide, comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil. Carcinogenesis 12(6):1023-1028.

35 BERTON TR, FISCHER SM, CONTI CJ, LOCNISKAR MF, 1996
Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil. Nutr Cancer 26(3):353-363.

36 CHINDAVANIG A, 1971
Effect of vegetable oils in plasma cholesterol in man and dog. Master Thesis, Dept. Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

37 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Barbados:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • fever grass
  • lemon grass

Puerto Rico:

  • limoncillo

Dominican Republic:

  • limoncillo

Venezuela:

  • molojillo criollo

Guadeloupe:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Dominica:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Saint Martin:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Martinique:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Saint Lucia:

  • sitwonnèl
  • zacate té

Guatemala:

  • té de limón

Mexico:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té

Honduras:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té

Costa Rica:

  • té limón
  • zacate limón
  • zacate té
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, or should fever last more than 2 days, stomach pain more than 3, or cough more than 5, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

TRAMIL Research42

For diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-25 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 15-25 grams of leaf.  Cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL), 2-3 times a day.

In all the above-mentioned uses for oral administration, the preparation should be properly filtered, using a cloth, as a prerequisite for consumption, in order to avoid mechanical injuries to the mucosas, due to the microfilaments present in the leaf26.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

10 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

11 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

12 CLEMENT Y, BAKSH-COMEAU Y, RAGOO R, SEAFORTH C, 2008
TRAMIL survey. UWI & UTT, Trinidad.

13 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 DELENS M, 1992
Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

17 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

18 O'REILLY A, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

19 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

20 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

21 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

22 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

23 ABEGAZ B, YOHANNES P, DIETER R, 1983
Constituents of the essential oil of Ethiopian Cymbopogon citratus. J Nat Prod 46(3):424-426.

24 DE MATOUSCHEK B, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991
Phytochemical investigation of nonvolatile constituents of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae). Pharm Acta Helv 66(9/10):242-245.

25 HANSON S, CRAWFORD M, KOKER M, MENEZES F, 1976
Cymbopogonol, a new triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus. Phytochemistry 15:1074-1075.

26 YOKOYAMA Y, TSUYUKI T, NAKAMURA N, TAKAHASHI T, HANSON S, MATSUSHITA K, 1980
Revised structures of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol. Tetrahedron Lett 21:3701-3702.

27 OLANIYI A, SOFOWORA E, OGUNTIMEHIN B, 1975
Phytochemical investigation of some Nigerian plants used against fevers. II. Cymbopogon citratus. Planta Med 28:186-189.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p57.

29 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990
Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

30 MORON F, SANCHEZ C, MARTINEZ MC, MOREJON Z, PINEDO Z, 2000
Actividad antiespasmódica in vitro de hojas frescas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de efectos antiinflamatorio y analgésico del extracto fluído de Cymbopogon citratus al 30% por vía oral. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):3-6.

32 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

33 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, DAGUILH R, HENRYS D, HENRYS J, ANTON R, 1986
Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):13-30.

34 CARLINI EA, CONTAR JD, SILVA-FILHO AR, SOLVEIRA-FILHO NG, FROCHTENGARTEN ML, BUENO OF, 1986
Pharmacology of lemon-grass Cymbopogon citratus I. Effect of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):37-64.

35 SOUZA FORMIGONI ML, LODDER HM, FILHO OG, FERREIRA TM, CARLINI EA, 1986
Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero". J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):65-74.

36 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, TOLON Z, 1989
Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 25(1):103-107.

37 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991
Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

38 LORENZETTI B, SOUZA G, SARTI S, FILHO DS, FERREIRA SH, 1991
Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34(1):43-48.

39 SETH, G, KOKATE CK, VARMA KC, 1976
Effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on central nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol 14(3):370-371.

40 LEMOS TLG, MATOS FJA, ALENCAR JW, CRAVEIRO AA, CLARK AM, MC CHESNEY JD, 1990
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants. Phytother Res 4(2):82-84.

41 AWUAH R, 1989
Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Ann Appl Biol 115(3):451-453.

42 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

43 KOBAYASHI N, 1989
Pharmaceutical compositions containing lemongrass extracts and antioxidants. Patens Japan Kokai Tokio Koho, 01, 221, 320.

44 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

45 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

46 DE LA TORRE RA, ESPINOSA-AGUIRRE JJ, CORTINAS DE NAVA C, IZQUIERDO T, MORON F, 1994
Genotoxic activity of mebendazole in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 305(2):139-144.

47 PILOTO FERRER J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZALEZ ML, RODRIGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

48 LEITE JR, SEABRA ML, MALUF E, ASSOLANT K, SUCHECKI D, TUFIK S, KLEPACZ S, CALIL HM, CARLINI EA, 1986
Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):75-83.

49 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.
Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

50 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Mexico:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Guatemala:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Honduras:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Dominican Republic:

  • apazote, epazote

Haiti:

  • feuilles à vers
  • simen-kontra

Martinique:

  • herbe à vers
  • simen-kontra
  • zèb avè

Colombia:

  • paico
  • yerba santa

Panama:

  • paico

Venezuela:

  • pazote

Guadeloupe:

  • simen-kontra

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • worm grass

Dominica:

  • wormweed
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf and/or aerial parts, infusion or decoction, orally1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites, is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In no case should the specified manner of preparation and dosage be altered.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, or more than 2 days in children over 5 years old, medical attention should be sought.

For diarrhea, this resource is considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites is recommended only when disorder is caused by ascaris, pinworms and hookworms; not for other types of diarrhoea, stomach pain or other intestinal parasites.

Use is contraindicated in individuals with hepatic disorders, renal insufficiency14, weakened individuals and the elderly.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, as it may be abortifacient, or during breast feeding or by children under 5 years old.

Use for skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and skin toxicity assays.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the skin ulcer last more than 5 days, medical attention should be sought for.

In topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For intestinal parasites, diarrhea and stomach pain caused by parasites:

prepare a decoction or infusion with 7 grams of aerial parts (leaf, flower, stem) in 300 mL (more than 1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 7 grams of aerial parts, cover and leave to cool down during 10 minutes.  Strain and drink 1 cup (250 mL) for adults, 1/2 cup (125 mL) for people weighing 35 kg, and 1/3 cup (80 mL) for children over 5 years.  Drink once a day only for 3 consecutive days46 and do not repeat treatment within six months.

Taking a saline laxative is recommended (e.g. magnesium sulfate) after the last intake; however, no oily purgatives should be taken14.

For skin ulcer:

Wash the injury with purified water and soap.  Wash the aerial plant parts properly, press or crush, and apply to affected area.  Cover with a clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

6 MÉNDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURÁN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 SOTOMAYOR U, RUEDA R, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro nacional de la medicina popular tradicional CNMPT, Ministerio de Salud, Estelí, Nicaragua.

11 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Ngöbe-Buglé). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GÓMEZ H, GAITAN R, DÍAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe. (FWI).

17 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

18 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PÉREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORÁLES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Quenopodio. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Barcelona, España, Editorial Masson. Nov.20,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

19 BOURGEOIS P, JOSEPH H, SAVARY H, 1989
Détermination d'huiles essentielles et dosage de l'ascaridole dans Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane UAG, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

20 TAKEMOTO T, NAKAJIMA T, 1957
Study of the essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides. V. On the structure of aritasone. Yakugaru Zasshi 77:1157-1158.

21 BAUER L, BRASIL E, SILVA GA, 1973
Essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Schinus terebenthifolia from Rio Grande do Sul. Rev Brasil Farm 54:240.

22 MONZOTE L, STAMBERG W, STANIEK K, GILLE L, 2009
Oxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 240(3):337-347.

23 CHU SS, FENG HU J, LIU ZL, 2011
Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Pest Manag Sci 67(6):714-718.

24 JARAMILLO B, DUARTE E, DELGADO W, 2012
Bioactividad del aceite esencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides colombiano/ Bioactivity of essential oil from Colombian Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rev Cuba Plantas Med 17(1):54-64.

25 JARDIM CM, JHAM GN, DHINGRA OD, FREIRE MM, 2008
Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of the Brazilian Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Chem Ecol 34(9):1213-1218.

26 ARISAWA M, MINABE N, SAEKI R, TAKAKUWA T, NAKAOKI T, 1971
Studies on unutilized resources. V. The components of the flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants. Yagugaku Zasshi 91:522.

27 JAIN N, LAM MS, KAMIL M, ILYAS M, NIWA M, SAKAE A, 1990
Two flavonol glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phytochemistry 29(12):3988-3991.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p41.

29 CAMBAR P, 1988
Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

30 DESTA B, 1993
Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 39(2):129-139.

31 ROSS SA, EL-KELTAWI NE, MEGALLA SE, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia 51:201-205.

32 BUTZ LN, LA LANDE JR, 1937
Antihelmintics II. A comparison of certain ozonides, Chenopodium oil and diheptanol peroxide. J Am Pharm Assoc 26:114.

33 BLISS AR, 1925
A pharmacodynamic study on the antihelmintic properties of two oils of Chenopodium. J Am Pharm Assoc 14:93.

34 FERNAN-NUÑEZ M, 1927
A contribution of helmintic therapy. J Amer Med Assoc 88:903.

35 FEROZ H, KHARE AK, SRIVASTAVA MC, 1982
Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants. J Sci Res Pl Med 3(1):6-12.

36 KISHORE N, DUBEY NK, SINGH SK, DIXIT SN, 1981
Fungitoxicity of some volatile natural products against human pathogenic fungi. Indian Perf 25(3/4):1-3.

37 KLIKS MM, 1985
Studies on the traditional herbal antihelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. Soc Sci Med 21(8):879-886.

38 LOPEZ DE GUIMARAES D, NEYRA LLANOS RS, ROMERO ACEVEDO JH, 2001
Ascariasis; comparación de la eficacia terapéutica entre paico y albendazol en niños de Huaraz. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 21(3):212-219.

39 GONZÁLEZ A, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de plantas TRAMIL en conejos. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

40 LÓPEZ M, MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de hoja fresca de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

41 LÓPEZ M, MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria hoja fresca machacada de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

42 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, partes aéreas de Chenopodium ambrosioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 GADANOA AB, GURNI AA, CARBALLO MA, 2006
Argentine folk medicine: Genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 103(2):246-251.

44 MACDONALD D, VANCREY K, HARRISON P, RANGACHARI PK, ROSENFELD J, WARREN C, SORGER G, 2004
Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle. J Ethnopharmacol 92(2-3):215-221.

45 OPDYKE DLJ, 1976
Monographs on fragance raw materials. Chenopodium oil. Food Chem Toxicol 14(11):713-715.

46 OLAJIDE OA, AWE SO, MAKINDE JM, 1997
Pharmalogical screening of the mathanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Fitoterapia 68(6):529-532.

47 BHAKUNI DS, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

48 MELE A, 1952
Acute poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med 35:955.

49 WOLF IJ, 1932
Fatal poisoning with oil of Chenopodium in a negro child with sickle-cell anemia. Arch Pediatr 52:126.

50 JELLIFFE DB, 1951
Oil of Chenopodium in the treatment of ascariasis. Report of 3 cases of fatal liver damage in African patients. J Trop Med Hyg 54:143.

51 ANDRIEN J, PARMENTIER PD, COMPERE J, BOUNAMEAUX Y, 1971
Study on Chenopodium oil encephalitis. Three fatal cases. A Soc Belge Med Trop 51:299.

52 CONTRERAS AA, ZOLLA C, 1982
Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

53 DELENS M, Ed., 2000
Cuaderno de Fitoterapia Clínica (Afecciones respiratorias y digestivas). Mérida, Venezuela: CONAPLAMED. p151.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Mexico:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Guatemala:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Honduras:

  • apazote
  • epazote

Dominican Republic:

  • apazote, epazote

Haiti:

  • feuilles à vers
  • simen-kontra

Martinique:

  • herbe à vers
  • simen-kontra
  • zèb avè

Colombia:

  • paico
  • yerba santa

Panama:

  • paico

Venezuela:

  • pazote

Guadeloupe:

  • simen-kontra

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • worm grass

Dominica:

  • wormweed
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf and/or aerial parts, infusion or decoction, orally1-2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites, is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In no case should the specified manner of preparation and dosage be altered.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, or more than 2 days in children over 5 years old, medical attention should be sought.

For diarrhea, this resource is considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites is recommended only when disorder is caused by ascaris, pinworms and hookworms; not for other types of diarrhoea, stomach pain or other intestinal parasites.

Use is contraindicated in individuals with hepatic disorders, renal insufficiency14, weakened individuals and the elderly.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, as it may be abortifacient, or during breast feeding or by children under 5 years old.

Use for skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and skin toxicity assays.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the skin ulcer last more than 5 days, medical attention should be sought for.

In topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For intestinal parasites, diarrhea and stomach pain caused by parasites:

prepare a decoction or infusion with 7 grams of aerial parts (leaf, flower, stem) in 300 mL (more than 1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 7 grams of aerial parts, cover and leave to cool down during 10 minutes.  Strain and drink 1 cup (250 mL) for adults, 1/2 cup (125 mL) for people weighing 35 kg, and 1/3 cup (80 mL) for children over 5 years.  Drink once a day only for 3 consecutive days46 and do not repeat treatment within six months.

Taking a saline laxative is recommended (e.g. magnesium sulfate) after the last intake; however, no oily purgatives should be taken14.

For skin ulcer:

Wash the injury with purified water and soap.  Wash the aerial plant parts properly, press or crush, and apply to affected area.  Cover with a clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GIRÓN L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

6 MÉNDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURÁN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 SOTOMAYOR U, RUEDA R, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro nacional de la medicina popular tradicional CNMPT, Ministerio de Salud, Estelí, Nicaragua.

11 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Ngöbe-Buglé). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 SOLÍS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTÍNEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GÓMEZ H, GAITAN R, DÍAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

14 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

15 ZAMBRANO LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

16 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe. (FWI).

17 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

18 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PÉREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORÁLES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Quenopodio. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Barcelona, España, Editorial Masson. Nov.20,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

19 BOURGEOIS P, JOSEPH H, SAVARY H, 1989
Détermination d'huiles essentielles et dosage de l'ascaridole dans Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane UAG, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

20 TAKEMOTO T, NAKAJIMA T, 1957
Study of the essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides. V. On the structure of aritasone. Yakugaru Zasshi 77:1157-1158.

21 BAUER L, BRASIL E, SILVA GA, 1973
Essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Schinus terebenthifolia from Rio Grande do Sul. Rev Brasil Farm 54:240.

22 MONZOTE L, STAMBERG W, STANIEK K, GILLE L, 2009
Oxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 240(3):337-347.

23 CHU SS, FENG HU J, LIU ZL, 2011
Composition of essential oil of Chinese Chenopodium ambrosioides and insecticidal activity against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Pest Manag Sci 67(6):714-718.

24 JARAMILLO B, DUARTE E, DELGADO W, 2012
Bioactividad del aceite esencial de Chenopodium ambrosioides colombiano/ Bioactivity of essential oil from Colombian Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rev Cuba Plantas Med 17(1):54-64.

25 JARDIM CM, JHAM GN, DHINGRA OD, FREIRE MM, 2008
Composition and antifungal activity of the essential oil of the Brazilian Chenopodium ambrosioides L. J Chem Ecol 34(9):1213-1218.

26 ARISAWA M, MINABE N, SAEKI R, TAKAKUWA T, NAKAOKI T, 1971
Studies on unutilized resources. V. The components of the flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants. Yagugaku Zasshi 91:522.

27 JAIN N, LAM MS, KAMIL M, ILYAS M, NIWA M, SAKAE A, 1990
Two flavonol glycosides from Chenopodium ambrosioides. Phytochemistry 29(12):3988-3991.

28 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p41.

29 CAMBAR P, 1988
Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

30 DESTA B, 1993
Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 39(2):129-139.

31 ROSS SA, EL-KELTAWI NE, MEGALLA SE, 1980
Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia 51:201-205.

32 BUTZ LN, LA LANDE JR, 1937
Antihelmintics II. A comparison of certain ozonides, Chenopodium oil and diheptanol peroxide. J Am Pharm Assoc 26:114.

33 BLISS AR, 1925
A pharmacodynamic study on the antihelmintic properties of two oils of Chenopodium. J Am Pharm Assoc 14:93.

34 FERNAN-NUÑEZ M, 1927
A contribution of helmintic therapy. J Amer Med Assoc 88:903.

35 FEROZ H, KHARE AK, SRIVASTAVA MC, 1982
Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants. J Sci Res Pl Med 3(1):6-12.

36 KISHORE N, DUBEY NK, SINGH SK, DIXIT SN, 1981
Fungitoxicity of some volatile natural products against human pathogenic fungi. Indian Perf 25(3/4):1-3.

37 KLIKS MM, 1985
Studies on the traditional herbal antihelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. Soc Sci Med 21(8):879-886.

38 LOPEZ DE GUIMARAES D, NEYRA LLANOS RS, ROMERO ACEVEDO JH, 2001
Ascariasis; comparación de la eficacia terapéutica entre paico y albendazol en niños de Huaraz. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 21(3):212-219.

39 GONZÁLEZ A, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de plantas TRAMIL en conejos. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

40 LÓPEZ M, MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de hoja fresca de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

41 LÓPEZ M, MARTÍNEZ MJ, MOREJÓN Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORÓN F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria hoja fresca machacada de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

42 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, partes aéreas de Chenopodium ambrosioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 GADANOA AB, GURNI AA, CARBALLO MA, 2006
Argentine folk medicine: Genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 103(2):246-251.

44 MACDONALD D, VANCREY K, HARRISON P, RANGACHARI PK, ROSENFELD J, WARREN C, SORGER G, 2004
Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle. J Ethnopharmacol 92(2-3):215-221.

45 OPDYKE DLJ, 1976
Monographs on fragance raw materials. Chenopodium oil. Food Chem Toxicol 14(11):713-715.

46 OLAJIDE OA, AWE SO, MAKINDE JM, 1997
Pharmalogical screening of the mathanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Fitoterapia 68(6):529-532.

47 BHAKUNI DS, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

48 MELE A, 1952
Acute poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med 35:955.

49 WOLF IJ, 1932
Fatal poisoning with oil of Chenopodium in a negro child with sickle-cell anemia. Arch Pediatr 52:126.

50 JELLIFFE DB, 1951
Oil of Chenopodium in the treatment of ascariasis. Report of 3 cases of fatal liver damage in African patients. J Trop Med Hyg 54:143.

51 ANDRIEN J, PARMENTIER PD, COMPERE J, BOUNAMEAUX Y, 1971
Study on Chenopodium oil encephalitis. Three fatal cases. A Soc Belge Med Trop 51:299.

52 CONTRERAS AA, ZOLLA C, 1982
Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

53 DELENS M, Ed., 2000
Cuaderno de Fitoterapia Clínica (Afecciones respiratorias y digestivas). Mérida, Venezuela: CONAPLAMED. p151.