Justicia pectoralis

scientific name: 
Justicia pectoralis Jacq.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Perennial low branching herb, aromatic when crushed, up to 2 m high, sometimes rooting at the nodes.  Leaves opposite, 3-10 cm x 5-30 mm, linear to lanceolate; inflorescence terminal in loose panicle; flowers 7-8 mm long, pink with white markings resembling a rib-cage; capsule dehiscing elastically.

Voucher(s)

Ocampo,5000,CR Soberats,TR90-02,CIFMT Longuefosse&Nossin,21,HAVPMC Rouzier,220,SOE Fuentes,4758,ROIG

insomnia:

aerial parts, infusion and decoction, orally27

stomach pain:

  leaf, decoction, orally1

blow:

  entire plant, crushed or entire, applied locally2

twist:

  entire plant, crushed or entire, applied locally2

blow:

  leaf, crushed, applied locally3

twist:

  leaf, crushed, applied locally3

nervousness:

aerial parts, decoction, orally4-5,27

nervousness:

aerial parts, infusion and decoction, orally27

anxiety:

aerial parts, infusion and decoction, orally27

For bruises and sprains:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For stomach ache and nervousness:

Prepare a decoction with 5-10 grams of leaf or aerial parts in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink whenever required by symptomatic manifestation.

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach-ache and nervousness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervousness persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Do not use more than 30 days and with patients with circulatory problems.

Use for bruises and sprains is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation, or by children under 5 years old.

TRAMIL Research23

The lyophilized aqueous extract (decoction with 2.889 kg of fresh aerial parts in 7.850 L distilled water) was administered orally (5 g/kg/day/5 days) to Swiss mice, in 2 groups of 10 (5 males and 5 females per group), one for treatment and the other one for control.  The observation of parameters was performed on a daily basis (Irwin polydimensional scheme) and for 7 additional days after the end of administration.  There was neither mortality nor was there any evidence of toxicity signs.

TRAMIL Research24

The aqueous extract (decoction 30%) from the fresh aerial parts, in the Draize model in rabbits (0.6 mL/6 cm2 patch during 4 hours on shaved skin), did not cause clinical signs of edema or erythema after 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours, and was classified as non-irritant.

TRAMIL Research25

The fresh aerial parts, crushed (0.6 g), were applied to 10% of the total surface (12 cm2) of the skin, for 24 hours, in Wistar rats (5 males and 5 females per group), in the general acute topically-induced toxicity model.  The animals were observed on a daily basis for 14 days.  There was neither mortality nor were there any signs of adverse effects in any of the experimental groups.  The necropsy showed no evidence of macroscopic damage in any other organ.

El extracto fluido 70% del follage no mostró efecto genotóxico en el ensayo in vivo de inducción de micronúcleos en médula ósea de ratón, ni mutagenicidad (hasta 5 mg/placa) en la prueba in vitro de reversión bacteriana Salmonella/microsoma (Ames)26. (will be translated for 3rd Edition)

There is no available information documenting the safety of use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

TRAMIL Research7

The lyophilized decoction of the fresh leaf and stem contains 79 mg and 28 mg of coumarin per 100 g of material, respectively.

TRAMIL Research8

Preliminary phytochemical screening (leaf):

alkaloids:

±

saponins:

+

quinones:

-

phenolic comp.:

+

flavonoids:

+

tannins:

-

steroids, terpenoids:

±

 

         

The plant contains flavonoids: swertisin, swertiajaponin, coumarin and derivatives9; lignans: justicidin A and B10.

Proximate analysis of 100 g of leaf11: calories: 44; water: 85%; proteins: 3.96%; fat: 0.6%; carbohydrates: 8.2%; fiber: 2.8%; ash: 2.3%; calcium: 663 mg; iron: 7.4 mg; potassium: 35 mg; carotene: 2670 µg; thiamine: 0.04 mg; riboflavin: 0.20 mg; niacin: 2.5 mg; ascorbic acid: 28 mg.

TRAMIL Research12

The lyophilized decoction of the fresh leaf, administered orally to mice (5 g/kg), significantly slowed down intestinal movement.

TRAMIL Research13

The juice and the decoction of the stem and leaf, in vitro (1 mg/mL), had no activity against Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, S. dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

TRAMIL Research14

The lyophilized decoction of the aerial parts (75 mg/mL), administered orally to 20 mice Hsd:ICR(CD-1) (10 males and 10 females) (1 g/kg/day/5 days), studied in accordance with the RIVAPLAMED (CYTED 2002) methodology, did not cause any sedative effect or sleepiness.  The vehicle control was distilled and de-ionized water (0.5 mL), administered to 10 mice of similar characteristics.

The aqueous extract from the leaf, in vivo, administered to mice (250 mg/kg), did not exhibit psychotropic activity, but reduced spontaneous activity15.

The decoction of fresh aerial parts (10%) at doses of 0.1 mL/g, or of lyophilized dried aerial parts (10%) (7.5, 15, 75, 400 and 700 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally to male C57 mice, in exploratory activity on an open field model, the controls being diazepam (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg), chlorpromazine (0.2, 2 and 7.5 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.1, 0.3, 1 and 5 mg/kg), showed a significant dose-dependent sedative and effect similar to those manifested by the control groups16-17.

The decoction of the aerial parts, in C57 mice, reduced aggressive behavior and exploratory activity, but did not prevent convulsions from pentylenetetrazol.  Additionally, it blocked the excitement induced by phencyclidine (schizophrenic-mimetic drug) in young rats18.

The decoction of the aerial parts (2 and 6%) administered orally to 10 normal human adults (aged 25-35), in a controlled clinical study, caused significant electroencephalographic modifications, evidenced in the broadband spectral measurements, suggestive of neurotropic activity19.

The aqueous extracts from the lyophilized fresh and dried aerial parts administered intraperitoneally to rats in the apomorphine-induced stereotypy model, and in vitro on the total links of spiperone-3H in synaptosomes of the corpus striatum, were not antagonistic to apomorphinic stereotypy.  Similarly, the incubation of synaptosomes with the lyophilized extract (1-500 µg/mL) did not cause any displacement of spiperone-3H from dopaminergic receptors of the corpus striatum.  Findings lead to the conclusion that the antidopaminergic properties of typical neuroleptic agents are not present in these extracts20.

The decoctions of the lyophilized fresh and dried aerial parts administered to mice did not protect against pentylenetetrazol and picrotoxin-induced convulsions, unlike diazepam.  Findings lead to the conclusion that the sedative effect was unrelated to the mechanisms of benzodiazepine-type anxiolytics21.

The coumarin is believed to be effective as anti-inflammatory, healer22, sedative, spasmolytic and relaxant of the smooth muscle15.

References:  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 CARBALLO A, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

7 Solis PN, VAsquez Y, Ayala H, Gupta MP, 2002 Informe de validación de algunas plantas tramil. Fase iii. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

8 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

9 DE VRIES JX, TAUSCHER B, WURZEL G, 1988 Constituents of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. 2. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of simple coumarins, 3-phenylpropionic acids and their hydroxy and methoxy derivatives. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom 15(8):413-417.

10 JOSEPH H, GLEYE J, MOULIS C, MENSAH L, ROUSSAKIS C, GRATAS C, 1988 Justicidin B, a cytotoxic principle from Justicia pectoralis. J Nat Prod 51(3):599-600.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p90.

12 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 CACERES A, 2000 Actividad de Justicia pectoralis contra las bacterias causales de infecciones respiratorias. Informe TRAMIL.Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

14 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Actividad sedante-tranquilizante, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

15 MACRAE W, TOWERS G, 1984 Justicia pectoralis: A study of the basis for its use as a hallucinogenic snuff ingredient. J Ethnopharmacol 12(1):93-111.

16 FernAndez L, PErez H, Mas R, RodrIguez L, GalAn L, Biscay R, 1987 Efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre la conducta exploratoria en ratones. Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas. Estudios Avanzados en Neurociencias (suppl 1). p257-264.

17 FERNANDEZ L, PEREZ SAAD H, MAS R, RODRIGUEZ RIVERA L, GALAN L, BISCAY R, 1987 Efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre la conducta exploratoria en ratones. En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC) Ed. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. p257-264.

18 FERNANDEZ L, MAS R, PEREZ SAAD H, BISCAY R, GALAN L, 1989 Evaluación preliminar de los efectos neurofarmacológicos de Justicia pectoris. Rev Cub Farm 23(1/2):161-166.

19 RODRIGUEZ E, VIRNES A, ALEMAN J, 1989 Estudio preliminar del efecto de Justicia pectoralis sobre el EEG de adultos normales. Rev Cub Farm 23(3):302-308.

20 MAS R; MENENDEZ R, FERNANDEZ L, PEREZ SAAD H, RODRIGUEZ RIVERA L, KAMMERER E, 1987 ¿Posee Justicia pectoralis las características farmacológicas de los neurolépticos clásicos? En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC) Ed. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. p273-283.

21PEREZ SAAD H, MAS R, FERNANDEZ L, RODRIGUEZ RIVERA L, 1987 Justicia pectoralis no previene las convulsiones inducidas por PTZ y PTX. En: Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas (CENIC) Ed. Estudios avanzados en neurociencias. La Habana, Cuba: Editorial CENIC. p265-272.

22 MILLS J, Pascoe KO, Chambers J, Melville GN, 1986 Preliminary investigations of the wound-healing properties of a Jamaican folk medicine plant. West Indian Med J 35(3):190-193.

23 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, OCAMPO R, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2001 Toxicidad aguda en ratones del extracto acuoso de partes aéreas de Justicia pectoralis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MOREJON Z, MORON, F, BOUCOURT E, 2002 Toxicidad aguda tópica de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Medicina "Dr. Salvador Allende". Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. La Habana, Cuba.

25 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MOREJON Z, MORON, F, BOUCOURT E, 2002 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Informe TRAMIL. Facultad de Medicina "Dr. Salvador Allende". Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. La Habana, Cuba.

26 PILOTO FERRER J, VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, REMIGIO A, VEGA Y, GONZALEZ ML, RODRIGUEZ C, CARBALLO C, 2009 Plantas medicinales. Diez años de evaluaciones toxicogenéticas en el CIDEM. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 8(5):428-434.

27 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.