headhache

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • nuez moscada

Dominica:

  • nutmeg

Saint Lucia:

  • nutmeg
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  nutmeg, grated, cataplasm1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for headache and pneumonia is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should headache last more than 3 days or pneumonia more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to nutmeg powder for juma (vertigo and weakness).

For adults, do not take more than 500 mg of nutmeg powder per day.

The nut of Myristica fragrans is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research25

For headache and pneumopathy:

Grate seed (nutmeg powder) and apply 3-5 grams locally on forehead and 10-15 grams on chest and back.

For juma (vertigo and weakness):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 NUÑEZ MELENDEZ E, 1964
Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Univ. of Puerto Rico - Est. Exper. Agricola, 245.

5 SCHENK H, LAMPARSKY D, 1981
Analysis of nutmeg oil using chromatographic methods. J Chromatogr 204(1):391-395.

6 JANSSEN AM, CHIN NLJ, SCHEFFER JJC, BAERHEIM-SVENDSEN A, 1980
Screening for antimicrobial activity of some essential oils by the agar overlay technique. PharmWeekbl (Sci Ed) 8(6):289-292.

7 SUSUKI H, HARADA M, 1990
Identification of nutmeg by thin-layer chromatography and its introduction to Japanese standards for nonpharmacopoeial crude drugs. Eisei Shikensho Hokoku 108:98-100.

8 ORABI KY, MOSSA JS, EL-FERALY FS, 1991
Isolation and characterization of two antimicrobial agents from mace (Myristica fragans). J Nat Prod 54(3):856-859.

9 MATSUMOTO A, MATSUMOTO T, TOKUDA H, 1991
Lignans from mace as neoplasm inhibitors. Patent Japan Kokai Tokkio Koho, 03,287, 527.

10 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA P (Eds.), 1987
Biologically Active Natural Products. Oxford, England: Oxford Science Publications.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p112.

12 OZAKI Y, SOEDIGDO S, WATTIMENA YR, SUGANDA AG, 1989
Antiinflammatory effect of mace, aril of Myristica fragans Houtt and its active principles. Jpn J Pharmacol 49(2):155-163.

13 ICHIKAWA K, KINOSHITA T, SANKAWA U, 1989
The screening of Chinese crude drugs for Ca2+ antagonist activity: identification of active principles from the aerial part of Pogostemon cablin and the fruits of Prunus mume. Chem Pharm Bull 37(2):345-348.

14 WESLEY-HADZIJA B, BOHING P, 1956
Influence of some essential oils on the central nervous system of fish. Ann Pharm Fr 14:283-289.

15 MORII L, 1987
Topical antitussive, expectorant, analgesic and sedative agents. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62(59):219.

16 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009
Irritación dérmica, dosis repetida en piel sana de conejos, del polvo del fruto de Myristica fragans. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

17 MOKKHASMIT M, SWATDIMONGKOL K, SATRAWAHA P, 1971
Study on toxicity of Thai medicinal plants. Bull Dept Med Sci 12(2/4):36-65.

18 CARR CJ, 1973
Evaluation of the health aspects of nutmeg, mace and their essential oils as food ingredients. US NTIS PB REP PB-266-878:1-17.

19 DUKE J, 1985
Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

20 TRUITT EB, CALLAWAY E, BRAUDE MC, KRANTZ JC, 1961
The pharmacology of myristicin. A contribution to the psychopharmacology of nutmeg. J Neuropsychiatry 2(4):205-210.

21 BARTLETT B, 1911
Nutmeg poisoning. Brit Med J 2:269.

22 JOHNSON J, 1906
Nutmeg poisoning. Brit Med J 2:984.

23 STAGER J, WUTHRICH B, JOHANSSON SG, 1991
Spice allergy in celery-sensitive patients. Allergy 46(6):475-478.

24 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002
Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=…

25 CARBALLO A, 1995
Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Colombia:

  • anamú

Panama:

  • anamú

Dominican Republic:

  • anamú

Guatemala:

  • apacín

Haiti:

  • ave

Honduras:

  • ipacina

Dominica:

  • koujourouk
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, crushed, inhaled2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for digestive conditions (stomach pain, bad or slow digestion and intestinal gas) toothache, muscle pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for headache, flatulence, flu and nasal congestion (sinusitis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)11 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Considering the risks of documented interactions with insulin or oral hypoglycemiants, the decoction of the leaf and stem should not be ingested by patients taking or using these medicines due to the risk of magnifying their effects.

The root and the stem can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 12 years old.

Not for use during pregnancy because it may be abortifacient.

For digestive conditions and common cold:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter of water (4 cups). Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, allow to cool and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For rheumatism:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf and root in 1 liter of water (4 cups) for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For nasal congestion (sinusitis):

Prepare a fine powder of the root and stem from dried and sieved material, inhale 0.2 to 0.5 grams through each nostril, 2 times a day38.

For headache, toothache, muscle pain, flatulence, flu and skin diseases:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

5 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardin Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 LEMUS Z, GARCÍA M, BATISTA A, DE LA GUARDIA O, CASTILLO A, 2004
La tableta de anamú: un medicamento herbario inmunoestimulante. MEDISAN 8(3), 57-64.

9 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 SEGELMAN F, SEGELMAN A, 1975
Constituents of Petiveria alliacea. Lloydia 38(6):537.

12 DE SOUSA JR, DEMUNER AJ, PINHEIRO JA, BREITMAIER E, CASSELS BK, 1990
Dibenzyl trisulphide and trans-N-methyl-4-methoxyproline from Petiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry 29(11):3653-3655.

13 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la raíz fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

14 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de la acción analgésica de la Petiveria alliacea (anamu) en ratones. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(1):16-18.

15 DEL CARMEN RIVAS C, JIMENEZ M, AYALA L, CARILLO C, CABRERA Y, 1988
Actividad anti-inflamatoria y analgésica de Petiveria alliaceae. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM), La Habana, Cuba.

16 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):34-37.

17 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, PINEDO Z, BOUCOURT E, 2001
Actividad antimicrobiana y sobre varias preparaciones de músculo liso, in vitro, de la decocción liofilizada de hoja de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 GARCIA GM, COMO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1995
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 ECHEVARRIA A, TORRES D, 2001
Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro. Rev Cubana Med Mil 30(3):161-165.

20 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J of Ethnopharm 20(3):223-237.

21 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for the antimicotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J of Ethnopharm 31(3):263-276.

22 RUFFA MJ, PERUSINA M, ALFONSO V, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, CAMPOS R, CAVALLARO L, 2002
Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 48(3):144-147.

23 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J of Ethnopharm 33(3):277-283.

24 GERMANO DH, CALDEIRA TT, MAZELLA AA, SERTIE JA, BACCHI EM, 1993
Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliacea. Fitoterapia 64(5):459-467.

25 ANDERSSON DUNSTAN C, NOREEN Y, SERRANO G, COX PA, PERERA P, BOHLIN L, 1997
Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays. J of Ethnopharmacol 57(1):35-56.

26 LIMA TCM, MORATO GS, TAKAHASHI RN, 1991
Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86(suppl.2):153-158.

27 FERRAZ MB, PEREIRA RB, IWATA NM, ATRA E, 1991
Tipi. A popular analgesic tea. A double blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9(2):205-206.

28 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

29 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) oral de la decocción de hojas jóvenes frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) intraperitoneal de la decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratones de decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V. 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

33 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vitro: mediante el sistema de ensayo con Aspergillus nidulans de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 CACERES A, LOPEZ B, GONZALEZ S, BERGER I, TADA I, MAKI J, 1998
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J of Ethnopharmacol 62(3):195-202.

35 GUERRA MO, OLIVEIRA AB, MAIA JGS, PETERS VM, 1989
Alteraçäo do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratos após tratamento com extratos aquosos de diferentes orgäos de Petiveria alliacea. Bol Centro Biol Reprod 8:17-22.

36 GERMANO DHP, SERTIE JAA, BACCHI EM, 1995
Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliacea. II. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydroalcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia 66(3):195-202.

37 REYNOLDS J Ed., 1996
Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. Evaluated information on the world’s drugs and medicines. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1678.

38 BUDAVARI S Ed., 2001
The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p181.

39 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p298.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Colombia:

  • anamú

Panama:

  • anamú

Dominican Republic:

  • anamú

Guatemala:

  • apacín

Haiti:

  • ave

Honduras:

  • ipacina

Dominica:

  • koujourouk
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

root, mashed, inhaled3,6

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Use for digestive conditions (stomach pain, bad or slow digestion and intestinal gas) toothache, muscle pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for headache, flatulence, flu and nasal congestion (sinusitis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)11 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Considering the risks of documented interactions with insulin or oral hypoglycemiants, the decoction of the leaf and stem should not be ingested by patients taking or using these medicines due to the risk of magnifying their effects.

The root and the stem can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 12 years old.

Not for use during pregnancy because it may be abortifacient.

For digestive conditions and common cold:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter of water (4 cups). Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, allow to cool and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For rheumatism:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf and root in 1 liter of water (4 cups) for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For nasal congestion (sinusitis):

Prepare a fine powder of the root and stem from dried and sieved material, inhale 0.2 to 0.5 grams through each nostril, 2 times a day38.

For headache, toothache, muscle pain, flatulence, flu and skin diseases:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995
Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

3 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

5 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CASTILLO D, RODRIGUEZ S, DE LOS SANTOS C, BELEN A, 2003
Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardin Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 LEMUS Z, GARCÍA M, BATISTA A, DE LA GUARDIA O, CASTILLO A, 2004
La tableta de anamú: un medicamento herbario inmunoestimulante. MEDISAN 8(3), 57-64.

9 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 SEGELMAN F, SEGELMAN A, 1975
Constituents of Petiveria alliacea. Lloydia 38(6):537.

12 DE SOUSA JR, DEMUNER AJ, PINHEIRO JA, BREITMAIER E, CASSELS BK, 1990
Dibenzyl trisulphide and trans-N-methyl-4-methoxyproline from Petiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry 29(11):3653-3655.

13 BOUCOURT E, MARTINEZ M J, MOREJON Z, 2010
Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto acuoso de la raíz fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

14 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de la acción analgésica de la Petiveria alliacea (anamu) en ratones. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(1):16-18.

15 DEL CARMEN RIVAS C, JIMENEZ M, AYALA L, CARILLO C, CABRERA Y, 1988
Actividad anti-inflamatoria y analgésica de Petiveria alliaceae. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM), La Habana, Cuba.

16 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):34-37.

17 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, PINEDO Z, BOUCOURT E, 2001
Actividad antimicrobiana y sobre varias preparaciones de músculo liso, in vitro, de la decocción liofilizada de hoja de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 GARCIA GM, COMO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1995
Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 ECHEVARRIA A, TORRES D, 2001
Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro. Rev Cubana Med Mil 30(3):161-165.

20 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J of Ethnopharm 20(3):223-237.

21 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for the antimicotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J of Ethnopharm 31(3):263-276.

22 RUFFA MJ, PERUSINA M, ALFONSO V, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, CAMPOS R, CAVALLARO L, 2002
Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 48(3):144-147.

23 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J of Ethnopharm 33(3):277-283.

24 GERMANO DH, CALDEIRA TT, MAZELLA AA, SERTIE JA, BACCHI EM, 1993
Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliacea. Fitoterapia 64(5):459-467.

25 ANDERSSON DUNSTAN C, NOREEN Y, SERRANO G, COX PA, PERERA P, BOHLIN L, 1997
Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays. J of Ethnopharmacol 57(1):35-56.

26 LIMA TCM, MORATO GS, TAKAHASHI RN, 1991
Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86(suppl.2):153-158.

27 FERRAZ MB, PEREIRA RB, IWATA NM, ATRA E, 1991
Tipi. A popular analgesic tea. A double blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9(2):205-206.

28 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

29 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) oral de la decocción de hojas jóvenes frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Toxicidad aguda (DL50) intraperitoneal de la decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratones de decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

32 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V. 2001
Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, C. Habana, Cuba.

33 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001
Genotoxicidad in vitro: mediante el sistema de ensayo con Aspergillus nidulans de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

34 CACERES A, LOPEZ B, GONZALEZ S, BERGER I, TADA I, MAKI J, 1998
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J of Ethnopharmacol 62(3):195-202.

35 GUERRA MO, OLIVEIRA AB, MAIA JGS, PETERS VM, 1989
Alteraçäo do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratos após tratamento com extratos aquosos de diferentes orgäos de Petiveria alliacea. Bol Centro Biol Reprod 8:17-22.

36 GERMANO DHP, SERTIE JAA, BACCHI EM, 1995
Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliacea. II. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydroalcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia 66(3):195-202.

37 REYNOLDS J Ed., 1996
Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. Evaluated information on the world’s drugs and medicines. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1678.

38 BUDAVARI S Ed., 2001
The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p181.

39 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p298.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, natural, mashed or crushed in oil, applied locally3,8,29

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Guadeloupe:

  • carapate
  • karapat
  • karapat blanc

Barbados:

  • castor oil

Dominica:

  • cawapat

Saint Lucia:

  • cawapat

Dominican Republic:

  • higuera

Haiti:

  • maskèti

Martinique:

  • palma Kristi
  • ricin
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, applied locally2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992
Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

5 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

6 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 BOULOGNE I, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

9 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

11 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

12 HEGNAUER R, 1973
Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

13 CHONKEL A, 1985
A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

14 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

16 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA, 1991
Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

17 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982
Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

18 WENIGER B, 1992
Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

19 FRIAS AI, CABRERA H, GARCIA N, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, 2011
Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del aceite de semilla de Ricinus communis (aceite de ricino) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Cuba.

20 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987
Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

21 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979
Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

22 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989
A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

23 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987
Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

26 ROCHA E SILVA M, 1943
Studies on poisonous plants in the state of Sao Paulo. Toxicological expts on 27 plants which have been suspected of toxicity. Arq Inst Biol (Sao Paulo) 14:15.

27 CANELLA CFC, TOKARNIA CH, DOBEREINER J, 1966
Experiments with plants supposedly toxic to cattle in Northeastern Brazil, with negative results. Pesqui Agropecu Brasil Ser Vet 1:345-352.

28 KHOLKUTE SD, MUDGAL V, DESHPANDE PJ, 1976
Screening of indigenous medicinal plants for antifertility potentiality. Planta Med 29(2):150-155.

29 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990
Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

30 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943
Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana, Dept. Conservation, New Orleans,Louisiana. Book.

31 OZTEKIN-MAT A, 1994
Plant poisoning in Turkey. Ann Pharm Fr 52(5):260-265.

32 KOPFERSCHMITT J, FLESCH F, LUGNIER A, SAUDER P, JAEGER A, MANTZ JM, 1983
Acute voluntary intoxication by ricin. Human Toxicol 2(2):239-242.

33 CANIGUERAL S, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 IRWIN R, 1992
Toxicity studies of castor oil in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (dosed feed studies). Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep SER 1992:25.

35 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988
Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

36 ALONSO J, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

37 FERNANDO R, 1988
Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

38 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003
Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

 

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Dominican Republic:

  • brusca

Dominica:

  • café moucha

Guatemala:

  • frijolillo

Honduras:

  • frijolillo

Haiti:

  • terrier rouge
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, cataplasm, applied on forehead2

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

Use for "bad blood" is part of the cultural tradition of our communities.  It has not been listed in the TRAMIL classification.

According to published and other information:

Use of the leaf for skin conditions, headache, body ache, sorethroat, fever and jaundice, and use of the seed for sore and tinea are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use of the leaf for stomach pain, of the seed for body ache and of the root for stomach pain, sorethroat and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, jaundice or stomach pain for more than 3 days, or skin conditions for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Thoroughly wash 30–50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets), mash and apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

For stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15 grams of leaf (7-10 leaflets) and 15 grams of root in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day36.

For headache, fever, jaundice, sorethroat and body ache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977
Anthraquinone pigments from Cassia occidentalis. Planta Med Suppl 32(4):375-377.

7 RAI PP, SHOK M, 1983
Anthraquinone glycosides from plant parts of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J Pharm Sci 45(2):87-88.

8 ANTON R, DUQUENOIS P, 1968
Contribution à l'étude chimique du Cassia occidentalis L. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 26(2):673-680.

9 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977
Flavonoids from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 16(7):1107-1108.

10 MAJUMDAR SG, BASAK B, LASKAR S, 1987
Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of some Cassia species. J Indian Chem Soc 64(4):259-260.

11 ALVES AC, 1964
Pharmacological study of the root of Cassia occidentalis. An Fac Farm Porto 24:65-119.

12 WADER GR, KUDAV NA, 1987
Chemical investigation of Cassia occidentalis Linn. with special reference to isolation of xanthones from Cassia spp. Indian J of Chemisitry 26(B7):703.

13 KUDAV NA, KULKARNI A,B 1974
Chemical investigation on Cassia occidentalis. II. Isolation of islandicin, helminthosporine, xanthonin and NMR spectral studies of cassiollin and its derivatives. Indian J Chem 12:1042-1044.

14 LAL-JAWAHAR, GUPTA-PURAN-CHANDRA, 1973
Physcion and phytosterol from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 12(5):1186.

15 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, OCAMPO R, PAZOS L, 2001
Tránsito intestinal en ratones, con extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991
Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995
Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

18 PEREZ C, SUAREZ C, 1997
Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Candida albicans. Amer J Chinese Med 25(2):181-184.

19 HUSSAIN HS, DEENI YY, 1991
Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

20 SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN G, ROJAS DE ARIAS A, 1992
A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother Res 6(2):68-73.

21 TONA L, NGIMBI NP, TSAKALA M, MESIA K, CIMANGA K, ASPERS S, DE BRUYNE T, PIETERS L, TOTTE J, VLIETINCK AJ, 1999
Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1/3):193-203.

22 SADIQUE J, CHANDRA T, THENMOZHI V, ELANGO V, 1987
Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19(2):201-212.

23 SARAF S, DIXIT VK, TRIPATHI SC, PATNAIK GK, 1994
Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int J Pharmacog 32(2):178-183.

24 JAFRI MA, JALIS SUBHANI M, JAVED K, SINGH S, 1999
Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66(3):355-361.

25 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HS, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

26 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZALEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1998
Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990
Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de Momordica charantia L. y Cassia occidentalis L. en conejo y cobayo. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. 

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de semillas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 O'HARA P, PIERCE K, 1974
A toxic cardiomyopathy caused by Cassia occidentalis. II Biochemical studies in poisoned rabbits. Vet Pathol 11(2):110-124.

33 COLVIN BM, HARRISON LR, SANGSTER LT, GOSSER HS, 1986
Cassia occidentalis toxicosis in growing pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(4):423-426.

34 MARTINS E, MARTINS VM, RIET F, SONCINI RA, PARABONI SV, 1986
Intoxicação por Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae) em suínos. Pesq Vet Bras 6(2):35-38.

35 BARTH AT, KOMMERS GO, SALLES MS, WOUTERS F, DE BARROS CS, 1994
Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(6):541-545.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993
Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p174.

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Colombia:

  • papa

Costa Rica:

  • papa

Guatemala:

  • papa
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

tubercle, raw, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Uses for headache, baldness, hematoma / bruise and gastroduodenal ulcer are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 24 hours, seek medical attention, due to the potential risks that may beinvolved with headache.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

The cooked tubercle (not green) of Solanum tuberosum is widely used for human consumption.  Green tubercles should not be ingested due to potential toxicity risk9-10.

For headache, baldness and hematoma / bruise:

There is no available information to establish a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For gastroduodenal ulcer:

Drinking the fresh juice of the tubercle is recommended: 100-200 mL, 4-5 times a day, before meals, as antiacid19.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 RESTREPO O, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL. Suna Hisca, Bogotá, Colombia.

2 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

4 CALLAGHAN JM, TOH BH, PETTITT JM, HUMPHRIS DC, GLEESON PA, 1990
Poly-N-acetyllactosamine-specific tomato lectin interacts with gastric parietal cells. Identification of a tomato lectin binding 60-90-X-10(3) Mr-membrane glycoprotein of tubulovesicles. J Cell Sci 95(4):563-576.

5 DE STEFANO JA, CUSHION MT, TRINKLE LS, WALZER PD, 1989
Lectins as probes to Pneumocystis carinii surface glycocomplexes. J Protozool 36(1):65S-66S.

6 WILLAMAN J, HUI-LIN-LI, 1970
Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. 1957-1968. Lloydia 33(3A)Supp.

7 ANDERSEN OM, OPHEIM S, AKSNES DW, FROYSTEIN NA, 1991
Structure of petanin, an acylated anthocyanin isolated from Solanum tuberosum, using homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Phytochem Anal 2(5):230-236.

8 MONNET R, SABON F, VIALA A, 1956
Pommes de terre à teneur élevée en solanine. Food Sci Abs 28(3):314.

9 LIOGIER A, 1990
Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico y del Caribe. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Iberoamericana de Ediciones, Inc.

10 LEE JG, JIN JH, LIM HT, CHOI HD, KIM HP, 2009
Inhibition of experimental gastric ulcer by potato tubers and the starch. Natural Product Sciences15(3):134-138.

11 SANDOVAL-VEGAS M, HUAMAN-GUTIERREZ O, ORE-SIFUENTES R, LOLI-PONCE A, AYALA-PIO S, 2010
Antioxidant and cytoprotection effects of Solanum tuberosum (potato) on gastric mucosa in experimental animals. An Fac Med 71(3):147-152.

12 SANTOS AE, COUSIN LA, 1989
Efecto de los extractos acuosos de algunas plantas medicinales de Honduras en la prevención de úlceras gástricas en ratas (Tesis de medicina). Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

13 HOJIMA Y, PISANO JJ, COCHRNE CG, 1983
Survey of plant inhibitors of polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase, pancreatic elastase, cathepsin G, cathepsin B, Hageman-factor fragments, and other serine proteinases. Biochem Pharmacol 32(6):985-990.

14 MIWA M, KONG ZL, SHINOHARA K, WATANABE M, 1990
Macrophage stimulating activity of foods. Agr Biol Chem 54(7):1863-1866.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, tubérculo fresco rayado de Solanum tuberosum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 KIM TH, KIM SH, LEE YS, CHOI SY, YOO SY, JANG JJ, 1994
Protective effects of potato extracts and 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 on the induction of hepatic foci by cotreatment of gamma radiation and diethylnitrosamine. Anticancer Res 14(5a):1979-1982.

17 BAKER D, KEELER R, GAFFIELD W, 1987
Lesions of potato sprout and extracted potato sprout alkaloid toxicity in Syrian hamsters. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 25(3):199-208.

18 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002
Solanum tuberosum. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov.20,2003. URL: www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

Haiti:

  • boul di mas

Dominican Republic:

  • magueyito
Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, warm, applied locally1

Recommandations Preparation and Dosage References

According to published and other information:

Uses for late period (amenorrhea) without pregnancy, twisting and traumatism are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Topical use for headache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Not for use by pregnant women for risk of abortion, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For late period (amenorrhea) other than pregnancy, apply treatment for three consecutive days.

Do not use decoction by oral administrationfor more than five consecutive days.

If the patient’s condition deteriorates, or if headache, twisting or traumatism persist for more than three days, seek medical attention.

Contact of the leaf with the skin may cause irritation5.

For headache, late period (amenorrhea), twisting or traumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 WHO, 1991
Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 LAMPE KF, FAGERSTRÖM R, 1968
Plant toxicity and dermatitis: A manual for physicians. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins.

6 IDAKA E, OGAWA T, KONDO T, GOTO T, 1987
Isolation of highly acylated anthocyanins from Commelinaceae plants, Zebrina pendula, Rhoeo spathacea and Setcreasea purpurea. Agr Biol Chem 51(8):2215-2220.

7 YEOH HH, WEE YC, WATSON L, 1986
Taxonomic variation in total leaf protein amino acid compositions of monocotyledonous plants. Biochem Syst Ecol 14(1):91-96.

8 WENIGER B, HAAG-BERRURIER M, ANTON R, 1982
Plants of Haiti used as antifertility agents. J of Ethnopharmacology 6(1):67-84.

9 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

10 PEREZ RM, 1996
Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea. Phytomedicine 3(2):163-167.

11 SUFFNESS M, ABBOTT B, STATZ DW, WONILOWICZ E, SPJUT R, 1988
The utility of P388 leukemia compared to B16 melanoma and colon carcinoma 38 for in vivo screening of plant extracts. Phytother Res 2(2):89-97.