diarrhoea

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Colombia:

  • manzanilla

Honduras:

  • manzanilla

Guatemala:

  • manzanilla
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  entire plant, decoction, orally2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, diarrhea, stomach pain and expulsion of placenta is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For diarrhea, the use of this plant can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the colic, diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The pollen is potentially allergenic and may induce reactions of hypersensitivity in susceptible individuals or those with prior allergy to Asteraceae (esp. ragweed and Chrysanthemum).

 

For menstrual pain and stomach pain:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 grams of dried flower. Cover pot, leave to settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink one cup between meals, 3-4 times a day32-33.

There is no available information about preparation and dosage of the decoction of the entire plant, the infusion of the leaf, or the infusion of the leaf and flower, other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 RAUSCHERT S, 1974
Nomenklatorische Probleme in der Gattung Matricaria L.
Folia Geobot Phytotax Praha 9:249-260.

2 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

3 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 FRANZ C, WICKEL I, 1980
Contribution to the heredity of bisaboloids in Chamomilla recutita. (abstract). Planta Med 39:287-288.

6 SALAMON I, 1992
Production of chamomile, Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, in Slovakia. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1(1/2):37-45.

7 MANCHENO MN, 1987
La manzanilla dentro del plan terapéutico de tratamiento de la enfermedad diarreica aguda del Ministerio de Salud. Nicaragua. Rescate de la Medicina Popular Tradicional.

8 MERICLI AH, 1990
The lypophilic compounds of a Turkish Matricaria chamomilla variety with no chamazulene in the volatile oil. Int J Crude Drug Res 28(2):145-147.

9 TOPOLOV V, GABROLOV M, YANKOLOV J, 1983
Plantas medicinales and fitoterapia (Bilki and Bilcosvirane). Plovdiv, Bulgaria: Ed. Jristo G. Danov.

10 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996
Actividad espasmolítica del extracto fluído de Matricaria recutita (Manzanilla) en órganos aislados. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(1):19-24.

11 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M, BOLAÑOS AN, ARGUEDAS CR, 2005
Efecto analgésico en ratas, por vía oral, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de la planta entera sin flor de Matricaria recutita dosis única. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GARCIA-GONZÁLEZ M,  ARGUEDAS R, y FERNANDEZ A, 2005
Efecto antiinflamatorio en ratas, por vía oral, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de la planta entera sin flor de Matricaria recutita dosis única. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 ABDUL-GHANI AS, EL-LATI SG, SACAAN AI, SULEIMAN MS, AMIN RM, 1987
Anticonvulsant effects of some Arab medicinal plants. Int J Crude Drug Res 25(1):39-43.

14 HOERHAMMER L, 1962
Flavone concentration of medicinal plants with regard to their spasmolytic action. Congr Sci Farm Conf Commun 21st Pisa 1961(21):578-588.

15 JAKOVLEV V, ISAAC O, FLASKAMP E, 1983
Pharmakologische Untersuchungen von Kamillen-Inhaltsstoffen. VI. Untersuchungen zur antiphlogistichen Wirkung von Chamazulen und Matricin. Planta Med 49(10):67-73.

16 YAMAZAKI M, SHIROTA H, 1981
Application of experimental stress ulcer test in mice for the survey of neurotropic naturally occurring drug materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 35:96-102.

17 GERSHEBIN LL, 1977
Regeneration of rat liver in the presence of essential oils and their components. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(3):173-182.

18 ITOKAWA H, MIHASHI S, WATANABE K, NATSUMOTO H, HAMANAKA T, 1983
Studies on the constituents of crude drugs having inhibitory activity against contraction of the ileum caused by histamine or barium chloride (I). Screening test for the activity of commercially available crude drugs and the related plant materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(3):223-228.

19 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

20 SZELENYI I, ISAAC O, THIEMER K, 1979
Pharmakologische Untersuchungen von Kamillen-inhaltsstoffen. III. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen über die ulkusprotektive Wirkung der Kamille. Planta Med 35(3):218-227.

21 SHIPOCHLIEV T, 1981
Uterotonic action of extract from a group of medicinal plants. Vett Med Nauki 18(4):94-98.

22 AGGAG ME, YOUSEF RT, 1972
Study of antimicrobial activity of chamomile oil. Planta Med 22(2):140-144.

23 MANN C, STABA E, 1986
The chemistry, pharmacology and commercial formulations of chamomile. In: Herbs, spices and medicinal plants; recent advances in botany, horticulture and pharmacology. Phoenix, USA: Oryxpress 1:235-280.

24 ISAAC O, 1979
Pharmacological investigations with compounds of chamomile I. On the pharmacology of alpha-bisabolol and bisabolol oxides (review). Planta Med 35(2):118-124.

25 ACHTERRATH-TUCKERMANN U, KUNDE R, FLASKAMP E, ISAAC O, THIEMER K, 1980
Pharmacological investigations with compounds of chamomile. V. Investigations on the spasmolytic effect of compounds of chamomile and Kamillosan on the isolated guinea pig ileum. Planta Med 39(1):38-50.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de decocción de flor seca de Matricaria recutita L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 JAKOVLEV V, SCHLICHTEGROLL A, 1969
Antiinflammatory activity of (-)-alpha-bisabolol, an essential component of chamomille oil. Arzneim-Forsch 19:615.

28 AL-HINDAWI M, AL-DEEN I, NABI M, ISMAIL M, 1989
Antiinflamatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. J Ethnopharmacol 26(2):163-168.

29 LESLIE G, SALMON G, 1979
Repeated dose toxicity studies and reproductive studies on nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Swiss Med 1(1/2):1-3.

30 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DEDALO M, BETANCOUR J, 2000
Evaluación del efecto genotóxico en extractos fluidos de Plantago lanceolata L., (llantén menor) y Matricaria chamomilla L. (manzanilla). Revista cubana de plantas medicinales 5(2):59-63.

31 BENNER MH, LEE HJ, 1973
Anaphylactic reaction to chamomille tea. J Allergy Clin Immunol 52(5):307-308.

32 LEWIS R, TATKEN R, (Eds.), 1980
Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. Vol. 1. Cincinnati, USA: Nat. Instit. Occupational Health.

33 ANON (Select Committee on GRAS Substances), 1976
GRAS status of foods and food additives. Washington, USA: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration 41, 38644.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • mant
  • mant

Saint Martin:

  • mant

Martinique:

  • mant

Dominica:

  • peppermint

Cuba:

  • toronjil
  • toronjil de menta

Panama:

  • yerba buena

Venezuela:

  • yerba buena
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

7 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

10 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

11 KRAPP K, LONGE J, 2005
Enciclopedia de las Medicinas Alternativas. Editorial Océano, Barcelona, pp:1017-1021.

12 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985
Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

13 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha x piperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

14 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967
Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

15 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

16 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

17 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990
Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

18 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981
Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

19 ARUMUGAM P, GAYATRI N, SUBATHRA M, RAMESH A, 2008
Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):92-95.

20 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

21 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

22 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988
Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993
Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991
Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996
Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

30 PARRA AL, CAPO JT, MONTALVO RV, GONZALEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cub Plantas Med 1(4):26-28.

31 MICROMEDEX T, 2003
Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

32 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

33 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

34 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

35 WICHTL M, 1999
Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • mant
  • mant

Saint Martin:

  • mant

Martinique:

  • mant

Dominica:

  • peppermint

Cuba:

  • toronjil
  • toronjil de menta

Panama:

  • yerba buena

Venezuela:

  • yerba buena
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

7 OCRISSE G, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

10 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

11 KRAPP K, LONGE J, 2005
Enciclopedia de las Medicinas Alternativas. Editorial Océano, Barcelona, pp:1017-1021.

12 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985
Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

13 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994
Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha x piperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

14 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967
Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

15 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

16 LESLIE GB, 1978
A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

17 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990
Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

18 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981
Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

19 ARUMUGAM P, GAYATRI N, SUBATHRA M, RAMESH A, 2008
Anti-inflammatory activity of four solvent fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata L. investigated on acute and chronic inflammation induced rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 26(1):92-95.

20 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989
Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

21 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978
Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

22 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988
Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993
Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991
Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996
Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

27 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002
Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

28 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata (Ehrh.) Briq. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

29 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

30 PARRA AL, CAPO JT, MONTALVO RV, GONZALEZ YC, 1999
Toxicidad aguda oral de extractos hidroalcohólicos de plantas medicinales. Rev Cub Plantas Med 1(4):26-28.

31 MICROMEDEX T, 2003
Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

32 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001
The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

33 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991
Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

34 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

35 WICHTL M, 1999
Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • banana

Haiti:

  • bannan matenten

Dominican Republic:

  • rulo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit pulp, orally2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962
The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965
Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

6 WONG W, 1976
Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

7 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983
A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

8 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970
Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

9 FRIESE FW, 1934
Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

11 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

12 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

13 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

14 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989
Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

15 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

16 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

17 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • banana

Haiti:

  • bannan matenten

Dominican Republic:

  • rulo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  stem sap (latex), with salt, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962
The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965
Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

6 WONG W, 1976
Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

7 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983
A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

8 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970
Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

9 FRIESE FW, 1934
Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

11 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

12 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

13 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

14 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989
Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

15 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

16 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

17 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • banana

Haiti:

  • bannan matenten

Dominican Republic:

  • rulo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit pulp, orally2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962
The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965
Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

6 WONG W, 1976
Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

7 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983
A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

8 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970
Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

9 FRIESE FW, 1934
Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

11 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

12 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

13 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

14 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989
Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

15 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

16 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

17 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Barbados:

  • banana

Haiti:

  • bannan matenten

Dominican Republic:

  • rulo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  stem sap (latex), with salt, orally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962
The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965
Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

6 WONG W, 1976
Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

7 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983
A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

8 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970
Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

9 FRIESE FW, 1934
Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

11 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

12 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

13 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

14 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989
Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

15 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

16 NEGWER M, 1987
Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

17 CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Guadeloupe:

  • goyav
  • goyav
  • gwayav
  • gwayav

Dominica:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Haiti:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • guava

Grenada:

  • guava

Panama:

  • guayaba

Mexico:

  • guayaba

Dominican Republic:

  • guayaba

Venezuela:

  • guayaba

Colombia:

  • guayaba

Guatemala:

  • guayaba

Honduras:

  • guayabo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, mashed, orally5,60

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

8 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

9 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

10 SOLLS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTINEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

12 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

13 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

16 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

18 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

19 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

21 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978
Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

23 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982
Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

24 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968
Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7(4):641-645.

25 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986
Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

26 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971
Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34(5):214-216.

27 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994
The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

28 LOWRY JB, 1968
The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

29 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976
Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

30 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987
Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

31 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965
Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4(6):989-992.

32 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

33 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985
Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

34 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994
Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

35 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984
Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

36 LUTTERODT GD, 1989
Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

37 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982
Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

38 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987
Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

39 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974
Triterpenoids of the leaves of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13(9):2015-2016.

40 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975
Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

41 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

42 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

43 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, Cuba.

44 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

45 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999
Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

46 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

47 WEI-WEI ZHANG, YAN LI, XUE-QING WANG, FENG TIAN, HONG CAO, MIN-WEI WANG, QI-SHI SUN, 2005
Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

48 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

49 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la corteza del tallo fresco Psidium guajava L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

50 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la hojas frescas Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

51 BIRDI T, DASWANI P, BRIJESH S, TETALI P, NATU A, ANTIA1 N, 2010
Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10:33 www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/33

52 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

53 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

54 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999
Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

55 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990
Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

56 LUTTERODT G, 1992
Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

57 OJEWOLE JA, AWE EO, CHIWORORO WD, 2008
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents. J Smooth Muscle Res 44(6):195-207.

58 WEI L, LI Z, CHEN B, 2000
Clinical study on treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis with Psidium guajava L. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 20(12):893-895.

59 LOZOYA X, REYES H, CHAVEZ MA, MARTINEZ MC, SOTO Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002
Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83(1-2):19-24.

60 ABDELRAHIM SI, ALMAGBOUL AZ, OMER ME, ELEGAMI A, 2002
Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715.

61 TONA L, KAMBU K, NGIMBI N, MESIA K, PENGE O, LUSAKIBANZA M, CIMANGA K, DE BRUYNE T, APERS S, TOTTE J, PIETERS L, VLIETINCK AJ, 2000
Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

62 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

63 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000
Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

64 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

65 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

66 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

67 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

68 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 PEREZ GUTIERREZ RM, MITCHELL S, VARGAS SOLIS R, 2008
Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 117(1):1-27.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Guadeloupe:

  • goyav
  • goyav
  • gwayav
  • gwayav

Dominica:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Haiti:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • guava

Grenada:

  • guava

Panama:

  • guayaba

Mexico:

  • guayaba

Dominican Republic:

  • guayaba

Venezuela:

  • guayaba

Colombia:

  • guayaba

Guatemala:

  • guayaba

Honduras:

  • guayabo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

crust of the fresh stem, decoction, orally62-64

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

8 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

9 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

10 SOLLS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTINEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

12 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

13 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

16 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

18 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

19 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

21 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978
Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

23 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982
Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

24 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968
Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7(4):641-645.

25 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986
Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

26 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971
Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34(5):214-216.

27 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994
The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

28 LOWRY JB, 1968
The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

29 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976
Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

30 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987
Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

31 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965
Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4(6):989-992.

32 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

33 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985
Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

34 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994
Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

35 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984
Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

36 LUTTERODT GD, 1989
Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

37 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982
Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

38 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987
Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

39 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974
Triterpenoids of the leaves of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13(9):2015-2016.

40 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975
Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

41 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

42 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

43 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, Cuba.

44 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

45 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999
Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

46 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

47 WEI-WEI ZHANG, YAN LI, XUE-QING WANG, FENG TIAN, HONG CAO, MIN-WEI WANG, QI-SHI SUN, 2005
Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

48 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

49 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la corteza del tallo fresco Psidium guajava L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

50 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la hojas frescas Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

51 BIRDI T, DASWANI P, BRIJESH S, TETALI P, NATU A, ANTIA1 N, 2010
Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10:33 www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/33

52 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

53 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

54 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999
Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

55 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990
Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

56 LUTTERODT G, 1992
Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

57 OJEWOLE JA, AWE EO, CHIWORORO WD, 2008
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents. J Smooth Muscle Res 44(6):195-207.

58 WEI L, LI Z, CHEN B, 2000
Clinical study on treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis with Psidium guajava L. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 20(12):893-895.

59 LOZOYA X, REYES H, CHAVEZ MA, MARTINEZ MC, SOTO Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002
Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83(1-2):19-24.

60 ABDELRAHIM SI, ALMAGBOUL AZ, OMER ME, ELEGAMI A, 2002
Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715.

61 TONA L, KAMBU K, NGIMBI N, MESIA K, PENGE O, LUSAKIBANZA M, CIMANGA K, DE BRUYNE T, APERS S, TOTTE J, PIETERS L, VLIETINCK AJ, 2000
Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

62 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

63 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000
Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

64 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

65 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

66 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

67 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

68 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 PEREZ GUTIERREZ RM, MITCHELL S, VARGAS SOLIS R, 2008
Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 117(1):1-27.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Martinique:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Guadeloupe:

  • goyav
  • goyav
  • gwayav
  • gwayav

Dominica:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Haiti:

  • goyav
  • gwayav

Trinidad and Tobago:

  • guava

Grenada:

  • guava

Panama:

  • guayaba

Mexico:

  • guayaba

Dominican Republic:

  • guayaba

Venezuela:

  • guayaba

Colombia:

  • guayaba

Guatemala:

  • guayaba

Honduras:

  • guayabo
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, natural, as food3,5

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 HERRERA J, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 DELENS M, 1990-92
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

8 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

9 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

10 SOLLS PN, ESPINOSA A, DE GRACIA J, MARTINEZ L, GUPTA MP, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

12 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

13 BOULOGNE I, 2009
Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

14 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

15 MARCELLE G, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

16 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

18 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

19 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

21 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

22 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978
Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

23 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982
Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

24 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968
Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7(4):641-645.

25 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986
Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

26 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971
Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34(5):214-216.

27 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994
The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

28 LOWRY JB, 1968
The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

29 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976
Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

30 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987
Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

31 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965
Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4(6):989-992.

32 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959
On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10(3):437-442.

33 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985
Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

34 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994
Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

35 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984
Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

36 LUTTERODT GD, 1989
Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

37 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982
Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

38 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987
Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

39 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974
Triterpenoids of the leaves of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13(9):2015-2016.

40 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975
Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

41 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

42 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

43 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997
Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, Cuba.

44 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

45 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999
Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

46 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

47 WEI-WEI ZHANG, YAN LI, XUE-QING WANG, FENG TIAN, HONG CAO, MIN-WEI WANG, QI-SHI SUN, 2005
Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

48 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

49 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la corteza del tallo fresco Psidium guajava L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

50 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la hojas frescas Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

51 BIRDI T, DASWANI P, BRIJESH S, TETALI P, NATU A, ANTIA1 N, 2010
Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10:33 www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/10/33

52 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

53 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

54 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999
Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

55 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990
Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

56 LUTTERODT G, 1992
Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

57 OJEWOLE JA, AWE EO, CHIWORORO WD, 2008
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents. J Smooth Muscle Res 44(6):195-207.

58 WEI L, LI Z, CHEN B, 2000
Clinical study on treatment of infantile rotaviral enteritis with Psidium guajava L. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 20(12):893-895.

59 LOZOYA X, REYES H, CHAVEZ MA, MARTINEZ MC, SOTO Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002
Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83(1-2):19-24.

60 ABDELRAHIM SI, ALMAGBOUL AZ, OMER ME, ELEGAMI A, 2002
Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715.

61 TONA L, KAMBU K, NGIMBI N, MESIA K, PENGE O, LUSAKIBANZA M, CIMANGA K, DE BRUYNE T, APERS S, TOTTE J, PIETERS L, VLIETINCK AJ, 2000
Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

62 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

63 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000
Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

64 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

65 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000
Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

66 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009
Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, La Habana, Cuba.

67 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

68 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006
Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 PEREZ GUTIERREZ RM, MITCHELL S, VARGAS SOLIS R, 2008
Psidium guajava: A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol 117(1):1-27.