Musa sp.

Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Large perennial herb 2-9 m high with basal corm. Pseudostem composed of leaf sheaths forming the ‘trunk’ of the plant. Leaves blades oblong, entire 1.5-4 m x 0.7-1 m, petiole 30-90 cm long, rounded beneath, channeled above; inflorescences terminal, growing from the pseudostem, erect or drooping; flowers in flat clusters in the axils of spirally arranged broad, dark purple-coloured bracts, functionally unisexual, the lower female the upper male; mature fruit fleshy, cylindrical, 6-35 cm x 2.5-5 cm with greenish, yellow or reddish skin.

Voucher(s)

Faujour,7,BAR

Jiménez,691,JBSD

Longuefosse&Nossin,24,HAVPM

injury, sore:

  fruit peel sap (latex) ("mancha"), applied locally2-3

rheumatism:

  leaf, warmed, applied locally2

inflammation:

  leaf, decoction, bath4

asthenia, weakness:

  fruit pulp, broth with salt, orally2

asthenia, weakness:

  fruit pulp, cooked, orally2

injury, sore:

  fruit pulp, natural, applied locally2

diarrhoea:

  fruit pulp, orally2-3

diarrhoea:

  stem sap (latex), with salt, orally2

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

TRAMIL Research15

The lyophilized latex or sap from the stem, administered orally to humans (120 mg/day), showed no signs of toxicity.

TRAMILResearch17

La savia del jugo del fruto verde, vía tópica (0.5 mL durante 4 horasen área de 5 cm2) en el modelo de irritación dérmica en piel lesionada de 3 conejosNew Zealandpor 5 días consecutivos. Se obtuvo un índice de irritación primaria de 0.42durante el periodo de 11 días de observación, considerando el producto como no irritante.

TRAMILResearch18

El mesodermo del fruto maduro, vía tópica (500 mg durante 4 horasen área de 5 cm2) en el modelo de irritación dérmica en piel lesionada de 3 conejosNew Zealandpor 5 días consecutivos. Se obtuvo un índice de irritación primaria de 0.09durante el periodo de 11 días de observación, considerando el producto como no irritante.

TRAMILResearch19

La hoja calentada, aplicada directamente vía tópica (durante 4 horasen área de 5 cm2) en el modelo de irritación dérmica en piel sana de 3 conejosNew Zealandpor 5 días consecutivos. No se observó ninguna alteración ni irritación durante el periodo de 11 días de observación.

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

The leaf is rich in organic acids: citric, malic, glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic and succinic6.  The inflorescence contains tetracyclic triterpenoids.  The fruit peel and pulp contain serotonin and dopamine7-8.

The fruit also contains norepinephrine9 and, when ripe, it is rich in calcium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, potassium and sodium.

The entire plant contains a large amount of tannins, particularly, the stem sap10.

Proximate analysis of 100 g of fruit11: calories: 72; water: 79.2%; proteins: 1.8%; fat: 0.2%; carbohydrates: 18%; fiber: 0.2%; ash: 0.8%; calcium: 10 mg; phosphorus: 24 mg; iron: 1.3 mg; sodium: 18 mg; potassium: 435 mg; carotene: 80 µg; thiamine: 0.03 mg; riboflavin: 0.04 mg; niacin: 0.60 mg; ascorbic acid: 8 mg.

Trabajo TRAMIL20

La decocción 30% de hoja fresca, vía oral (dosis 1, 5 y 10 g de material vegetal/kg), modelos de contorciones inducidas por ácido acético (0.75%, 0.1 mL/10 g) intraperitoneal y retirada de la cola provocada por inmersión en agua caliente (55oC), ratones OF-1 machos (20-25 g), 10 animales/grupo. La decocción (1, 5 y 10 g/kg) mostró actividad analgésica significativa en el modelo de contorciones y no modifico significativamente la respuesta en el modelo de retirada de la cola.

Trabajo TRAMIL21

La decocción 30% de hoja fresca, vía tópica (10 μL en cada cara de ambas orejas); modelo de edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton (10 μL/2.5 mL acetona), dosis 10 μL/cada cara de la oreja derecha; en la oreja izquierda se aplicó 10 μL de acetona de igual manera, a ratón macho OF-1 (6 animales/grupo), el grupo control positivo recibió dexametasona (5 mg/mL acetona), dosis 0,05 mg/cada cara de ambas orejas; el grupo control negativo recibió aceite de Croton en la oreja derecha y acetona en la oreja izquierda en iguales condiciones; tratamientos aplicados 1 min después del aceite de Croton. La decocción inhibió 31.5% y la dexametasona 87.83% la respuesta inflamatoria.

Trabajo TRAMIL22

El zumo fresco 30% del fruto maduro, vía oral (dosis 1 y 10 g de material vegetal/kg), modelo de tránsito intestinal con carbón activado 10% (0.1 mL/10 g), en ratón OF-1 macho (20-25 g), 10 animales/grupo, no modificó significativamente el tránsito intestinal.

The fresh fruit pulp in vitro (0.2 mL/agar plate) showed activity against Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans, B. stearothermophilus and Clostridium sporogenes12.

The tannins are claimed to have astringent and antiseptic activity13.

The ascorbic acid has antiscorbutic and antioxidant properties14.

References:  

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962 The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965 Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

7 WONG W, 1976 Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

8 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983 A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

9 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

10 FRIESE FW, 1934 Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

12 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989 Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

13 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

14 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

15 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

16 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

21 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

22 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.