twist

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • chapantyé

Costa Rica:

  • tilo

Cuba:

  • tilo

Dominica:

  • zèb chapantyé

Martinique:

  • zèb chapantyé
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  entire plant, crushed or entire, applied locally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach-ache and nervousness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervousness persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Do not use more than 30 days and with patients with circulatory problems.

Use for bruises and sprains is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation, or by children under 5 years old.

For bruises and sprains:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For stomach ache and nervousness:

Prepare a decoction with 5-10 grams of leaf or aerial parts in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink whenever required by symptomatic manifestation.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

7 SOLIS PN, VASQUEZ Y, AYALA H, GUPTA MP, 2002
Informe de validación de algunas plantas tramil. Fase iii. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

8 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

9 DE VRIES JX, TAUSCHER B, WURZEL G, 1988
Constituents of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. 2. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of simple coumarins, 3-phenylpropionic acids and their hydroxy and methoxy derivatives. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom 15(8):413-417.

10 JOSEPH H, GLEYE J, MOULIS C, MENSAH L, ROUSSAKIS C, GRATAS C, 1988
Justicidin B, a cytotoxic principle from Justicia pectoralis. J Nat Prod 51(3):599-600.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p90.

12 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 CACERES A, 2000
Actividad de Justicia pectoralis contra las bacterias causales de infecciones respiratorias. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Actividad sedante-tranquilizante, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

15 LEAL LK, FERREIRA AA, BEZERRA GA, MATOS FJ, VIANA GS, 2000
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator activities of Brazilian medicinal plants containing coumarin: a comparative study. J Ethnopharm 70(2):151-159.

16 FICA BURGOS SE, 2005
Efecto de la administración del extracto de Justicia pectoralis sobre la conducta de ratas sometidas a pruebas de comportamiento. Memoria de título de médico veterinario. Instituto de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile.

17 MACRAE WD, TOWERS GH, 1984
Justicia pectoralis: A study of the basis for its use as a hallucinogenic snuff ingredient. J Ethnopharmacol 12(1):93-111.

18 FERNANDEZ L, PEREZ SAAD H, MAS R, RODRIGUEZ L, GAIAN L, BISCAY R, 1987
Efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre la conducta exploratoria en ratones. En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. pp257-264.

19 FERNANDEZ L, MAS R, PEREZ SAAD H, BISCAY R, GALAN L, 1989
Evaluación preliminar de los efectos neurofarmacológicos de Justicia pectoralis. Rev Cub Farm 23(1/2):161-166.

20 PEREZ SAAD H, MAS R, FERNANDEZ L, RODRIGUEZ RIVERA L, 1987
Justicia pectoralis no previene las convulsiones inducidas por PTZ y PTX. En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC) Ed. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. pp265-272.

21 RODRIGUEZ E, VIRNES A, ALEMAN J, 1989
Estudio preliminar del efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre el EEG de adultos normales. Rev Cub Farm 23(3):302-308.

22 GARCIAGM, COTO MT, OCAMPO R, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2001
Toxicidad aguda en ratones del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MOREJON Z, MORON, F, BOUCOURT E, 2002
Toxicidad aguda tópica de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Medicina "Dr. Salvador Allende". Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. La Habana, Cuba.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MOREJON Z, MORON, F, BOUCOURT E, 2002
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Medicina "Dr. Salvador Allende". Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. La Habana, Cuba.

25 PILOTO FERRER J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZALEZ ML, RODRIGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

26 BERMUDEZ D, MONTEAGUDO E, BOFFILL M, DIAZ LE, ROCA SA, 2006
Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda de extractos de plantas medicinales por un método alternativo. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria 8(3)(05-2007). www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n030307/030706.pdf

27 LAGARTO A, BUENO V, GUERRA I, VALDES O, GABILONDO T, RODRIGUEZ J, 2009
Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Justicia pectoralis extract in Wistar rats. The Open Natural Products Journal 2(1):53-58.

28 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • chapantyé

Costa Rica:

  • tilo

Cuba:

  • tilo

Dominica:

  • zèb chapantyé

Martinique:

  • zèb chapantyé
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, crushed, applied locally3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach-ache and nervousness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervousness persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Do not use more than 30 days and with patients with circulatory problems.

Use for bruises and sprains is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation, or by children under 5 years old.

For bruises and sprains:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For stomach ache and nervousness:

Prepare a decoction with 5-10 grams of leaf or aerial parts in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink whenever required by symptomatic manifestation.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 CARBALLO A, 1990
Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009
Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

7 SOLIS PN, VASQUEZ Y, AYALA H, GUPTA MP, 2002
Informe de validación de algunas plantas tramil. Fase iii. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

8 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

9 DE VRIES JX, TAUSCHER B, WURZEL G, 1988
Constituents of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. 2. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of simple coumarins, 3-phenylpropionic acids and their hydroxy and methoxy derivatives. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom 15(8):413-417.

10 JOSEPH H, GLEYE J, MOULIS C, MENSAH L, ROUSSAKIS C, GRATAS C, 1988
Justicidin B, a cytotoxic principle from Justicia pectoralis. J Nat Prod 51(3):599-600.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p90.

12 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 CACERES A, 2000
Actividad de Justicia pectoralis contra las bacterias causales de infecciones respiratorias. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Actividad sedante-tranquilizante, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

15 LEAL LK, FERREIRA AA, BEZERRA GA, MATOS FJ, VIANA GS, 2000
Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator activities of Brazilian medicinal plants containing coumarin: a comparative study. J Ethnopharm 70(2):151-159.

16 FICA BURGOS SE, 2005
Efecto de la administración del extracto de Justicia pectoralis sobre la conducta de ratas sometidas a pruebas de comportamiento. Memoria de título de médico veterinario. Instituto de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile.

17 MACRAE WD, TOWERS GH, 1984
Justicia pectoralis: A study of the basis for its use as a hallucinogenic snuff ingredient. J Ethnopharmacol 12(1):93-111.

18 FERNANDEZ L, PEREZ SAAD H, MAS R, RODRIGUEZ L, GAIAN L, BISCAY R, 1987
Efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre la conducta exploratoria en ratones. En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. pp257-264.

19 FERNANDEZ L, MAS R, PEREZ SAAD H, BISCAY R, GALAN L, 1989
Evaluación preliminar de los efectos neurofarmacológicos de Justicia pectoralis. Rev Cub Farm 23(1/2):161-166.

20 PEREZ SAAD H, MAS R, FERNANDEZ L, RODRIGUEZ RIVERA L, 1987
Justicia pectoralis no previene las convulsiones inducidas por PTZ y PTX. En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC) Ed. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. pp265-272.

21 RODRIGUEZ E, VIRNES A, ALEMAN J, 1989
Estudio preliminar del efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre el EEG de adultos normales. Rev Cub Farm 23(3):302-308.

22 GARCIAGM, COTO MT, OCAMPO R, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 2001
Toxicidad aguda en ratones del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

23 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MOREJON Z, MORON, F, BOUCOURT E, 2002
Toxicidad aguda tópica de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Medicina "Dr. Salvador Allende". Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. La Habana, Cuba.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MOREJON Z, MORON, F, BOUCOURT E, 2002
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Medicina "Dr. Salvador Allende". Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. La Habana, Cuba.

25 PILOTO FERRER J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZALEZ ML, RODRIGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009
Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

26 BERMUDEZ D, MONTEAGUDO E, BOFFILL M, DIAZ LE, ROCA SA, 2006
Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda de extractos de plantas medicinales por un método alternativo. Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria 8(3)(05-2007). www.veterinaria.org/revistas/redvet/n030307/030706.pdf

27 LAGARTO A, BUENO V, GUERRA I, VALDES O, GABILONDO T, RODRIGUEZ J, 2009
Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Justicia pectoralis extract in Wistar rats. The Open Natural Products Journal 2(1):53-58.

28 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, applied locally5

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf mashed, applied locally7

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • balé

Dominica:

  • balè onz euw
  • balier savanne

Guatemala:

  • escobillo

Belize:

  • maluba
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  aerial parts, cataplasm, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Use for twistings is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)3 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Use for urethritis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Due to the health risks involved with urethritis, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urethritis or twisting persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy or lactation.

For twisting and urethritis:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996
TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

3 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 PRAKASH A, VARMA RK, GHOSAL S, 1981
Chemical constituents of the Malvaceae. Part III. Alkaloidal constituents of Sida acuta, S. humilis, S. rhombifolia and S. spinosa. Planta Med 43(12):384-388.

6 GUNATILAKA AA, SOTHEESWARAN S, BALASUBRAMANIAM S, CHANDRASEKARA AI, BADRA SRIYANI HT, 1980
Studies on medicinal plants of Sri Lanka. III. Pharmacologically important alkaloids of some Sida species. Planta Med 39(1):66-72.

7 GOYAL MM, RANI KK, 1989
Neutral constituents of the aerial parts of Sida rhombifolia var. rhomboidea. Fitoterapia 60(2):163-164.

8 FRIESE FW, 1934
Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Inst Agro do Estado. p252-494.

9 ALTSCHUL SR, 1973
Drugs and food from little-known plants: Notes in Harvard University Herbaria. Cambridge, USA: Harvard Univ. Press.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p149.

11 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2010
Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de las partes aéreas frescas de Sida rhombifolia. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 DUNSTAN CA, NOREEN Y, SERRANO G, COX PA, PERERA P, BOHLIN L, 1997
Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays. J Ethnopharmacol 57(1):35-56.

13 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1992
Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 Figueroa SL, 1992
Inhibición in vitro de Candida albicans por las plantas: Argemone mexicana, Bixa orellana, Lantana camara, Lippia alba, Sedum praealtum, Vicia fava, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum y Sida rhombifolia (Tesis). Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

15 BORTOLOZZI MAM, BITTENCOURT CF, CARDOSO SG, BORTOLOZZI, AV, 1988
Avaliacâo da atividade antibacteriana de Sida rhombifolia L.(Malvaceae). X Simpósio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil, Panel 7/9. Abstr. No. 26. Sao Paulo, Brasil.

16 GOYAL MM, RANI KK, 1988
Effects of natural products isolated from three species of Sida on some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J Indian Chem Soc 65(1):74-76.

17 HERRERA J, 1992
Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2010
Irritación dérmica en piel sana de conejos, de las partes aéreas frescas de Sida rhombifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2010
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del macerado de hojas frescas de Sida rhombifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • boul di mas

Dominican Republic:

  • magueyito
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  hoja, decocción, vía oral2-3

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References (old input method)

According to published and other information:

Uses for late period (amenorrhea) without pregnancy, twisting and traumatism are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Topical use for headache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Not for use by pregnant women for risk of abortion, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For late period (amenorrhea) other than pregnancy, apply treatment for three consecutive days.

Do not use decoction by oral administrationfor more than five consecutive days.

If the patient’s condition deteriorates, or if headache, twisting or traumatism persist for more than three days, seek medical attention.

Contact of the leaf with the skin may cause irritation5.

For headache, late period (amenorrhea), twisting or traumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 WHO, 1991
Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 LAMPE KF, FAGERSTRÖM R, 1968
Plant toxicity and dermatitis: A manual for physicians. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins.

6 IDAKA E, OGAWA T, KONDO T, GOTO T, 1987
Isolation of highly acylated anthocyanins from Commelinaceae plants, Zebrina pendula, Rhoeo spathacea and Setcreasea purpurea. Agr Biol Chem 51(8):2215-2220.

7 YEOH HH, WEE YC, WATSON L, 1986
Taxonomic variation in total leaf protein amino acid compositions of monocotyledonous plants. Biochem Syst Ecol 14(1):91-96.

8 WENIGER B, HAAG-BERRURIER M, ANTON R, 1982
Plants of Haiti used as antifertility agents. J of Ethnopharmacology 6(1):67-84.

9 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

10 PEREZ RM, 1996
Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea. Phytomedicine 3(2):163-167.

11 SUFFNESS M, ABBOTT B, STATZ DW, WONILOWICZ E, SPJUT R, 1988
The utility of P388 leukemia compared to B16 melanoma and colon carcinoma 38 for in vivo screening of plant extracts. Phytother Res 2(2):89-97.