toothache

Allium sativum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : garlic
  • Dominican Republic : ajo
  • Guatemala : ajo
  • Haiti : lay
  • Saint Lucia : lay
  • Martinique : ail
  • Martinique : lay

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bulb, applied locally1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

Use for “bad blood” is a traditional cultural use of our communities and is not classified in the TRAMIL Program.

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence, and intestinal parasites is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and published scientific information.

Use for toothaches, earaches, and fever is classified as REC, based on significant traditional uses (OMS/WHO)7 documented by TRAMIL surveys.

The bulb can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum.  If the patient’s condition worsens or if the earache persists for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Contraindicated for use in hyperthyroidism8. The extracts from garlic interact with anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatments.

The bulb of Allium sativum is widely used for human consumption.

The garlic bulb for medicinal purposes should be taken together with meals, so as to prevent gastro-intestinal problems71.

For fever, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence and intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 2 to 5 grams of fresh garlic71 (1 to 2.5 cloves) or 2 to 4 grams of dried garlic71 in 1 cup of water (250 mL), boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For other forms of administration of garlic bulb, the daily consumption doses recommended by OMS71 are: for oil: 2 to 5 mg; for extracts, 300 to 1000 mg (as solid material).  Other type of pharmaceutical preparations should meet alliine values of 4-12 mg or allicine values of 2-5 mg71.

For treatment of skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, toothache, and earache:

2 to 5 g (1 to 2.5 cloves) of peeled fresh garlic; wash thoroughly and crush, then apply to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

6 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

7 WHO, 1991
Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 ARTECHI A (Ed.), 1998
Fitoterapia Vademécum de prescripción Plantas Medicinales. Barcelona, España: Masson. p63.

9 SENDL A, ELBL G, STEINKE B, REDL K, BREU W, WAGNER H, 1992
Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 58:11-17.

10 CALVEY EM, ROACH JAG, BLOCK E, 1994
Supercritical fluid chromatography of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts with mass spectrometric identification of allicin. J Chromatogr Sci 32:393-396.

11 BLOCK E, AHMAD S, CATALFAMO JL, JAIN MK, APITZ-CASTRO R, 1986
Antithrombotic organosulfur compounds from garlic: structural, mechanistic, and synthetic studies. J Amer Chem Soc 108:227045-227055.

12 MOCHIZUKI E, YAMAMOTO T, KOMIYAMA Y, NAKAZAWA H, 1998
Identification of Allium products using flame photometric detection gas chromatography and distribution patterns of volatile sulfur compounds. J Agr Food Chem 46:125170-125176.

13 UEDA Y, SAKAGUCHI M, HIRAYAMA K, MIYAJIMA R, KIMIZUKA A, 1990
Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agr Biol Chem 54:1163-1169.

14 KOCH HP, JAGER W, 1989
Garlic allicin release from fresh and dried garlic and products thereof. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 129:6273-6276.

15 LAWSON LD, WANG ZYJ, HUGHES BG, 1991
Identification and hplc quantitation of the sulfides and dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates in commercial garlic products. Planta Med 57:363-370.

16 OHSUMI C, HAYASHI T, KUBOTA K, KOBAYASHI A, 1993
Volatile flavor compounds formed in an interspecific hybrid between onion and garlic. J Agr Food Chem 41:101808-101810.

17 LAWSON LD, WOOD SG, HUGHES BG, 1991
hplc analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med 57:3263-3270.

18 MUTSCH-ECKNER M, ERDELMEIER CAJ, STICHER O, REUTER HD, 1993
A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum. J Nat Prod 56:6864-6869.

19 INAGAKI M, HARADA Y, YAMADA K, ISOBE R, HIGUCHI R, MATSUURA H, ITAKURA Y, 1998
Isolation and structure determination of cerebrosides from garlic, the bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 46:71153-71156.

20 AL-NAGDY SA, ABDEL-RAHMAN MO, HEIBA HI, 1988
Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 2:4196-4197.

21 ROLLERI F, 1943
Occurrence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in curative plants. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 281:118.

22 RAKHIMBAEV IR, OL'SHANSKAYA RV, 1981
Preliminary identification of natural gibberellins of garlic. Izv Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr Ser Biol 1981:217-222.

23 KOCH HP, JAGER W, GROH U, HOVIE JE, PLANK G, SEDLAK U, PRAZNIK W, 1993
Carbohydrates from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) As inhibitors of adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Phytother Res 7(5):387-389.

24 BAUMGARTNER S, DAX TG, PRAZNIK W, FALK H, 2000
Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Carbohydr Res 328:2177-2183.

25 PENG JP, CHEN H, QIAO YQ, MA LR, NARUI T, SUZUKI H, OKUYAMA T, KOBAYASHI H, 1996
Two new steroidal saponins from Allium sativum and their inhibitory effects on blood coagulability. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31:8607-8612.

26 MATSUURA H, USHIROGUCHI T, ITAKURA Y, FUWA T, 1989
Further studies on steroidal glycosides from bulbs, roots and leaves of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 37:102741-102743.

27 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p13.

28 DAS I, KHAN N, SOORANA S, 1995
Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basic for therapeutic application. J Med Res Opin 5(13):257-263.

29 KABELIK J, 1970
Antimicrobial properties of garlic. Pharmazie 25(4):266-270.

30 ADETUMBI M, JAVOR G, LAN B, 1986
Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother30(3):499-501.

31 TSAI Y, COLE LL, DAVIS LE, LOCKWOOD SJ, SIMMONS V, WILD GC, 1985
Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects onInfluenza b, Herpes simplex and Coxsackie viruses. Planta Med 51(5):460-461.

32 SHARMA V, SETHI M, KUMAR A, RAROTRA JR, 1977
Antibacterial property of Allium sativum in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol15:466.

33 FROMTLING R, BULMER G, 1978
In vitro effect of aqueous extract of garlic on the growth and viability of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycology 70:397-400.

34 GRAHAM H, GRAHAM E, 1987
Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth andtoxin productionby garlic. Journal Food Safety 8:101-108.

35 MOLINA NM, 1992
Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Allium sativum. Evaluación preclínica, farmacológica y toxicológica (Tesis de graduación). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba. p287.

36 EL-TANBOULY ND, ABDEL-MEGID RM, 1994
HPLC determination of allicin in garlic and garlic products and their antimicrobial activity. Zagazig J Pharm Sci 3(3A):120-124.

37 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

38 KIUCHI ,F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintics, traditional medicines, and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279.

39 CHOWDHURY A, AHSAN M, ISLAM SK, AHMED ZU, 1991
Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic and allicin in experimental shiguellosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res93(1):33-36.

40 STANDEN O, 1953
Experimental chemotherapy of oxyuriasis. Brit Med JII:757-758.

41 TAKASUGI N, KOTOO K, FUWA T, SAITO H, 1984
Effect of garlic on mice exposed to various stresses. Oyo Yakuri Pharmacolo 28(6):991-1002.

42 PRASAD DN, BHATTACHARYA SK, DAS PK, 1966
A study of antinflammatory activity of some indigenous drugs in albino rats. Indian J Med Res 54:582.

43 BHAKUNI D, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, 1971
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part III. Indian J Exp Biol 9:91.

44 AUGUSTI K, MATHEW P, 1973
Effect on long-term feeding of the aqueous extracts of onion and garlic on normal rats. Ind J Exper Biol11(3):239-240.

45 HIKINO H, TOHKIN M, KISO Y, NAMIKI T, NISHIMURA S, TAKEYAMA K, 1986
Antihepatotoxic actions of Allium sativum bulbs. Planta Med 52(3):163-168.

46 SHARAF A, 1969
Food plant as a possible factor in fertility control. Qual Plant MaterVeg17:153.

47 PRASAD G, SHARMA V, KUMAR A, 1982
Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum L.) therapy against experimental dematophytosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res75:465-467.

48 TUTAKNE M, BHARDWAJ J, SATYANARAYANAN G, SETHI Y, 1983
Sporotrichosis treated with garlic juice. Indian J Dermatology 28:40-47.

49 DELAHA E, GARAGUSI V, 1985
Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum ). Antimicrob Agents Chemother27(4):485-486.

50 PETKOV V, 1966
Pharmacological and clinical study of garlic. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 106(51):1861-1867.

51 FOUSHEE D, RUFFIN J, BANERJEE U, 1982
Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: a preliminary report. Cytobios34(135-136):145-152.

52 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de Matière Médicale, Tome II, 2è éd. révisée. Paris, France: Ed. Masson. p61-62.

53 RIBEIRO R, BARROS F, MARGARIDA M, MELO R, MUNIZ C, CHIEIA S, WANDERLEY M, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1988.
Acute diuretic effects in conscious rats produced by some medicinal plants used in the state of Sao Paulo, Brasil. J Ethnopharmacol 24(1):19-29.

54 SPADA C, HOSHIKAWA-FUJIMURA AY, 2001
Perspectivas do emprego do Allium sativum (alho) em estudos epidemiológicos da patologia cardiovascular (conferencia). Caxambu, Brazil: Congresso da VII Reunião Anual da Federação de Sociedades de Biologia Experimental.

55 CHUTANI SK, BORDIA A, 1981
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Therosclerosis 38:417-421.

56 DAMRAU F, FERGUSON E, 1949
The modus vivendi of carminative. The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rev Med J2:757-758.

57 YU WC, BLOT WJ, CHANG YS, ERSHOW A, ZT YANG, AN Q, FRAUMENI JR JF, WANG TG, 1989
Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 81(2):162-164.

58 FERNANDEZ EJ, 1995
Efecto de dos formulaciones hidroalcohólicas de Allium sativum en el tratamiento de pacientes con dermatofitosis (Tesis de especialidad en farmacología). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

59 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. ISIS S.R.L. p208.

60 DURAFFOURD C, D'HERVICOURT L, LAPRAZ JC, 1994
Cahiers de phytothérapie clinique. Paris, France: Revue de la Societé Française de Phytothérapie et Aromathérapie.

61 CHAUHAN L, GARG J, BEDI H, GUPT R, BOMB B, AGARWAL M, 1982
Effect of onion, garlic and clofibrate on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of blood in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Med J 76(10):126-127.

62 KANEZAWA A, NAKAGAWA S, SUMIYOSHI H, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, DATE S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, FUWA T, 1984
General toxicity tests of garlic extract preparation contained vitamins (Kyoleopin). Pharmacometrics 27(5):909-929.

63 SUMIYOSHI H, KANEZAWA A, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, NAKAGAWA S, 1984
Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats. J Toxicol Sci 9:61-75.

64 AL-BEKAIRI AM, SHAH AH, QURESHI S, 1990
Effect ofAllium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 29(2):117-125.

65 HUH K, PARK JM, LEE S-IL, 1985
Effect of garlic on the therapeutic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat. Arch Pharm Res 8(4):197-203.

66 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961
Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

67 BOJS G, SVENSSON A, 1988
Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Derm18(3):179-181.

68 PAPAGEORGION C, CORBET JP, BRANDAO FM, PECEGUEIRO M, BENEZIA C, 1983.
Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic (Allium sativum) identification of the allergens the role of mono-di and trisulfides present in Garlic. A comparative study in man and animal. Arch Dermatol Res 275(4):229-234.

69 CAPORASO N, SMITH S, ENG R, 1983
Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestions of garlic. Antimicob Agents Chemother23(5):700-702.

70 SITPRIJA S, PLENGVIDHYA C, KANGKAYA V, BHUVAPANICH S, TUNKAYOON M, 1987.
Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase III clinical trial. J Med Assoc 70(2):223-227.

71 WHO, 2004
Allium sativum. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Bulbis Alii Sativi. Ginebra, Suiza, Oct.28,2004. URL: http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/monograph_volum...

72 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

73 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de bulbo de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

74 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

75 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique

Lycopersicon esculentum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : tomate
  • Guatemala : tomate
  • Haiti : tomat

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  green fruit, mashed (or juice), applied locally 1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for candidiasis (thrush) in mouth, toothache and burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Traditional use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The leaf should be properly washed and cleaned, and its external indumentum (the covering of hairs on the leaf) should be removed, as it may cause dermatomucosal irritation and reactions of hypersensitivity.

The ripe fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum is widely used for human consumption.

For candidiasis in the mouth and toothache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For burns:

Wash injury with cooled boiled water and soap, apply 8-10 grams of leaf, previously washed, on the affected area.  Cover the injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace every 12 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA PJ, (Eds.), 1996 Biologically active natural products. Annual proceedings of the phytochemical society of Europe. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

6 SCHREIBER K, AURICH O, 1966 Isolation of several alkaloids and 3-beta-hydroxy-5-alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one from Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill. Phytochemistry 5:707-712.

7 YAHARA S, UDA N, NOHARA T, 1996 Lycoperosides A-C, three stereoisomeric 23-acetoxyspirosolan-3-beta-ol beta-lycotetraosides from Lycopersicon esculentum. Phytochemistry 42(1):169-172.

8 RESCHKE A, HERRMANN K, 1982 Occurrence of 1-o-hydroxycinnamyl-beta-d-glucoses in vegetables I. Phenolic acid compounds of vegetables. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 174(1):5-8.

9 VERHOEFF K, LIEM JI, 1975 Toxicity of tomatine to Botrytis cinerea in relation to latency. Phytopathol Z 82:333-338.

10 WILLAMAN J, SCHUBERT B, 1961 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. Washington, USA: Tech. Bull. 1234, U.S. Dep. of Agric.

11 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel & Stuttgart: Birkhauser Verlag.

12 FLEURIET A, MACHEIT J, 1981 Quinyl esters and glucose derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids during growth and ripening of tomato fruit. Phytochemistry 20(4):667-671.

13 CAVALIN G, 1983 Tomate et tomatine (Thèse Doctorat Pharmacie). Toulouse, France.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p102.

15 GASPERI-CAMPANI A, BARBIERI L, BATTELLI M, STIRPE F, 1985 On the distribution of ribosome-inactivating proteins amongst plants. J Nat Prod 48(3):446-454.

16 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

17 SHINOHARA K, KUROKI S, MIWA M, KONG ZL, HOSODA H, 1988 Antimutagenicity of dialyzates of vegetables and fruits. Agr Biol Chem 52(6):1369-1375.

18 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS J, 1978 Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35:1219-1220.

19 SINGH J, DUBEY A, TRIPATHI N, 1994 Antifungal activity of Mentha spicata. Int J Pharmacog 32(4):314-319.

20 SINGH K, PATHAK R, 1984 Effect of leaves extracts of some higher plants on spore germination of Ustilago maydes and U. nuda. Fitoterapia 55(5):318-320.

21 KUBAS J, 1972 Investigations on known or potential antitumoral plants by means of microbiological tests. Part III. Biological activity of some cultivated plant species in Neurospora crassa test. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 15:87-100.

22 CELAYETA F, 1960 Action of the tissues of various plants on the growth of Sphacelia segetum. Farmacognosia (Madrid) 20:91-101.

23 ANON, 1987 Pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions containing tomato plant extracts for the treatment of skin diseases. Patent-Israëli 78,820.

24 DUFFEY S, ISMAN M, 1981 Inhibition of insect larval growth by phenolics in glandular trichomes of tomato leaves. Experientia 37(6):574-576.

25 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

26 ASWAL B, BHAKUNI D, GOEL A, KAR K, MAHROTRA B, MUKHERJEE K, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

27 DUKE JA, 1988 Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

28 CONTRERAS A, ZOLLA C, 1982 Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

Petiveria alliacea


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : anamú
  • Dominica : koujourouk
  • Dominican Republic : anamú
  • Guatemala : apacín
  • Honduras : ipacina
  • Haiti : ave
  • Panama : anamú

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, macerated, mouth wash2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for digestive conditions (stomach pain, bad or slow digestion and intestinal gas) toothache, muscle pain, skin diseases, rheumatism and common cold is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for headache, flatulence, flu and nasal congestion (sinusitis) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)11 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Considering the risks of documented interactions with insulin or oral hypoglycemiants, the decoction of the leaf and stem should not be ingested by patients taking or using these medicines due to the risk of magnifying their effects.

The root and the stem can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 12 years old.

Not for use during pregnancy because it may be abortifacient.

For digestive conditions and common cold:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter of water (4 cups). Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, allow to cool and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For rheumatism:

Prepare a decoction with 30 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf and root in 1 liter of water (4 cups) for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 2-3 cups a day37.

For nasal congestion (sinusitis):

Prepare a fine powder of the root and stem from dried and sieved material, inhale 0.2 to 0.5 grams through each nostril, 2 times a day38.

For headache, toothache, muscle pain, flatulence, flu and skin diseases:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 Castillo D, Rodriguez S, de los Santos C, Belen A, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (región Este). Dep. de Botánica, Jardín Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 LAGOS-WITTE S, Tinoco R, Merlo V, 1996 Encuesta complementaria TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

7 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

8 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995 Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

9 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

10 Castillo D, Rodriguez S, de los Santos C, Belen A, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Zambrana, Cotuí). Dep. de Botánica, Jardin Botánico Nacional, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

11 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

12 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

13 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

14 SEGELMAN F, SEGELMAN A, 1975 Constituents of Petiveria alliacea. Lloydia 38(6):537.

15 DE SOUSA JR, DEMUNER AJ, PINHEIRO JA, BREITMAIER E, CASSELS BK, 1990 Dibenzyl trisulphide and trans-N-methyl-4-methoxyproline fromPetiveria alliacea. Phytochemistry 29(11):3653-3655.

16 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de la acción analgésica de la Petiveria alliacea (anamu) en ratones. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(1):16-18.

17 DEL CARMEN RIVAS C, JIMENEZ M, AYALA L, CARILLO C, CABRERA Y, 1988 Actividad anti-inflamatoria y analgésica dePetiveria alliaceae. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de Medicamentos (CIDEM), La Habana, Cuba.

18 FURONES JA, MORON F, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de actividad antiinflamatoria del extracto acuoso liofilizado de Petiveria alliacea (anamú) en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):34-37.

19 Martinez MJ, Betancourt J, Lopez M, MorejOn Z, Fuentes V, MORON F, PINEDO Z, Boucourt E, 2001 Actividad antimicrobiana y sobre varias preparaciones de músculo liso, in vitro, de la decocción liofilizada de hoja de Petiveria alliacea.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

20 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1995 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

21 ECHEVARRIA A, TORRES D, 2001 Efecto de un extracto de Petiveria alliacea Lin sobre el crecimiento de Giardia lamblia in vitro. Rev Cubana Med Mil 30(3):161-165.

22 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharm20(3):223-237.

23 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for the antimicotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharm 31(3):263-276.

24 SAUVAIN M, 1989 Etude de plantes antiparasitaires du plateau des Guyanes en Amazonie: antipaludiques et antileishmaniens (Thèse de Doctorat). Université Paris-Sud, Paris, France.

25 RUFFA MJ, PERUSINA M, ALFONSO V, WAGNER ML, SURIANO M, VICENTE C, CAMPOS R, CAVALLARO L, 2002 Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine viral diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 48(3):144-147.

26 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharm 33(3):277-283.

27 LORES RI, PUJOL MC, 1990 Petiveria alliacea L. (anamu). Study of the hypoglycemic effect. Med Interne 28(4):347-352.

28 GERMANO DH, CALDEIRA TT, MAZELLA AA, SERTIE JA, BACCHI EM, 1993 Topical anti-inflammatory activity and toxicity of Petiveria alliacea. Fitoterapia 64(5):459-467.

29 FERRAZ MB, PEREIRA RB, IWATA NM, ATRA E, 1991 Tipi. A popular analgesic tea. A double blind cross-over trial in osteoarthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 9(2):205-206.

30 LIMA TCM, MORATO GS, TAKAHASHI RN, 1991 Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86(suppl.2):153-158.

31 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1996 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2001 Toxicidad aguda (DL50) oral de la decocción de hojas jóvenes frescas de Petiveria alliaceaL.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

33 GUERRA MO, OLIVEIRA AB, MAIA JGS, PETERS VM, 1989 Alteraçäo do desenvolvimento embrionário de ratos após tratamento com extratos aquosos de diferentes orgäos de Petiveria alliacea. Bol Centro Biol Reprod 8:17-22.

34 GERMANO DHP, SERTIE JAA, BACCHI EM, 1995 Pharmacological assay of Petiveria alliacea. II. Oral anti-inflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a hydroalcoholic root extract. Fitoterapia 66(3):195-202.

35 REYNOLDS J Ed., 1996 Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. Evaluated information on the world’s drugs and medicines. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1678.

36 BUDAVARI S Ed., 2001 The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p181.

37 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina tradicional herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p298.

38 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

39 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001 Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratones de decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliacea L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

40 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V. 2001 Genotoxicidad in vivo: ensayo de micronúcleos en médula ósea de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca de Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

41 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001 Genotoxicidad in vitro: mediante el sistema de ensayo con Aspergillus nidulans de decocción liofilizada de hoja fresca Petiveria alliacea L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUERRA MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2001 Toxicidad aguda (DL50) intraperitoneal de la decocción liofilizada de hojas frescas de Petiveria alliaceaL.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

43 CACERES A, LOPEZ B, GONZALEZ S, BERGER I, TADA I, MAKI J, 1998 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. J of Ethnopharmacology 62(3):195-202.

Pimenta racemosa


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : bay run, berrón
  • Dominica : bay-run
  • Dominica : bwaden

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf crushed, applied locally, jointly with Allium sativum and Syzygium aromaticum1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for toothache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The use of this resource for toothache can be considered complementary to dental treatment.

Use for rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Contact with handling leaf can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Pimenta racemosa is an industrial source essential oil.

For toothache:

Wash leaf and crush it together with an unopened and dried floral bud of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and a clove of Allium sativum (garlic).  Apply 5-10 grams of preparation on affected tooth 2-3 times a day17.

For rheumatism:

Wash and crush leaf. Separate 30 grams of vegetal matter and rub it for 2 to 5 minutes on affected area of skin 2 times a day17.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

4 BOURGEOIS P, 1986 Rapport concernant Pimenta racemosa (Myrtacées). Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, UAG, Guadeloupe.

5 FURIA T, BELLANCA N, 1971 Fenaroli's handbook of flavour ingredients. Cleveland, USA: The Chemical Rubber Co.

6 LEUNG AY, FOSTER S, 1980 Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics. New York, USA: Wiley Interscience.

7 CHAUMONT J, BARDEY I, 1989 In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils. Fitoterapia 60(3):263-266.

8 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

9 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey), 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

10 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

11 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras. Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC Laboratorio de produtos naturais.

12 MAC GREGOR JT, LAYTON LL, BUTTERY RG, 1974 California bay oil. II. Biological effects of constituents. J Agric Food Chem 22(5):777-780.

13 UNGSURUNGSIE M, SUTHIENKUL O, PAOVALO C, 1982 Mutagenicity screening of popular Thai spices. Food Chem Toxicol 20(5):527-530.

14 HERRERA J, 1988 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe tramil. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

15 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001 The Merck Index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. Whitehouse Station, USA: Merck & Co., Inc. p690.

16 REYNOLDS J (Ed.), 1996 Martindale: The extra pharmacopoeia. 31st ed. London, England: The Royal Pharmaceutical Society. p1705.

17 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : castor oil
  • Dominica : cawapat
  • Dominican Republic : higuera
  • Guadeloupe : carapate
  • Marie-Galante Island : karapat blanc
  • Guadeloupe : karapat
  • Haiti : maskèti
  • Saint Lucia : cawapat
  • Martinique : ricin
  • Martinique : palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction, mouthwash and applied locally4

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Syzygium aromaticum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : clavo dulce, clavo de olor

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

flower bud, mashed, in mouth washes, chewed1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for toothache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should toothache persist for more than 2 days, seek a dentist’s attention.

The clove of Syzygium aromaticum is widely used for human consumption.

For toothache:

It is locally applied and chewed.  The dose should be 1 to 3 cloves (120-300 mg) -the usual ration as food12—no more than 3 times a day.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 ZHENG G, KENNEY P, LAM L, 1992 Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod 55(7):999-1003.

3 NEWALL C, ANDERSON L, PHILLIPSON J, 1996 Herbal medicines: A guide for health-care professionals. Syzygium aromaticum. London, Great Britain. Pharmaceutical Press, p79.

4 NOMAKA GI, HARADA M, NISHIOKA I, 1980 Eugeniin, a new ellagitannin from the cloves. Chem Pharm Bull 28:685-687.

5 LIU JY, WANG GH, LI RQ, SHAO ZK, ZAO JY, 1989 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid fromEugenia caryophyllata leaves as antiinflammatory agents. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1,030,184.

6 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p367.

7 NES F, SKJELKVALE R, OLSVIK O, BERDAL BP, 1984 The effect of natural spices and oleoresins on Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. 12th Int. IUMS-ICFMH Sym, Norway, Microb. Assoc. Interact. Food, 435-440.

8 NAMBA T, TSUNEZUKA M, BAE KH, HATTORI M, 1981 Studies of dental caries prevention by traditional Chinese medicines (Part I). Screening of crude drugs for antibacterial action against Streptococcus mutans. Shoyagaku Zasshi 35(4):295-302.

9 GIRON LM, AGUILAR GA, CACERES A, ARROYO GL, 1988 Anticandidal activity of plants used for the treatment of vaginitis in Guatemala and clinical trial of a Solanum nigrescens preparation. J Ethnopharmacol 22(3):307-313.

10 SHUKIA B, KHANNA NK, GODHWANI JL, 1987 Effect of Brahmi Rasayan on the central nervous system. J Ethnopharmacol 21(1):65-74.

11 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag, 1 & 2.

12 Reynolds JEF, 1993 Martindale the extra pharmacopoeia, 30th ed. London, Great Britain: The Pharmaceutical Press.

13 KUMARI M, 1991 Modulatory influences of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus, L.) on hepatic detoxification systems and bone marrow genotoxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Cancer Lett 60(1):67-73.

14 SANCHEZ-PALOMERA E, 1951 Concept of the mucous barrier and its significance. II. Changes in the gastric mucosa produced by the local actions of spices and other irritative agents. Gastroenterology 18:269-286.

15 OHSUMI T, KUROKI K, KIMURA T, MURAKAMI Y, 1984 Study on acute toxicities of essential oils used in endodontic treatment. J. Kyushu Dental Soc. 38(6):1064-1071.

16 LANE BW, ELLENHORN MJ, HULBERT TV, McCARRON M, 1991 Clove oil ingestion in an infant. Human Exp Toxicol 10(4):291-294.

17 SEETHARAM VA, PASRICHA JS, 1987 Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(5):325-328.

18 Code of Federal Regulations, 2002 Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb.24,2003, URL: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CF...

Syzygium aromaticum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : clavo dulce, clavo de olor

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

flower bud*, mashed, applied locally1*Flower buds or "sweet cloves" are imported in the Dominican Republic.

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for toothache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should toothache persist for more than 2 days, seek a dentist’s attention.

The clove of Syzygium aromaticum is widely used for human consumption.

For toothache:

It is locally applied and chewed.  The dose should be 1 to 3 cloves (120-300 mg) -the usual ration as food12—no more than 3 times a day.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 ZHENG G, KENNEY P, LAM L, 1992 Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod 55(7):999-1003.

3 NEWALL C, ANDERSON L, PHILLIPSON J, 1996 Herbal medicines: A guide for health-care professionals. Syzygium aromaticum. London, Great Britain. Pharmaceutical Press, p79.

4 NOMAKA GI, HARADA M, NISHIOKA I, 1980 Eugeniin, a new ellagitannin from the cloves. Chem Pharm Bull 28:685-687.

5 LIU JY, WANG GH, LI RQ, SHAO ZK, ZAO JY, 1989 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid fromEugenia caryophyllata leaves as antiinflammatory agents. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1,030,184.

6 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p367.

7 NES F, SKJELKVALE R, OLSVIK O, BERDAL BP, 1984 The effect of natural spices and oleoresins on Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. 12th Int. IUMS-ICFMH Sym, Norway, Microb. Assoc. Interact. Food, 435-440.

8 NAMBA T, TSUNEZUKA M, BAE KH, HATTORI M, 1981 Studies of dental caries prevention by traditional Chinese medicines (Part I). Screening of crude drugs for antibacterial action against Streptococcus mutans. Shoyagaku Zasshi 35(4):295-302.

9 GIRON LM, AGUILAR GA, CACERES A, ARROYO GL, 1988 Anticandidal activity of plants used for the treatment of vaginitis in Guatemala and clinical trial of a Solanum nigrescens preparation. J Ethnopharmacol 22(3):307-313.

10 SHUKIA B, KHANNA NK, GODHWANI JL, 1987 Effect of Brahmi Rasayan on the central nervous system. J Ethnopharmacol 21(1):65-74.

11 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag, 1 & 2.

12 Reynolds JEF, 1993 Martindale the extra pharmacopoeia, 30th ed. London, Great Britain: The Pharmaceutical Press.

13 KUMARI M, 1991 Modulatory influences of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus, L.) on hepatic detoxification systems and bone marrow genotoxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Cancer Lett 60(1):67-73.

14 SANCHEZ-PALOMERA E, 1951 Concept of the mucous barrier and its significance. II. Changes in the gastric mucosa produced by the local actions of spices and other irritative agents. Gastroenterology 18:269-286.

15 OHSUMI T, KUROKI K, KIMURA T, MURAKAMI Y, 1984 Study on acute toxicities of essential oils used in endodontic treatment. J. Kyushu Dental Soc. 38(6):1064-1071.

16 LANE BW, ELLENHORN MJ, HULBERT TV, McCARRON M, 1991 Clove oil ingestion in an infant. Human Exp Toxicol 10(4):291-294.

17 SEETHARAM VA, PASRICHA JS, 1987 Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(5):325-328.

18 Code of Federal Regulations, 2002 Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb.24,2003, URL: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CF...

Syzygium aromaticum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : clavo dulce, clavo de olor

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

flower bud, applied locally, frequently used jointly with garlic1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for toothache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should toothache persist for more than 2 days, seek a dentist’s attention.

The clove of Syzygium aromaticum is widely used for human consumption.

For toothache:

It is locally applied and chewed.  The dose should be 1 to 3 cloves (120-300 mg) -the usual ration as food12—no more than 3 times a day.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 ZHENG G, KENNEY P, LAM L, 1992 Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod 55(7):999-1003.

3 NEWALL C, ANDERSON L, PHILLIPSON J, 1996 Herbal medicines: A guide for health-care professionals. Syzygium aromaticum. London, Great Britain. Pharmaceutical Press, p79.

4 NOMAKA GI, HARADA M, NISHIOKA I, 1980 Eugeniin, a new ellagitannin from the cloves. Chem Pharm Bull 28:685-687.

5 LIU JY, WANG GH, LI RQ, SHAO ZK, ZAO JY, 1989 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid fromEugenia caryophyllata leaves as antiinflammatory agents. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1,030,184.

6 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p367.

7 NES F, SKJELKVALE R, OLSVIK O, BERDAL BP, 1984 The effect of natural spices and oleoresins on Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. 12th Int. IUMS-ICFMH Sym, Norway, Microb. Assoc. Interact. Food, 435-440.

8 NAMBA T, TSUNEZUKA M, BAE KH, HATTORI M, 1981 Studies of dental caries prevention by traditional Chinese medicines (Part I). Screening of crude drugs for antibacterial action against Streptococcus mutans. Shoyagaku Zasshi 35(4):295-302.

9 GIRON LM, AGUILAR GA, CACERES A, ARROYO GL, 1988 Anticandidal activity of plants used for the treatment of vaginitis in Guatemala and clinical trial of a Solanum nigrescens preparation. J Ethnopharmacol 22(3):307-313.

10 SHUKIA B, KHANNA NK, GODHWANI JL, 1987 Effect of Brahmi Rasayan on the central nervous system. J Ethnopharmacol 21(1):65-74.

11 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag, 1 & 2.

12 Reynolds JEF, 1993 Martindale the extra pharmacopoeia, 30th ed. London, Great Britain: The Pharmaceutical Press.

13 KUMARI M, 1991 Modulatory influences of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus, L.) on hepatic detoxification systems and bone marrow genotoxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Cancer Lett 60(1):67-73.

14 SANCHEZ-PALOMERA E, 1951 Concept of the mucous barrier and its significance. II. Changes in the gastric mucosa produced by the local actions of spices and other irritative agents. Gastroenterology 18:269-286.

15 OHSUMI T, KUROKI K, KIMURA T, MURAKAMI Y, 1984 Study on acute toxicities of essential oils used in endodontic treatment. J. Kyushu Dental Soc. 38(6):1064-1071.

16 LANE BW, ELLENHORN MJ, HULBERT TV, McCARRON M, 1991 Clove oil ingestion in an infant. Human Exp Toxicol 10(4):291-294.

17 SEETHARAM VA, PASRICHA JS, 1987 Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(5):325-328.

18 Code of Federal Regulations, 2002 Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb.24,2003, URL: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CF...