Eclipta adpressa

scientific name: 
Eclipta adpressa Moench
synonym: 
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Annual herb ranging from erect to creeping habit.  Leaves opposite, rough on both surfaces, sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, 8 cm x 2 cm, margin serrulate. Inflorescences axillary on long stalks; flower-heads 1 cm across, florets white; achenes black, wrinkled, without pappus appendages.

Voucher(s)

FLORPAN,1932,PMA

rhume:

twigs with leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1

For colds:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

According to published and other information:

Use for colds is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

The maximum tolerated dose of the hydroalcoholic extract (50%) from the entire plant, administered intraperitoneally to mice, was 1 g/kg23.

The extract from the dried aerial parts administered orally (0.2 mg/day/90 days) did not induce hepatotoxic activity in mice61.

The ethanolic extract (95%) from the dried aerial parts, administered orally and intraperitoneally to mice (2 g/kg), caused no general toxic effect40,61.

The hydroalcoholic extract (1:1) from the dried aerial parts, administered orally (100 mg/kg), caused neither anti-implantation nor embryotoxic effects in female rat62.

 

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

The leaf contains coumestans (benzofurano[2,3-c]coumarins): wedelolactone2, demethylwedelolactone and derivatives3.

The aerial parts have been extensively studied and contain, among other components: triterpenes: b-amyrin, triterpene acid glucoside4, flavonoids: apigenin5, cynaroside4; sulfur compounds: dithienyl-(2,2')-5-hydroxy-methyl-5'-(but-3-en-1-inyl) of angelic, butyric and tiglic acids, and derivatives6-10.

The root has been extensively studied and contains, among other components, alkanols:

hentriacontan-1-ol, heptacosan-14-ol11, and sulfur compounds6-8,10,12.

The entire plant contains alkaloids: nicotine13; steroids: stigmasterol14.

Proximate analysis of 100 g of seed15: water: 0%; proteins: 15.6%; fat: 13.1.

The methanolic extract from the entire plant (1.25 mg/mL) was cytotoxic in vitro against CA-Ehrlich-ascites16.  The aqueous extract from the dried aerial parts (500 µg/mL) did not cause cytotoxic activity in vitro against CA-mammary-microalveolar cells17.

The ethanolic extract (60%) (10 mg/mL) did not inhibit DNA polymerase18.  The hexane extract of the dried leaf and stem was inactive as coagulant, fibrinolytic, or stimulator of platelet aggregation19.

The aqueous and chloroform extracts from the dried leaf and stem inactivated hepatitis B surface antigen20.  The aqueous extract of the dried leaf (200 µg/mL) did not inhibit HIV protease21.

The juice of the crude leaf caused weak activity against "bean common mosaic virus" (BCMV)22.  The hydroalcoholic extract (1:1) from the entire plant (50 µg/mL) caused weak antiviral activity against Ranikhet, in vitro23.

The ethanolic extract (95%) from the dried entire plant (10 mg/mL)in vitro showed weak antiviral activity against Herpes simplex 224.  The decoction (100 mg/mL) was active against Herpes simplex 125.

The aqueous, ethanolic (95%) and hexane extracts from the dried leaf (10 mg/kg), were inactive in vitro as anthelmintics and as antimicrobials against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes and S. viridans26.

The ethanol extract (95%) was active against Staphylococcus albus (100 µg/disk), Escherichia coli (250 µg/disk), Shigella flexneri (250 µg/disk),Staphylococcus aureus(30 µg/disk), but not againstProteus vulgaris (250 µg/disk), while at a concentration of 500 µg/disk, it was inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi A, S. paratyphi B, S. paratyphi C, S. typhi, Staphylococcus citreus, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. schmitzii and S. sonne27.

The chloroform and methanol extracts from the dried leaf were active against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus28.

The ethanol extract (95%) from the dried entire plant (50 mg/mL) was inactive in vitro against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans29.

The aqueous, ethanolic (95%) and hexane extracts from the dried leaf were inactive against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Phialophora jeanselmei, Piedraia hortae, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and against Candida albicans and C. tropicalis (10 mg/m)26.

The ethanolic extract (95%) from the sprout showed antifungal activity against Helminthosporium turcicum; the aqueous extract, however, was inactive30.

The ethanolic extract (80%) from the dried aerial parts (1 mg/mL)in vitro was active neither against Mycobacterium smegmatis nor Candida albicans31.

The hydroalcoholic extract (50%) from the dried aerial parts (100 µg/mL) was inactive as anti-protozoic against Plasmodium berghei32.

The aqueous extract from the fresh root and stem caused ovicidal activity on Sitotroga cerealella (ED50 = 25%)33.

The ethanolic and hexane extracts from the dried leaf caused molluscicidal activity againstBiomphalaria glabrata34.

The aqueous extract from the leaf at variable concentrations reported strong antinematodal activity against Meloidogyne incognita35.

The decoction of the entire plant (10 mg/mL) was inactive as nematocidal against Toxocara canis36.

The decoction of the dried entire plant, administered orally to male mice (500 mg/kg), did not show analgesic, anticholinergic or anticonvulsant activity, reduction of spontaneous activity or tranquilizing effect; however, it did show antipyretic activity37.

The ether extract from the dried aerial parts (0.5 mg/animal), the ethanolic extract (40%) (2.5 mg/animal) and ethanolic extract (95%) (1.8 mg/animal), by intraperitoneal administration to mice showed anti-poisoning effect.  The hexane extract (3 mg/animal), did not have this effect.  The aqueous extract (8.5 µg/mL and 250 µg/g) inhibited creatin kinase in skeletal muscle of mice38.

The decoction of the dried entire plant, by intraperitoneal administration to mice (1 g/kg), caused hemostatic activity39.

The ethanolic extract (95%) from the dried aerial parts, administered orally to mice, induced a decrease in barbiturate sleeping time, and its ED50 was 156.7 mg/kg40.

The dried aerial parts (500 mg/kg)41, the hydroalcoholic extract (1:1)42 administered orally to male rats, and the ethanolic extract (95%) administered orally to mice (62.5 and 175.9 mg/kg)40 had anti-hepatotoxic activity.

An extract from the plant, combined with Berberis aristata, Picrorhiza kurroa and Embelia ribes, administered orally, showed no anti-hepatotoxic activity in rat43.

The aqueous, carbon tetrachloride, chloroformic and ether extracts from the dried aerial parts, by intraperitoneal administration (500 mg/kg), and the methanolic extract (250 mg/kg) stimulated alkaline phosphatase, glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and glutamate-oxaloacetate-transaminase (GOT), and increased plasma bilirubin in rat44.

The dried aerial parts, administered orally to male rats (500 mg/kg and 1.5 g/kg), inhibited alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and reported anti-inflammatory activity41.

The plant, administered orally to male rats (50 mg/kg), reported hypolipemic activity45.

The decoction of the stem weakly stimulated the uterus of pregnant rats, but had no stimulating effect on the uterus of non-pregnant rats46.  The aqueous extract from the root did not induce uterus stimulation in female rats47.

The aqueous extract from the dried aerial parts, by intramuscular and intravenous administration (50 µg/mL), caused anti-poisoning effects in rats and mice48.

The juice of the dried leaf, administered orally, inhibited alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in guinea pig with chloroform-induced hepatotoxicity, though not in healthy guinea pig49.

The aqueous extract from the leaf did not reveal uterus stimulating effects in non-pregnant guinea pig50.

The hydroalcoholic extract (1:1) from the dried aerial parts showed antispasmodic activity in guinea pig23,51 and rabbit51 ileum.

The decoction of the dried aerial parts (10 mg/mL) did not inhibit the platelet binding activating factor in rabbit52.

By intravenous administration (50 mg/kg), the hydroalcoholic extract (1:1) of the whole plant induced hypotension in dog23.

The methanolic extract from the dried entire plant inhibited 5-lipoxygenase in pig (CI50 = 2 µg/mL)53.

The ethanolic extract (95%) in the human adult (1 mg/mL) had membrane stabilization effects.  The aqueous and ethanolic (95%) extracts (0.4 mg/mL) inhibited phospholipase44.

The dried entire plant, administered orally54 and rectally55, and the gum56, at variable doses, showed anti-inflammatory activity in human adult.

The dried entire plant, administered orally (50 mg/kg)57and (500 mg/person)58, had anti-hepatotoxic activity in adult.  It was active as an antiviral for hepatitis59.

The dried entire plant, administered orally, showed antiviral activity in human adult60.

References:  

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2 GOVINDACHARI T, NAGARAJAN K, PAI B, 1956 Wedelolactone from Eclipta alba. J Sci Ind Res-B 15:664-665.

3 BHARGAVA K, KRISHNASWAMY N, SESHADRI T, 1970 Isolation of demethyl wedelolactone and its glucoside from Eclipta alba. Indian J Chem 8(7):664-665.

4 SARG T, ABDEL SALAM N, EL-DOMIATY M, KHAFAGY S, 1981 The steroid, triterpenoid and flavonoid constituents of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. (Compositae) grown in Egypt. Sci Pharm 49:262-264.

5 WAGNER H, GEYER B, KISO Y, HIKINO H, RAO G, 1986 Coumestans as the main active principles of the liver drugs Eclipta alba and Wedelia calendulacea-1. Planta Med 5:370-374.

6 BOHLMANN F, ZDERO C, 1970 Polyacetylene compounds. Part 173. Constituents of Eclipta erecta. Chem Ber 103:834-841.

7 SINGH P, 1988 Naturally-occuring thiophene derivatives from Eclipta species. Bioact Mol 7:179-186.

8 SINGH P, SHARMA A, JOSHI K, BOHLMANN F, 1985 A further dithienylacetylene from Eclipta erecta. Phytochemistry 24(3):615-616.

9 KRISHNASWAMY N, SESHADRI T, SHARMA B, 1966 Synthesis of alpha-terthienylmethanol, a component of Eclipta alba. Curr Sci 35(21):542.

10 JAIN S, SINGH P, 1988 A dithienylacetylene ester from Eclipta erecta Linn. Indian J Chem Ser B27(1):99-100.

11 SIKRORIA BC, SRIVASTAVA SJ, NIRANJAN GS, 1982 Phytochemical studies on Eclipta alba. J Indian Chem Soc 59 (7):905.

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16 KOSUGE T, YOKOTA M, SUGIYAMA K, YAMAMOTO T, NI M, YAN S, 1985 Studies on antitumor activities and antitumor principles of Chinese herbs. I. Antitumor activities of Chinese herbs. Yakugaku Zasshi 105(8):791-795.

17 SATO A, 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short-term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

18 GHISALBERTI E, SKELTON B, WHITE A, 1995 Structural study of torquatone, an acylphloroglucinol derivative from Eucalyptus species. Aust J Chem 48(10):1771-1774.

19 TRIRATANA T, PARIYAKANOK P, SUWANNURAKS R, NAENGCHOMNOG W, 1988 The study of medicinal herbs on coagulation mechanism. J Dent Assoc Thai 38(1):25-30.

20 THYAGARAJAN S, THIRUNEELAKANTAN K, SUBRAMANIAN S, SUNDARAVELU T, 1982 In vitro inactivation of hbsag by Eclipta alba Hassk and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Indian J Med Res 76S:124-130.

21 KUSUMOTO I, NAKABAYASHI T, KIDA H, MIYASHIRO H, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, SHIMOTOHNO K, 1995 Screening of various plant extracts used in Ayurvedic medicine for inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. Phytother Res 9(3):180-184.

22 RIPATHI R, TRIPATHI R, 1982 Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia38(3):349-349.

23 DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, RAY C, 1968 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: part I. Indian J Exp Biol 6:232-247.

24 MINSHI Z, 1989 An experimental study of the anti-hsv II action of 500 herbal drugs. J Trad Chinese Med 9(2):113-116.

25 ZHENG M, 1988 An experimental study of antiviral action of 472 herbs on Herpes simplex virus. J Trad Chin Med 8(3):203-206.

26 AOVI S, KHAN M, VOHORA S, 1991 Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anthelmintic investigations on Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 62(3):221-228.

27 HADKE S, KULKARNI S, 1989 Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba and Ocimum sanctum. Indian J Med Sci 43(5):113-117.

28 FAROUK A, BASHIR A, SALIH A, 1983 Antimicrobial activity of certain Sudanese plants used in folkloric medicine. Screening for antibacterial activity (I). Fitoterapia 54(1):3-7.

29 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL P, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.

J Ethnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

30 NENE Y, THAPLIYAL P, KUMAR K, LABDEV, 1968 Screening of some plant extracts for antifungal properties. J Sci Tech B 6(4):226-228.

31 AL-SHAMMA A, MITSCHER L, 1979 Comprehensive survey of indigenous Iraqi plants for potential economic value. I. Screening results of 327 species for alkaloids and antimicrobial agents. J Nat Prod 42:633-642.

32 MISRA P, PAL N, GURU P, KATIYAR J, TANDON J, 1991 Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):19-23.

33 MISHRA A, DOGRA J, SINGH J, JHA O, 1979 Post-coital antifertility activity of Annona squamosa and Ipomoea fistulosa. Planta Med 35:283-285.

34 MENDES N, PEREIRA N, DE SOUZA C, LIMA DE OLIVEIRA M, 1984 Preliminary laboratory studies for the verification of molluscicidal activity of several species from the Brazilian flora. Rev Saude Publ Sao Paulo 18:348-354.

35 IJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA S, PRASAD S, 1979 Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Koffoid and White) Chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 KIUCHI F, HIOKI M, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, TSUDAY, KONDO K, 1989 Screening of crude drugs used in Sri Lanka for nematocidal activity on the larva of Toxocaria canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):288-293.

37 DEBELMAS A, HACHE J, 1976 Toxicity of several medicinal plants of Nepal including some behavioral and central nervous system effects. Plant Med Phytother 10:128-138.

38 MORS WB, DO NASCIMENTO MC, PARENTE JP, DA SILVA MH, MELO PA, SUAREZ-KURTZ G, 1989 Neutralization of lethal and myotoxic activities of South American rattlesnake venom by extracts and constituents of the plant Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae). Toxicon27(9):1003-1009.

39 KOSUGE T, YOKOTA M, YOSHIDA M, OCHIAI A, 1981 Studies on antihemorrhagic principles in the crude drugs for hemostatics. I. On hemostatic activities of the crude drugs for hemostatics. Yakugaku Zasshi 101:501-503.

40 SINGH B, SAXENA K, CHANDAN B, AGARWAL S, BHATIA M, ANAND K, 1993 Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba on experimental liver damage in rats and mice. Phytother Res 7(2):154-158.

41 CHANDRA T, SADIQUE J, SOMASUNDRARAM S, 1987

Effect of Eclipta alba on inflammation and liver injury. Fitoterapia 58(1):23-32.

42 SAXENA A, SINGH B, ANAND K, 1993 Hepatoprotective effects of Eclipta alba on subcellular levels in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 40(3):155-161.

43 VAISHWANAR I, KOWALE C, JIDDEWAR G, 1976 Effect of two Ayurvedic drugs Shilajeet & Eclinol on changes in liver & serum lipids produced by carbon tetrachloride. Indian J Exp Biol 14:58.

44 SHARMA A, SINGH R, SEHGAL V, HANDA S, 1991 Antihepatotoxic activity of some plants used in herbal formulations.

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45 KHANNA A, CHANDER R, KAPOOR N, 1991 Hypolipidemic activity of abana in rats. Fitoterapia 62(3):271-274.

46 MISRA M, MISHRA S, MISRA R, 1969 Screening of a few indigenous abortifacients. J Indian Med Assoc 52:535.

47 DHAWAN B, SAXENA P, 1958 A preliminary report evaluation of some indigenous drugs for stimulant effect on the rat uterus. Indian J Med Res 46(6):808-311.

48 MELO P, NASCIMENTO M, MORS W, SUAREZ-KURTZ G, 1994 Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) extracts and constituents. Toxicon 32(5):595-603.

49 KHIN MA-MA, NYUNT N, KHIN MAUNG TIN, 1978 The protective effect of Eclipta alba on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 45:723-728.

50 KAPUR RD, 1948 Action of some indigenous drugs on uterus. A preliminary note. Indian J Med Res 36:47.

51 GUPTA S, YADAVA JNS, TANDON JS, 1993 Antisecretory (antidiarrhoeal) activity of Indian medicinal plants against Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in rabbit and guinea pig ileal loop models. Int J Pharmacog 31(3):198-204.

52 HAN B, YANG O, KIM Y, HAN Y, 1994 Screening of the platelet activating factor (paf) antagonistic activities on herbal medicines. Yakhak Hoe Chi 38(4):462-468.

53 WAGNER H, FESSLER B, 1986 In vitro 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by Eclipta alba extracts and the coumestan derivative wedelolactone. Planta Med 5:374-377.

54 DABRAL P, SHARMA R, 1983 Evaluation of the role of rumalaya and geriforte in chronic arthritis-a preliminary study. Probe 22(2):120-127.

55 AGRAWAL RC, KAPADIA LA, 1982 Treatment of piles with indigenous drugs-pilex tablets and ointment along with styplon. Probe 21(3):201-204.

56 VIJAYASARATHY V, SHARMA L, PRAKASH A, 1981 Indigenous drug treatment for hemorrhoids. Probe 20(4):285-287.

57 DIXIT S, ACHAR M, 1981 Study of bhringaraja (Eclipta alba) therapy in jaundice in children. J Sci Res Pl Med 2:96-100.

58 ANON 1982 A trial of bhringaraja ghanasatwavati on the patients of Kostha-shakhasrita Kamala (with special reference to hepatocellular jaundice). J Natl Integ Med Assoc 24(9):265-269.

59 SANKARAN J, 1984 An all India multicentric clinical survey on a herbal cure-tefroli for hepatitis. J Natl Integ Med Assoc 26(9):255-261.

60 DIXIT S, ACHAR M, 1979 Bhringaraja (Eclipta alba Linn.) in the treatment of infective hepatitis. Curr Med Pract 23(6):237-242.

61 JAYARAM S, THYAGARAJAN S, PANCHANADAM M, SUBRAMANIAN S, 1987 Anti-hepatitis-B virus properties of Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and Eclipta alba Hassk:in vitro and in vivo safety studies. Bio-Medicine 7(2):9-16.

62 PRAKASH A, PASALU I, MATHUR K, 1979 Ovicidal activity of Eclipta alba Hassk. (Compositae). Curr Sci 48:1090.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.