indigestion

Mangifera indica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Guatemala: mango
 Haiti: mango
 Saint Lucia: mango
Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for indigestion (burn) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of the flower for bronchitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of the flower for weakness, pneumonia and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should bronchitis, pneumopathy or cough last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit ofMangifera indica is widely used for human consumption.

For cough and pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 leaves in 1 liter of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For bronchitis, indigestion (burn) and weakness:

Prepare an infusion, adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 leaves.  Cover and allow cool down for 5-10 minutes, and then filter.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 CRAVEIRO AA, ANDRADE CH, MATOS FJ, ALENCAR JW, MACHADO MI, 1980 Volatile constituents of Mangifera indica Linn. Rev Latinoamer Quim 11:129.

5 TANAKA T, SUEYASU T, NONAKA G-I, NISHIOKA I, 1984 Tannins and related compounds. XXI. Isolation and characterization of galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoyl esters of benzophenone and xanthone c-glucosides from Mangifera indica L. Chem Pharm Bull 32(7):2676-2686.

6 PROCTOR JTA, CREASY LL, 1969 The anthocyanin of the mango fruit. Phytochemistry 8:2108.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 NIGAM IC, 1962 Studies in some Indian essential oils. Agra Univ J Res Sci 11:147-152.

9 LU ZY, MAO HD, HE MR, LU SY, 1982 Studies on the chemical constituents of mangguo (Mangifera indica) leaf. Chung Ts'ao Yao 13:3-6.

10 PHARM XS, PHARM GK, 1991 The extraction and determination of the flavonoid mangiferin in the bark and leaves of Mangifera indica. Tap Chi Duoc Hoc 5:8-19.

11 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, 1982 Triterpenoids of the leaves of Mangifera indica. Indian J Pharm Sci 44:58-59.

12 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

13 GHOSAL S, BISWAS K, CHATTOPADHYAY BK, 1978 Differences in the chemical constituents of Mangifera indica infected with Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliformae. Phytochemistry 17:689-694.

14 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1989 Alkyl gallates of flowers of Mangifera indica. Fitoterapia 60(3):284.

15 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1993 Studies in the chemical constituents of flowers of Mangifera indica. Part-II. Isolation and characterization of some alkylgallates from blossoms of Mangifera indica. Pak J Sci Ind 35(7/8):276-278.

16 BANDYOPADHYAY C, 1983 Contribution of gas chromatography to food flavor research. Pafai J 5(3):26-30.

17 SAEED AR, KARAMALLA KA, KHATTAB AH, 1976 Polyphenolic compounds in the pulp of Mangifera indica L. J Food Sci 41(4):959-960.

18 MAC LEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of mango fruit. Phytochemistry 21:2523-2526.

19 GAYDOU EM, BOUCHET P, 1984 Sterols, methyl sterols, triterpene alcohols and fatty acids of the kernel fat of different Malagasy mango (Mangifera indica) varieties. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 61(10):1589-1593.

20 ANJANEYULU V, RAVI K, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, CONNOLLY JD, 1989 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 28(5):1471-1477.

21 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA K, RAVI PK, CONNOLLY JD, 1985 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 24(10):2359-2367.

22 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, INDIAN J, 1982 Triterpenoids of the root-bark of Mangifera indica. Pharm Sci 44(4):85-87.

23 KHAN MA, NIZAMI SS, KHAN MNI, AZEEM SW, AHMED Z, 1994 New triterpenes from Mangifera indica. J Nat Prod 57(7):988-991.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p105.

25 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

27GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 SOUZA BRITO ARM, HIRUMA-LIMA CA, LIMA ZP, 2003 Atividades biológicas obtidas dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas e flores da Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL, Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP y Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil.

29 POUSSET J, 1989 Plantes médicinales africaines. Utilisation pratique. Paris, France: ACCT.

30 RAY BN, PAL AK, 1967 Estrogenic activity of tree leaves as animal feed. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 20:6.

31 TRIPATHI RKR, TRIPATHI RN, 1982 Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia 38(3):349-349.

32 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

33 GEORGE M, PANDALAI KM, 1949 Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

34 PATEL VK, VENKATAKRISHNA-BHATT H, 1988 Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26(4):176-184.

35 VIJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA SD, PRASAD SK, 1979 Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 JAIN SR, SHARMA SN, 1967 Hypoglycaemic drugs of Indian indigenous origin. Planta Med 15(4):439-442.

37 MALCOLM SA, SOFOWORA EA, 1969 Antimicrobial activity of selected Nigerian folk remedies and their constituent plants. Lloydia 32:512-517.

38 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41: 463-467.

39 KLOOS H, THIONGO FW, OUMA JH, BUTTERWORTH AE, 1987 Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos district, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 90(4):197-204.

40 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

41 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

42 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986 Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.

44 GUPTA MP, ARIAS TD, CORREA M, LAMBA SS, 1979 Ethnopharmacognostic observations on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Q J Crude Drug Res 17(3/4):115-130.

Mentha sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Cuba: toronjil , toronjil de menta
 Guadeloupe: mant
 Martinique: mant
 Panama: yerba buena
 Venezuela: yerba buena

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3-4,37

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

6 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995 Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

8 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985 Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

9 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994 Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha xpiperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

10 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967 Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

11 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989 Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

12 LESLIE GB, 1978 A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

13 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990 Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

14 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981 Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

15 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989 Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

16 ROSS S, EL-KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia 51:201-205.

17 SCORTICHINI M, ROSSI M, 1989 In vitro activity of some essential oils toward Erwinia amylovora (Burril) Winslow. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 24(3/4):421-431.

18 RAI MK, UPADHYAY S, 1988 Laboratory evaluation of essential oil of Mentha piperita Linn. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 30(3-4):82-84.

19 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978 Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

20 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988 Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

21 MELZIG M, TEUSCHER E, 1991 Investigations of the influence of essential oils and their main components on the adenosine uptake by cultivated endothelial cells. Planta Med 57(1):41-42.

22 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agr Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993 Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991 Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996 Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 BEZIAT M, 1983 Toxicité d'huiles essentielles. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

27 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002 Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CF...

28 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997 Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

29 MICROMEDEX T, 2003 Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

30 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001 The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

31 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991 Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

32 WICHTL M, 1999 Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

33 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002 Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita varcitrata (Ehrh.) Briq.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

36 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002 Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata(Ehrh.) Briq.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

37 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

38 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

Zingiber officinale


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Antigua and Barbuda: ginger
 Barbados: ginger
 Costa Rica: jengibre
 Dominica: ginger
 Guatemala: jengibre
 Honduras: jengibre
 Saint Lucia: ginger
 Puerto Rico: jengibre , ginger
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: ginger
 Venezuela: jengibre

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally10

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 DELENS M, 1992 Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 O'REILLY A, WILSON V, PHILLIP M, JOSEPH O, 1992 TRAMIL survey. Chemistry and Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua and Barbuda.

7 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

9 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

10 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

11 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

12 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 WHO, 1999 Rhizoma zingiberis. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume I. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. p284.

15 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Zingiber officinalis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 30, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

16 TANABE M, YASUDA M, ADACHI Y, KANOY, 1991 Capillary GC-MS analysis of volatile components in Japanese gingers. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45(4):321-326.

17 NISHIMURA O, 1995 Identification of the characteristic odorants in fresh rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber oficinale Roscoe) using aroma extract dilution analysis and modified multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 43(11):2941-2945.

18 SAKAMURA F, OGIHARA K, SUGA T, TANIGUCHI K, TANAKA R, 1986 Volatile constituents of Zingiber officinale rhizomes produced by in vitro shoot tip culture. Phytochemistry 25(6):1333-1335.

19 WU P, KUO MC, HO CT, 1990 Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Agric Food Chem 38(7):1553-1555.

20 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963 Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics and their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

21 VAN BEEK TA, LELYVELD GP, 1991 Isolation and identification of the five major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of ginger. Phytochem Anal 2(1):26-34.

22 SHIBA M, MYATA A, OKADA M, WATANABE K, 1986 Antiulcer furanogermenone extraction from ginger. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-61 227,523.

23 YOSHIKAWA M, HATAKEYAMA S, CHATANI N, NISHINO Y, YAMAHARA J, 1993 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive principles in Zingiberis Rhizoma by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. On the evaluation of Zingiberis Rhizoma and chemical change of constituents during Zingiberis Rhizoma processing. Yakugaku Zasshi 113(4):307-315.

24 TANABE M, CHEN YD, SAITO KI, KANO Y, 1993 Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Chem Pharm Bull 41(4):710-713.

25 KANO Y, TANABE M, YASUDA M, 1990 On the evaluation of the preparation of Chinese medicinal prescriptions (V) diterpenes from Japanese ginger "kintoki". Shoyakugaku Zasshi 44(1):55-57.

26 KAWAKISHI S, MORIMITSU Y, OSAWA T, 1994 Chemistry of ginger components and inhibitory factors of the arachidonic acid cascade. Asc Symp Ser 547:244-250.

27 KIKUZAKI H, NAKATANI N, 1993 Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci 58(6):1407-1410.

28 KIUCHI F, IWAKAMI S, SHIBUYA M, HANAOKA F, SANKAWA U, 1992 Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull 40(2):387-391.

29 HARVEY DJ, 1981 Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of ginger constituents. identification of gingerdiones and new hexahydrocurcumin analogues. J Chromatogr 211(1):75-84.

30 MASADA Y, INOUE T, HASHIMOTO K, FUJIOKA M, UCHINO C, 1974 Studies on the constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by GC-MS. Yakugaku Zasshi 94(6):735-738.

31 ANON, 1982 Analgesic formulations containing shogaol and gingerol. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-82 46,914.

32 CHEN CC, ROSEN RT, HO CT, 1986 Chromatographic analyses of isomeric shogaol compounds derived from isolated gingerol compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Chromatogr 360:175-184.

33 HARTMAN M, 1971 Chemical composition of certain products from ginger (Zingiber officinale). Zivocisna Vyroba 16(10/11):805-812.

34 SCHULTZ JM, HERRMANN K, 1980 Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

35 FU HY, HUANG TC, HO CT, DAUN H, 1993 Characterization of the major anthocyanin in acidified green ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Zhongguo Nongye Huaxue Huizhi 31(5):587-595.

36 NELSON EK, 1920 Constitution of capsaicin, the pungent principle of ginger. II. J Amer Chem Soc 42:597-599.

37 LIN ZK, HUA YF, 1987 Chemical constituents of the essential oil from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. of Sichuan. You-Ji Hua Hsueh 6:444-448.

38 ERLER J, VOSTROWSKY O, STROBEL H, KNOBLOCH K, 1988 Essential oils from ginger (Zingiber officinalis Roscoe). Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 186(3):231-234.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p172.

40 KIUCHI F, SHIBUYA M, KINOSHITA T, SANKAWA U, 1983 Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by the constituents of medicinal plants. Chem Pharm Bull 31(10):3391-3396.

41 KIUCHI F, SHIBUYA M, SANKAWA U, 1982 Inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis from ginger. Chem Pharm Bull 30(2):754-757.

42 SANKAWA U, 1983 Modulators of arachidonate cascade contained in medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. 3º Congress of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian biochemists, Bangkok, Thailand, p28.

43 SRIVASTAVA KC, 1984 Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibited platelet aggregation and altered arachidonic acid metabolism. Biomed Biochim Acta 43(8/9):5335-5346.

44 ADACHI I, YASUTA A, MATSUBARA T, UENO M, TERASAWA K, HORIKOSHI I, 1984 Macrophage procoagulant activity. Effects of hot water extracts of several Kanpo-prescriptions on macrophage procoagulant activity, I. Yakugaku Zasshi 104(9):959-965.

45 MASCOLO N, JAIN R, JAIN SC, CAPASSO F, 1989 Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol 27(1/2):129-140.

46 WOO W, LEE E, HAN B, 1979 Biological evaluation of Korean medicinal plants. III. Arch Pharm Res 2:127-131.

47 MAY G, WILLUHN G, 1978 Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures. Arzneim-Forsch 28(1):1-7.

48 ADEWUNMI CO, 1984 Natural products as agents of schistosomiasis control in Nigeria: A review of progress. Int J Crude Drug Res 22(4):161-166.

49 FEROZ H, KHARE AK, SRIVASTAVA MC, 1982 Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants. J Sci Res Pl Med 3:6-12.

50 PANTHONG A, SIVAMOGSTHAM P, 1974 Pharmacological study of the action of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the gastrointestinal tract. Chien Mai Med Bull 13(1):41-53.

51 KASAHARA Y, SAITO E, HIKINO H, 1983 Pharmacological actions of Pinellia tubers and Zingiber rhizomes. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(1):73-83.

52 SAKAI K, MIYAZAKI Y, YAMANE T, SAITOH Y, IKAWA C, NISHIHATA T, 1989 Effect of extracts of Zingiberaceae herbs on gastric secretion in rabbits. Chem Pharm Bull 37(1):215-217.

53 YAMAHARA J, RONG HQ, NAITOH Y, KITANI T, FUJIMURA H, 1989 Inhibition of cytotoxic drug-induced vomiting in Suncus by a ginger constituent. J Ethnopharmacol 27(3):353-355.

54 YAMAHARA J, YAMADA T, KIMURA H, SAWADA T, FUJIMURA H, 1982 Biologically active principles of crude drugs. Anti-allergic principles of "Shoseiryu-To". I. Effect on delayed-type allergy reaction. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(9):881-886.

55 MOWREY DB, CLAYSON DE, 1982 Motion sickness, ginger and psychophysics. Lancet 82(1):655-657.

56 GRONTVED A, BRASK T, KAMBSKARD J, HENTZER E, 1988 Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockholm) 105(1/2):45-49.

57 HOLTMANN S, CLARKE AH, SCHERER H, HOHN M, 1989 The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockholm) 108(3/4):168-174.

58 WOOD CD, MANNO JE, WOOD MJ, MANNO BR, MIMS ME, 1988 Comparison of efficacy of Ginger with various antimotion sickness drug. Clin Res Pract Drug Reg Affairs 6(2):129-136.

59 FISCHER-RASMUSSEN W, KJAER SK, DAHL C, ASPING U, 1991 Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstetr Gynecol Reprod Biol 38(1):19-24.

60 SRIVASTAVA KC, 1989 Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent Fatty Acids 35(3):183-185.

61 BETANCOURT J, MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de rhizome de Zingiber officinalis Roscoe. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

62 BETANCOURT J, MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de rhizome de Zingiber officinalis Roscoe. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana.

63 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

64 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

65 EMIG H, 1931 The pharmacological action of ginger. J Amer Pharm Ass 20:114-116.

66 ANON (Select Committee on GRAS Substances), 1976 GRAS status of foods and food additives. Washington DC, USA: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration 41, 38644

67 KUMAZAWA Y, TAKIMOTO H, MIURA SI, NISHIMURA C, YAMADA A, KAWAKITA T, NOMOTO K, 1988 Activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by intraperitoneal administration of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (Japanese name: Shosaiko-To). Int J Inmunopharmacol 10(4):395-403.

68 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Zingiber officinalis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 30, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html