flatulence

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guatemala:

  • aguacate

Dominican Republic:

  • aguacate

Mexico:

  • aguacate

Barbados:

  • pear tree

Martinique:

  • zaboka
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for amenorrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma, bronchitis or cough last more than 5 days, or should urinary infection persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the risks of documented interactions with warfarin and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by persons taking these medicines5.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

 

Not for use during pregnancy because it may have abortifacient effect.

The fruit of Persea americana is widely used for human consumption.

For amenorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1/2-1 cup 3-4 times a day26.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

5 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

6 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Persea americana. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Feb. 26, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

7 BERGH BO, SCORA RW, STOREY WB, 1973
Comparison of leaf terpenes in Persea subgenus persea. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 134(2)130-134.

8 KING JR, KNIGHT RJ, 1992
Volatile components of the leaves of various avocado cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1182-1185.

9 DE ALMEIDA AP, MIRANDA MMFS, SIMONI IC, WIGG MD, LAGROTA MHC, COSTA SS, 1998
Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion. Phytother Res 12(8):562-567.

10 MERIÇLI F, MERIÇLI AH, YILMAZ F, YÜNCÜLER G, YÜNCÜLER O, 1992
Flavonoids of avocado (Persea americana) leaves. Acta Pharm Turc 34(2):61-63.

11 BATE-SMITH EC, 1975
Phytochemistry of proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 14(4):1107-1113.

12 MURAKOSHI S, ISOGAI A, CHANG CF, KAMIKADO T, SAKURAI A, TAMURA S, 1976
The effects of two components from avocado leaves (Persea americana) and related compounds on the growth of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkaishi 20:87-91.

13 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998
Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas TRAMIL en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de ciencias químicas y farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 HERRERA J, 1986
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

15 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1999
Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003
Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

17 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008
Acción analgésica de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 ADEYEMI OO, OKPO SO, OGUNTI OO, 2002
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill Lauraceae. Fitoterapia 73(5):375-380.

19 HERRERA J, 1988
Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2000
Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca machacada de Persea americana Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 CRAIGMILL AL, SEAWRIGHT AA, MATTILA T, FROST AJ, 1989
Pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (Persea americana). Aust Vet J 66(7):206-211.

23 GRANT R, BASSON PA, BOOKER HH, HOFHERR JB, ANTHONISSEN M, 1991
Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leaves. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62(1):21-22.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • anamú

Colombia:

  • anamú

Panama:

  • anamú

Guatemala:

  • apacín

Haiti:

  • ave

Honduras:

  • ipacina

Dominica:

  • koujourouk
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

root, infusion, orally5

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for digestive conditions (stomach pain, bad or slow digestion and intestinal gas) toothache, muscle pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for headache, flatulence, flu and nasal congestion (sinusitis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)11 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Considering the risks of documented interactions with insulin or oral hypoglycemiants, the decoction of the leaf and stem should not be ingested by patients taking or using these medicines due to the risk of magnifying their effects.

The root and the stem can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 12 years old.

Not for use during pregnancy because it may be abortifacient.

For digestive conditions and common cold:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter of water (4 cups). Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, allow to cool and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For rheumatism:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf and root in 1 liter of water (4 cups) for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For nasal congestion (sinusitis):

Prepare a fine powder of the root and stem from dried and sieved material, inhale 0.2 to 0.5 grams through each nostril, 2 times a day38.

For headache, toothache, muscle pain, flatulence, flu and skin diseases:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

5 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardin Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 LEMUS Z, GARCÍA M, BATISTA A, DE LA GUARDIA O, CASTILLO A, 2004
La tableta de anamú: un medicamento herbario inmunoestimulante. MEDISAN 8(3), 57-64.

9 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 SEGELMAN F, SEGELMAN A, 1975
Constituents of Petiveria alliacea. Lloydia 38(6):537.

12 DE SOUSA JR, DEMUNER AJ, PINHEIRO JA, BREITMAIER E, CASSELS BK, 1990
Dibenzyl trisulphide and trans-N-methyl-4-methoxyproline from Petiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry 29(11):3653-3655.

13 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la raíz fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

14 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de la acción analgésica de la Petiveria alliacea (anamu) en ratones. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(1):16-18.

15 DEL CARMEN RIVAS C, JIMENEZ M, AYALA L, CARILLO C, CABRERA Y, 1988
Actividad anti-inflamatoria y analgésica de Petiveria alliaceae. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM), La Habana, Cuba.

16 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):34-37.

17 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, PINEDO Z, BOUCOURT E, 2001
Actividad antimicrobiana y sobre varias preparaciones de músculo liso, in vitro, de la decocción liofilizada de hoja de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 GARCIA GM, COMO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1995
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 ECHEVARRIA A, TORRES D, 2001
Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro. Rev Cubana Med Mil 30(3):161-165.

20 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J of Ethnopharm 20(3):223-237.

21 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for the antimicotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J of Ethnopharm 31(3):263-276.

22 RUFFA MJ, PERUSINA M, ALFONSO V, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, CAMPOS R, CAVALLARO L, 2002
Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 48(3):144-147.

23 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J of Ethnopharm 33(3):277-283.

24 GERMANO DH, CALDEIRA TT, MAZELLA AA, SERTIE JA, BACCHI EM, 1993
Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliacea. Fitoterapia 64(5):459-467.

25 ANDERSSON DUNSTAN C, NOREEN Y, SERRANO G, COX PA, PERERA P, BOHLIN L, 1997
Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays. J of Ethnopharmacol 57(1):35-56.

26 LIMA TCM, MORATO GS, TAKAHASHI RN, 1991
Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86(suppl.2):153-158.

27 FERRAZ MB, PEREIRA RB, IWATA NM, ATRA E, 1991
Tipi. A popular analgesic tea. A double blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9(2):205-206.

28 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

29 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) oral de la decocción de hojas jóvenes frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) intraperitoneal de la decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratones de decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V. 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

33 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vitro: mediante el sistema de ensayo con Aspergillus nidulans de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 CACERES A, LOPEZ B, GONZALEZ S, BERGER I, TADA I, MAKI J, 1998
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J of Ethnopharmacol 62(3):195-202.

35 GUERRA MO, OLIVEIRA AB, MAIA JGS, PETERS VM, 1989
Alteraçäo do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratos após tratamento com extratos aquosos de diferentes orgäos de Petiveria alliacea. Bol Centro Biol Reprod 8:17-22.

36 GERMANO DHP, SERTIE JAA, BACCHI EM, 1995
Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliacea. II. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydroalcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia 66(3):195-202.

37 REYNOLDS J Ed., 1996
Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. Evaluated information on the world’s drugs and medicines. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1678.

38 BUDAVARI S Ed., 2001
The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p181.

39 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p298.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

St Vincent and Grenadines:

  • ginger

Saint Lucia:

  • ginger

Antigua and Barbuda:

  • ginger

Barbados:

  • ginger

Dominica:

  • ginger

Puerto Rico:

  • ginger
  • jengibre

Guatemala:

  • jengibre

Honduras:

  • jengibre

Venezuela:

  • jengibre

Costa Rica:

  • jengibre
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally9,11-12

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 DELENS M, 1992
Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 O'REILLY A, WILSON V, PHILLIP M, JOSEPH O, 1992
TRAMIL survey. Chemistry and Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua and Barbuda.

7 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 PICKING D, MITCHELL S, DELGODA R, YOUNGER N, 2011
TRAMIL survey. Natural Products Institute, The Biotechnology Centre & Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

9 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

11 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

12 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

13 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

14 QUILEZ AM, GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 2009
Uso racional de medicamentos a base de plantas. Guía de interacciones entre fitomedicamentos y fármacos de síntesis. Sevilla, España: 1a Edición Fundación Farmacéutica Avenzoar.

15 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Zingiber officinalis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 30, 2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

16 WHO, 1999
Rhizoma zingiberis. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume I. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. p284.

17 TANABE M, YASUDA M, ADACHI Y, KANOY, 1991
Capillary GC-MS analysis of volatile components in Japanese gingers. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45(4):321-326.

18 NISHIMURA O, 1995
Identification of the characteristic odorants in fresh rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber oficinale Roscoe) using aroma extract dilution analysis and modified multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 43(11):2941-2945.

19 SAKAMURA F, OGIHARA K, SUGA T, TANIGUCHI K, TANAKA R, 1986
Volatile constituents of Zingiber officinale rhizomes produced by in vitro shoot tip culture. Phytochemistry 25(6):1333-1335.

20 WU P, KUO MC, HO CT, 1990
Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Agric Food Chem 38(7):1553-1555.

21 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963
Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics and their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

22 VAN BEEK TA, LELYVELD GP, 1991
Isolation and identification of the five major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of ginger. Phytochem Anal 2(1):26-34.

23 SHIBA M, MYATA A, OKADA M, WATANABE K, 1986
Antiulcer furanogermenone extraction from ginger. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-61 227,523.

24 YOSHIKAWA M, HATAKEYAMA S, CHATANI N, NISHINO Y, YAMAHARA J, 1993
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive principles in Zingiberis Rhizoma by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. On the evaluation of Zingiberis Rhizoma and chemical change of constituents during Zingiberis Rhizoma processing. Yakugaku Zasshi 113(4):307-315.

25 TANABE M, CHEN YD, SAITO KI, KANO Y, 1993
Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Chem Pharm Bull 41(4):710-713.

26 KANO Y, TANABE M, YASUDA M, 1990
On the evaluation of the preparation of Chinese medicinal prescriptions (V) diterpenes from Japanese ginger "kintoki". Shoyakugaku Zasshi 44(1):55-57.

27 KAWAKISHI S, MORIMITSU Y, OSAWA T, 1994
Chemistry of ginger components and inhibitory factors of the arachidonic acid cascade. Asc Symp Ser 547:244-250.

28 KIKUZAKI H, NAKATANI N, 1993
Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci 58(6):1407-1410.

29 KIUCHI F, IWAKAMI S, SHIBUYA M, HANAOKA F, SANKAWA U, 1992
Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull 40(2):387-391.

30 HARVEY DJ, 1981
Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of ginger constituents. identification of gingerdiones and new hexahydrocurcumin analogues. J Chromatogr 211(1):75-84.

31 YUSUFOGLU H, ALQASOUMI SI, 2008
High performance thin layer chromatographic analysis of 10-gingerol in Zingiber officinale extract and ginger-containing dietary supplements, teas and commercial creams. FABAD J Pharm Sci 33:199–204.

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