Cissus verticillata

scientific name: 
Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis
synonym: 
Cissus sicyoides L.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Climbing plant up to 20 m or more, glabrous with tendril; stem cylindrical often with hanging roots, branches articulate.  Leaves alternate, simple, oblong to ovate, 5-15 cm x 7.5 cm, hairy to smooth, with slightly dentate edge. Inflorescence a cyme two-three times branched; flowers light yellow; fruits a berry, purple-black, 8-10 mm long, with a single seed.

Voucher(s)

García,2326,JBSD

Cénesca,201&202,SOE

afección ganglionar:

  leaf, slightly heated, applied locally1-2

flu:

  leaf, decoction with sugar, orally1

colds:

  leaf, decoction with sugar, orally1

cough:

  leaf, decoction with sugar, orally1

boil:

  leaf, crushed, applied locally2

abscess:

  leaf, slightly heated, applied locally1-2

For abscess, ganglionar inflammation and boils:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the washed and crushed leaf in sufficient quantity to the affected area.  Cover the injury with a dressing or clean cloth.  Replace every 12 hours.

For colds, cough and influenza:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

According to published and other information:

The topical use for abscess, ganglionar inflammation and boils is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and skin toxicity studies.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abscess or boils last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Oral administration for cold, cough and influenza is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

TRAMIL Research9

The aqueous extract from the dried leaf (100, 500, 1000 and 4000 mg/kg) administered as a single dose orally and subcutaneously to mice (38.5 ±3.1 g of body weight) did not cause mortality.  The animals were observed for one week.

TRAMIL Research14

The crushed fresh leaf (0.6 g) applied to the healthy dorsal skin (6 cm2) of 3 New Zealand rabbits no did not show evident signs of skin irritability.  The animals were observed at intervals of 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours.

TRAMIL Research15

The crushed fresh leaf (0.6 g) applied for 24 hours with a patch on the healthy skin (12 cm2) of Wistar rats (5 males and 5 females, 200-220 g body weight) did not cause mortality or evident signs of systemic toxicity.  The animals were observed for 14 days, and in the necropsy there was no evidence of macroscopic damage of the internal organs.

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

TRAMIL Research3

Preliminary phytochemical screening (leaf)

alkaloids:

-

saponins:

-

quinones:

-

phenolic compounds:

+

flavonoids:

+

tannins:

-

steroids, terpenoids:

+

 

 

TRAMIL Research4

The preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem and leaf shows they do not contain alkaloids.

The plant contains calcium oxalate5 and the root contains the anthocyanins (flavonoids): cyanidin and delphinin6.

TRAMIL Research7

The fresh crushed leaf (6 g) was heated in 1 mL of oil and filtered.  The resulting oil extract caused a significant inhibition (32 mm halo) in the culture of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC15006 on agar plate.  However, the oil extract prepared by adding fresh crushed leaf (6 g) to 1 mL of oil that had been previously heated did not induce inhibition of bacterial growth.

TRAMIL Research8

The hydroalcoholic extract (95%) from the dried leaf showed only mild activity against Candida albicans.  It did not report antimicrobial activity in vitro against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa orAspergillus niger.

TRAMIL Research9

The aqueous extract from the dried leaf administered orally to rabbits (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased pulmonary resistance only mildly.  It did not modify blood pressure or heart rate.

TRAMIL Research10

The decoction of the fresh leaf (20 g/100 mL distilled water) was not reported to exhibit antiserotonergic activity in the isolated gastric fundus model in rat.

The aqueous extract from the leaf was stimulant towards isolated uterus of rat (0.033 mL/L)11, but caused depression of the central nervous system, and had anticonvulsant and antibacterial activity12.

The decoction of the stem by external application (3 mg/ear) induced anti-inflammatory activity in the ears of male mice in the TEA-induced inflammation model13.

The decoction of the stem administered orally to rat (300 mg/kg) was reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model13.

References:  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 PINEDA M, 1990 Fitoquímica de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Laboratorio enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 STANDLEY PC, 1937 The flora of Costa Rica, Pt. I. Bot Serv Field Mus Nat Hist 18(391):398.

6 TOLEDO MCF, REYES FGR, IADEROZA M, FRANCIS FJ, DRAETTA IS, 1983 Anthocyanins from anil trepador (Cissus sicyoides Linn.) J Food Sci 48(4):1368-1369.

7 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002 Evaluación de la actividad antiestafilocóccica de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL.Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

8 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986 Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Hollande.

9 CAMBAR P, 1992 Efecto de los extractos acuosos de Cissus verticillata L. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

10 GUARDARRAMA I, FRANCO A, ROMERO M, 1992 Estudio preliminar de las propiedades antiserotonínicas del Cissus sicyoides (Bejuco ubí). Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas, Santa Clara, Cuba. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

11 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, 1964 Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 16:115-117.

12 JIU J, 1966 A survey of some medicinal plants of Mexico for selected biological activities. Lloydia 29:250-259.

13 GARCIA MD, QUILEZ AM, SAENZ MT, MARTINEZ DOMINGUEZ ME, DE LA PUERTA R, 2000.

Anti-inflammatory activity of Agave intermixta Trel. and Cissus sicyoides L., species used in South Caribbean traditional medicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 71(3): 395-400.

14 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002. Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

15 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002. Toxicidad aguda tópica de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.