Petiveria alliacea

scientific name: 
Petiveria alliacea L.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

A weedy, deeply rooted, subherbaceous perennial 60-150 cm. high with the strong smell of garlic when broken. Leaves spirally arranged, simple, entire, oblong to elliptic, acute to acuminate at the tip, 20 x 7 cm. usually glabrous; Inflorescence a spikes up to 40 cm. long with minute hairs; 4 white perianth, becoming green in fruit; fruit an achene 6-8 mm long, flattened against the rachis of the inflorescence, developing two sharpely pointed, deflex bristles at the tip.

Voucher(s)

Jiménez,24,JBSD

Girón,184,CFEH

Gómez,140961,HUA

FLORPAN,1936,PMA

Ochoa,269,HPMHV

flatulence:

root, infusion, orally5

headhache:

leaf, crushed, inhaled2

rheumatism:

leaf and root, decoction with salt or sugar, orally9-10

toothache:

leaf, macerated, mouth wash2

clogged nose (sinusitis):

root and stem, powdered, inhaled1,6

rhume:

leaf and stem, decoction, orally8

muscle pain:

leaf, decoction, bath1

skin diseases:

leaf, decoction, wash1

flu:

leaf, decoction, orally7

flu:

root, decoction, orally4

headhache:

root, mashed, inhaled3,6

flu:

root, mashed, inhaled6

For digestive conditions and common cold:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter of water (4 cups). Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, allow to cool and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For rheumatism:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf and root in 1 liter of water (4 cups) for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For nasal congestion (sinusitis):

Prepare a fine powder of the root and stem from dried and sieved material, inhale 0.2 to 0.5 grams through each nostril, 2 times a day38.

For headache, toothache, muscle pain, flatulence, flu and skin diseases:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

According to published and other information:

Use for digestive conditions (stomach pain, bad or slow digestion and intestinal gas) toothache, muscle pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for headache, flatulence, flu and nasal congestion (sinusitis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)11 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Considering the risks of documented interactions with insulin or oral hypoglycemiants, the decoction of the leaf and stem should not be ingested by patients taking or using these medicines due to the risk of magnifying their effects.

The root and the stem can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 12 years old.

Not for use during pregnancy because it may be abortifacient.

TRAMIL Research31

The decoction from the fresh leaf, lyophilized, administered orally to 10 NGP mice (5 males and 5 females) at doses of 1 and 2 g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days per week during 70 days with an additional observation period of 14 days, caused neither mortality nor evident signs of toxicity.

TRAMIL Research17

The decoction from the leaf, administered orally to mice (10 g/kg) in a single dose and with an observation period of 7 subsequent days did not show external signs of toxicity.

Trabajos TRAMIL32,42 (will be translated in 3rd Ed.)

El extracto acuoso (decocción 30%), rendimiento 9 mg/mL, liofilizado, de hoja jóven fresca, vía oral (100, 1000, 5000 y 10000 mg de sólidos totales/kg, dosis única), en ratón Balb/c (25 hembras y 25 machos en grupos de 10 animales), un grupo control negativo (agua). En observación constante las primeras 24 horas y diaria durante 14 días, no se presentó mortalidad pero disminución de la actividad, piloerección y disminución de la excreción fecal en las primeras horas, el examen macroscópicono evidenció daño de ningún órgano. La decocción no presentó toxicidad32.

En todas condiciones iguales, la vía intraperitoneal provocó disminución de la actividad y piloerección, en la mayor dosis también disnea, exoftalmia, cianosis, opacidad en la córnea y contracción de grupos musculares. La DL50 fue de 1673 mg/kg42.

Trabajos TRAMIL39-41(will be translated in 3rd Ed.)

El extracto acuoso (decocción 30%), rendimiento 9 mg/mL, liofilizado, de hoja jóven fresca,vía intraperitoneal (200, 400, 600, 800 y 1000 mg de sólidos totales/kg/día/5 días), en ratón Balb/c, sistema de ensayo de genotoxicidad de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide, control negativo (agua destilada) y positivo (ciclofosfamida 20 mg/kg), no mostró efecto genotóxico39.

El mismo extracto, misma vía y controles (200, 418 y 836 mg de sólidos totales/kg/día/2 días), en 6 grupos mixtos de 10 ratones Swiss, no provocó efecto mutagénico, ni efecto tóxico en el modelo de micronúcleos en médula ósea40.

El mismo extracto,in vitro, (1, 10, 100 y 1000 mg de sólidos totales/mL), sistema de ensayo de genotoxicidad con Aspergillus nidulans D30, no mostró efecto tóxico detectable mediante la reducción de la tasa de crecimiento lineal de las colonias, ni efecto genotóxico41.

El extracto acuoso de hoja seca, administrado por vía oral (1-5 g/kg), a ratones (el original no dice cuantos), no mostró efecto tóxicos en la prueba de toxicidad aguda43.(will be translated in 3rd Ed.)

The decoction from the leaf (100 mg/animal), stem or root (200 mg/animal) was administered orally to rats on the third and fifth day after insemination and the animals were killed on the fourteenth day.  The root and leaf extracts showed anti-implantation effect, while the stem evidenced zygotoxic activity.  The vehicle control was distilled water in volumes equivalent to the extracts, and the number of corpora luteum, viable implants and resorptions was counted33.

The LD50 of the hydroalcoholic extract from the root administered orally to male rats was higher than 1.27 g/kg34.

The hydroalcoholic extract (70%) from the dried root, 1 mg (equivalent to 7.7 mg of dried root), applied on rat skin, did not cause any irritability reaction for 15 consecutive days of application28.

The benzaldehyde present in the root and stem may cause contact dermatitis35-36.

There is no available information documenting the toxicity of medicinal use in children or lactating women.

TRAMIL Research12

Preliminary phytochemical screening (root)

alkaloids:

-

saponins:

+

 

flavonoids:

-

polyphenols:

+

 

quinones:

-

tannins:

-

 

steroids, terpenoids:

+

 

 

               

The entire plant contains coumarins, allantoin, pinitol, lignocerylic alcohol, lignoceric acid, lignoceryl lignocerate and triterpenes: isoarborinol acetate, isoarborinol cinnamate, ß-sitosterol and α-friedelinol13-14.

The root contains sulfurated derivatives: benzylhydroxyethyltrisulphide, trithiolaniacine, dibenzyl trisulphide; benzenic derivatives: benzaldehyde, benzoic acid; potassium nitrate and ß-sitosterol13-15.

The leaf contains allantoin, potassium nitrate, lignocerylic alcohol, lignoceryl lignocerate, linoleic acid, nonadecanoic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid15.

The stem contains allantoin, N-methyl-4-trans-methoxyproline, potassium nitrate and lignoceric acid15; benzylhydroxyethyltrisulphide, trithiolaniacine, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid13-15.  The inflorescence contains the carbohydrate, pinitol15.

TRAMIL Research16

The lyophilized decoction of the leaf administered orally to mice (100 mg/kg, equivalent to 0.6 g of fresh leaf/kg) did not induce any analgesic effects.

TRAMIL Research17

The aqueous leaf extract (decoction) administered orally to rats (6.25 g/kg) in the carrageenan-induced pedal edema test had significant anti-inflammatory effects.  Oral administration to mice (10 g/kg) had significant analgesic effects.  Doses are stated in grams of dried plant.

TRAMIL Research18

The lyophilized aqueous fresh leaf extract administered orally to rats (100 mg/kg, equivalent to 0.6 g of fresh leaf /kg) in carrageenan-induced pleurisy, cotton pellet granuloma and adrenalectomy-induced thymus involution tests did not have anti-inflammatory effects.

TRAMIL Research19

The lyophilized fresh young leaf decoction (0.1 to 1000 mg/mL) in vitro on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, and on Aspergillus nidulans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes fungi reported no antimicrobial activity.  The lyophilized decoction (0.1 mg/mL) caused significant contractions of the smooth muscle in isolated organ tests (rat uterus, aorta and gastric fundus; curiel ileum and rabbit trachea).  The increase of contractions was equivalent to potassium-induced contractions (11.4 µg/mL, a similar concentration to that contained in the dose of the lyophilized decoction applied under the same experimental conditions).

The amount of potassium ion, determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, was 285 mg/g of lyophilized decoction.

TRAMIL Research20

The lyophilized aqueous fresh leaf extract (decoction) administered orally to 10 NGP mice (5 males and 5 females) at a single dose of 1 and 2 g/kg in an intestinal motility speed test did not cause any statistically significant changes.

The fluid extract from the dried leaf with a hydroalcoholic content of 30% at concentrations of 0.135; 0.54; 1.075; 4.3 and 17.2 mg/mL had significant antigiardia activity --of 96.81% at the highest concentration, and of 5.03% at the lowest concentration-- on the in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours; the concentration was subsequently adjusted to 2 x 105 parasites/0.5 mL.  Mean inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 2.05 mg/mL21.

The aqueous extract from the aerial partsin vitro was inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa andStaphylococcus aureus22, and against Trichophyton sp.  At a concentration of 1 mL/plate, it was active against Epidermophyton floccosum23.

The hydroalcoholic extract (70%) from the aerial parts in vitro (100 mg/mL) was inactive against Plasmodium falciparum24.  The aqueous extract (infusion) and the methanolic extract from the leaf and stem in vitro (assay plate) inhibited the replication of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), but were inactive against Herpes simplex virus type 1, poliovirus type 1, adenovirus serotype 7, and vesicular stomatitis virus type 125.

The ethanolic extract (60%) from the dried leaf in vitro did not inhibit Candida albicans26.

The hydroalcoholic extracts from the leaf and dried stem administered orally to mice (1 g/animal) decreased glucose in blood by 60%.  Under the same conditions, the dried root was inactive27.

The hydroalcoholic extract (70%) from the root (1 mg) equivalent to 7.7 mg of dried root, locally applied to male rats in cotton pellet granuloma and cotton oil dermatitis tests showed local anti-inflammatory activity28.

The aqueous extract (decoction) from the dried entire plant (15 g/L), filtered, was administered to a group of patients with osteoarthritis (200 mL/ person).  Analgesic results were observed; however, they were not statistically significant compared to the placebo29.

The aqueous extract of the raw root caused significant analgesic effects in writhing induced by acetic acid, acetylcholine or hypertonic saline solution in mice.  However, it had no effects in hot plate or tail flick tests, nor was it effective as depressant of the central nervous system30.

References:  

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 Castillo D, Rodriguez S, de los Santos C, Belen A, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 LAGOS-WITTE S, Tinoco R, Merlo V, 1996 Encuesta complementaria TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

7 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

8 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995 Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

9 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 Castillo D, Rodriguez S, de los Santos C, Belen A, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardin Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

11 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

12 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

13 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

14 SEGELMAN F, SEGELMAN A, 1975 Constituents of Petiveria alliacea. Lloydia 38(6):537.

15 DE SOUSA JR, DEMUNER AJ, PINHEIRO JA, BREITMAIER E, CASSELS BK, 1990 Dibenzyl trisulphide and trans-N-methyl-4-methoxyproline fromPetiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry 29(11):3653-3655.

16 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de la acción analgésica de la Petiveria alliacea (anamu) en ratones. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(1):16-18.

17 DEL CARMEN RIVAS C, JIMENEZ M, AYALA L, CARILLO C, CABRERA Y, 1988 Actividad anti-inflamatoria y analgésica dePetiveria alliaceae. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM), La Habana, Cuba.

18 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):34-37.

19 Martinez MJ, Betancourt J, Lopez M, MorejOn Z, Fuentes V, MORON F, PINEDO Z, Boucourt E, 2001 Actividad antimicrobiana y sobre varias preparaciones de músculo liso, in vitro, de la decocción liofilizada de hoja de Petiveria alliacea.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

20 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1995 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 ECHEVARRIA A, TORRES D, 2001 Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro. Rev Cubana Med Mil 30(3):161-165.

22 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharm20(3):223-237.

23 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for the antimicotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharm 31(3):263-276.

24 SAUVAIN M, 1989 Etude de plantes antiparasitaires du plateau des Guyanes en Amazonie: antipaludiques et antileishmaniens (Thèse de Doctorat). Université Paris-Sud, Paris, France.

25 RUFFA MJ, PERUSINA M, ALFONSO V, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, CAMPOS R, CAVALLARO L, 2002 Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 48(3):144-147.

26 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharm 33(3):277-283.

27 LORES RI, PUJOL MC, 1990 Petiveria alliacea L. (anamu). Study of the hypoglycemic effect. Med Interne 28(4):347-352.

28 GERMANO DH, CALDEIRA TT, MAZELLA AA, SERTIE JA, BACCHI EM, 1993 Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliacea. Fitoterapia 64(5):459-467.

29 FERRAZ MB, PEREIRA RB, IWATA NM, ATRA E, 1991 Tipi. A popular analgesic tea. A double blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9(2):205-206.

30 LIMA TCM, MORATO GS, TAKAHASHI RN, 1991 Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86(suppl.2):153-158.

31 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1996 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2001 Toxicidad aguda (DL50) oral de la decocción de hojas jóvenes frescas de Petiveria alliaceaL.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

33 GUERRA MO, OLIVEIRA AB, MAIA JGS, PETERS VM, 1989 Alteraçäo do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratos após tratamento com extratos aquosos de diferentes orgäos de Petiveria alliacea. Bol Centro Biol Reprod 8:17-22.

34 GERMANO DHP, SERTIE JAA, BACCHI EM, 1995 Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliacea. II. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydroalcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia 66(3):195-202.

35 REYNOLDS J Ed., 1996 Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. Evaluated information on the world’s drugs and medicines. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1678.

36 BUDAVARI S Ed., 2001 The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p181.

37 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p298.

38 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

39 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001 Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratones de decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

40 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V. 2001 Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

41 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001 Genotoxicidad in vitro: mediante el sistema de ensayo con Aspergillus nidulans de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001 Toxicidad aguda (DL50) intraperitoneal de la decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliaceaL.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

43 CACERES A, LOPEZ B, GONZALEZ S, BERGER I, TADA I, MAKI J, 1998 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J of Ethnopharmacology 62(3):195-202.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.