intestinal parasites

Allium sativum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: garlic
 Dominican Republic: ajo
 Guatemala: ajo
 Haiti: lay
 Saint Lucia: lay
 Martinique: ail , lay

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bulb, decoction, taken orally4,74

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

Use for “bad blood” is a traditional cultural use of our communities and is not classified in the TRAMIL Program.

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence, and intestinal parasites is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and published scientific information.

Use for toothaches, earaches, and fever is classified as REC, based on significant traditional uses (OMS/WHO)7 documented by TRAMIL surveys.

The bulb can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum.  If the patient’s condition worsens or if the earache persists for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Contraindicated for use in hyperthyroidism8. The extracts from garlic interact with anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatments.

The bulb of Allium sativum is widely used for human consumption.

The garlic bulb for medicinal purposes should be taken together with meals, so as to prevent gastro-intestinal problems71.

For fever, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence and intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 2 to 5 grams of fresh garlic71 (1 to 2.5 cloves) or 2 to 4 grams of dried garlic71 in 1 cup of water (250 mL), boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For other forms of administration of garlic bulb, the daily consumption doses recommended by OMS71 are: for oil: 2 to 5 mg; for extracts, 300 to 1000 mg (as solid material).  Other type of pharmaceutical preparations should meet alliine values of 4-12 mg or allicine values of 2-5 mg71.

For treatment of skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, toothache, and earache:

2 to 5 g (1 to 2.5 cloves) of peeled fresh garlic; wash thoroughly and crush, then apply to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

6 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

7 WHO, 1991
Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 ARTECHI A (Ed.), 1998
Fitoterapia Vademécum de prescripción Plantas Medicinales. Barcelona, España: Masson. p63.

9 SENDL A, ELBL G, STEINKE B, REDL K, BREU W, WAGNER H, 1992
Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 58:11-17.

10 CALVEY EM, ROACH JAG, BLOCK E, 1994
Supercritical fluid chromatography of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts with mass spectrometric identification of allicin. J Chromatogr Sci 32:393-396.

11 BLOCK E, AHMAD S, CATALFAMO JL, JAIN MK, APITZ-CASTRO R, 1986
Antithrombotic organosulfur compounds from garlic: structural, mechanistic, and synthetic studies. J Amer Chem Soc 108:227045-227055.

12 MOCHIZUKI E, YAMAMOTO T, KOMIYAMA Y, NAKAZAWA H, 1998
Identification of Allium products using flame photometric detection gas chromatography and distribution patterns of volatile sulfur compounds. J Agr Food Chem 46:125170-125176.

13 UEDA Y, SAKAGUCHI M, HIRAYAMA K, MIYAJIMA R, KIMIZUKA A, 1990
Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agr Biol Chem 54:1163-1169.

14 KOCH HP, JAGER W, 1989
Garlic allicin release from fresh and dried garlic and products thereof. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 129:6273-6276.

15 LAWSON LD, WANG ZYJ, HUGHES BG, 1991
Identification and hplc quantitation of the sulfides and dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates in commercial garlic products. Planta Med 57:363-370.

16 OHSUMI C, HAYASHI T, KUBOTA K, KOBAYASHI A, 1993
Volatile flavor compounds formed in an interspecific hybrid between onion and garlic. J Agr Food Chem 41:101808-101810.

17 LAWSON LD, WOOD SG, HUGHES BG, 1991
hplc analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med 57:3263-3270.

18 MUTSCH-ECKNER M, ERDELMEIER CAJ, STICHER O, REUTER HD, 1993
A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum. J Nat Prod 56:6864-6869.

19 INAGAKI M, HARADA Y, YAMADA K, ISOBE R, HIGUCHI R, MATSUURA H, ITAKURA Y, 1998
Isolation and structure determination of cerebrosides from garlic, the bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 46:71153-71156.

20 AL-NAGDY SA, ABDEL-RAHMAN MO, HEIBA HI, 1988
Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 2:4196-4197.

21 ROLLERI F, 1943
Occurrence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in curative plants. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 281:118.

22 RAKHIMBAEV IR, OL'SHANSKAYA RV, 1981
Preliminary identification of natural gibberellins of garlic. Izv Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr Ser Biol 1981:217-222.

23 KOCH HP, JAGER W, GROH U, HOVIE JE, PLANK G, SEDLAK U, PRAZNIK W, 1993
Carbohydrates from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) As inhibitors of adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Phytother Res 7(5):387-389.

24 BAUMGARTNER S, DAX TG, PRAZNIK W, FALK H, 2000
Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Carbohydr Res 328:2177-2183.

25 PENG JP, CHEN H, QIAO YQ, MA LR, NARUI T, SUZUKI H, OKUYAMA T, KOBAYASHI H, 1996
Two new steroidal saponins from Allium sativum and their inhibitory effects on blood coagulability. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31:8607-8612.

26 MATSUURA H, USHIROGUCHI T, ITAKURA Y, FUWA T, 1989
Further studies on steroidal glycosides from bulbs, roots and leaves of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 37:102741-102743.

27 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p13.

28 DAS I, KHAN N, SOORANA S, 1995
Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basic for therapeutic application. J Med Res Opin 5(13):257-263.

29 KABELIK J, 1970
Antimicrobial properties of garlic. Pharmazie 25(4):266-270.

30 ADETUMBI M, JAVOR G, LAN B, 1986
Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother30(3):499-501.

31 TSAI Y, COLE LL, DAVIS LE, LOCKWOOD SJ, SIMMONS V, WILD GC, 1985
Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects onInfluenza b, Herpes simplex and Coxsackie viruses. Planta Med 51(5):460-461.

32 SHARMA V, SETHI M, KUMAR A, RAROTRA JR, 1977
Antibacterial property of Allium sativum in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol15:466.

33 FROMTLING R, BULMER G, 1978
In vitro effect of aqueous extract of garlic on the growth and viability of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycology 70:397-400.

34 GRAHAM H, GRAHAM E, 1987
Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth andtoxin productionby garlic. Journal Food Safety 8:101-108.

35 MOLINA NM, 1992
Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Allium sativum. Evaluación preclínica, farmacológica y toxicológica (Tesis de graduación). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba. p287.

36 EL-TANBOULY ND, ABDEL-MEGID RM, 1994
HPLC determination of allicin in garlic and garlic products and their antimicrobial activity. Zagazig J Pharm Sci 3(3A):120-124.

37 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

38 KIUCHI ,F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintics, traditional medicines, and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279.

39 CHOWDHURY A, AHSAN M, ISLAM SK, AHMED ZU, 1991
Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic and allicin in experimental shiguellosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res93(1):33-36.

40 STANDEN O, 1953
Experimental chemotherapy of oxyuriasis. Brit Med JII:757-758.

41 TAKASUGI N, KOTOO K, FUWA T, SAITO H, 1984
Effect of garlic on mice exposed to various stresses. Oyo Yakuri Pharmacolo 28(6):991-1002.

42 PRASAD DN, BHATTACHARYA SK, DAS PK, 1966
A study of antinflammatory activity of some indigenous drugs in albino rats. Indian J Med Res 54:582.

43 BHAKUNI D, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, 1971
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part III. Indian J Exp Biol 9:91.

44 AUGUSTI K, MATHEW P, 1973
Effect on long-term feeding of the aqueous extracts of onion and garlic on normal rats. Ind J Exper Biol11(3):239-240.

45 HIKINO H, TOHKIN M, KISO Y, NAMIKI T, NISHIMURA S, TAKEYAMA K, 1986
Antihepatotoxic actions of Allium sativum bulbs. Planta Med 52(3):163-168.

46 SHARAF A, 1969
Food plant as a possible factor in fertility control. Qual Plant MaterVeg17:153.

47 PRASAD G, SHARMA V, KUMAR A, 1982
Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum L.) therapy against experimental dematophytosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res75:465-467.

48 TUTAKNE M, BHARDWAJ J, SATYANARAYANAN G, SETHI Y, 1983
Sporotrichosis treated with garlic juice. Indian J Dermatology 28:40-47.

49 DELAHA E, GARAGUSI V, 1985
Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum ). Antimicrob Agents Chemother27(4):485-486.

50 PETKOV V, 1966
Pharmacological and clinical study of garlic. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 106(51):1861-1867.

51 FOUSHEE D, RUFFIN J, BANERJEE U, 1982
Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: a preliminary report. Cytobios34(135-136):145-152.

52 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de Matière Médicale, Tome II, 2è éd. révisée. Paris, France: Ed. Masson. p61-62.

53 RIBEIRO R, BARROS F, MARGARIDA M, MELO R, MUNIZ C, CHIEIA S, WANDERLEY M, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1988.
Acute diuretic effects in conscious rats produced by some medicinal plants used in the state of Sao Paulo, Brasil. J Ethnopharmacol 24(1):19-29.

54 SPADA C, HOSHIKAWA-FUJIMURA AY, 2001
Perspectivas do emprego do Allium sativum (alho) em estudos epidemiológicos da patologia cardiovascular (conferencia). Caxambu, Brazil: Congresso da VII Reunião Anual da Federação de Sociedades de Biologia Experimental.

55 CHUTANI SK, BORDIA A, 1981
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Therosclerosis 38:417-421.

56 DAMRAU F, FERGUSON E, 1949
The modus vivendi of carminative. The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rev Med J2:757-758.

57 YU WC, BLOT WJ, CHANG YS, ERSHOW A, ZT YANG, AN Q, FRAUMENI JR JF, WANG TG, 1989
Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 81(2):162-164.

58 FERNANDEZ EJ, 1995
Efecto de dos formulaciones hidroalcohólicas de Allium sativum en el tratamiento de pacientes con dermatofitosis (Tesis de especialidad en farmacología). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

59 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. ISIS S.R.L. p208.

60 DURAFFOURD C, D'HERVICOURT L, LAPRAZ JC, 1994
Cahiers de phytothérapie clinique. Paris, France: Revue de la Societé Française de Phytothérapie et Aromathérapie.

61 CHAUHAN L, GARG J, BEDI H, GUPT R, BOMB B, AGARWAL M, 1982
Effect of onion, garlic and clofibrate on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of blood in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Med J 76(10):126-127.

62 KANEZAWA A, NAKAGAWA S, SUMIYOSHI H, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, DATE S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, FUWA T, 1984
General toxicity tests of garlic extract preparation contained vitamins (Kyoleopin). Pharmacometrics 27(5):909-929.

63 SUMIYOSHI H, KANEZAWA A, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, NAKAGAWA S, 1984
Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats. J Toxicol Sci 9:61-75.

64 AL-BEKAIRI AM, SHAH AH, QURESHI S, 1990
Effect ofAllium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 29(2):117-125.

65 HUH K, PARK JM, LEE S-IL, 1985
Effect of garlic on the therapeutic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat. Arch Pharm Res 8(4):197-203.

66 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961
Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

67 BOJS G, SVENSSON A, 1988
Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Derm18(3):179-181.

68 PAPAGEORGION C, CORBET JP, BRANDAO FM, PECEGUEIRO M, BENEZIA C, 1983.
Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic (Allium sativum) identification of the allergens the role of mono-di and trisulfides present in Garlic. A comparative study in man and animal. Arch Dermatol Res 275(4):229-234.

69 CAPORASO N, SMITH S, ENG R, 1983
Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestions of garlic. Antimicob Agents Chemother23(5):700-702.

70 SITPRIJA S, PLENGVIDHYA C, KANGKAYA V, BHUVAPANICH S, TUNKAYOON M, 1987.
Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase III clinical trial. J Med Assoc 70(2):223-227.

71 WHO, 2004
Allium sativum. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Bulbis Alii Sativi. Ginebra, Suiza, Oct.28,2004. URL: http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/monograph_volum...

72 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

73 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de bulbo de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

74 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

75 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique

Chenopodium ambrosioides


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Colombia: paico , yerba santa
 Dominica: wormweed
 Dominican Republic: apazote, epazote
 Guatemala: apazote , epazote
 Honduras: apazote , epazote
 Haiti: simen-kontra , feuilles à vers
 Martinique: simen-kontra , zèb avè , herbe à vers
 Nicaragua: apazote , epazote
 Panama: paico
 Venezuela: pazote

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

aerial parts, infusion or decoction, orally2,5-13,49-50,52

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites, is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In no case should the specified manner of preparation and dosage be altered.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, or more than 2 days in children over 5 years old, medical attention should be sought.

For diarrhea, this resource is considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites is recommended only when disorder is caused by ascaris, pinworms and hookworms; not for other types of diarrhoea, stomach pain or other intestinal parasites.

Use is contraindicated in individuals with hepatic disorders, renal insufficiency14, weakened individuals and the elderly.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, as it may be abortifacient, or during breast feeding or by children under 5 years old.

Use for skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and skin toxicity assays.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the skin ulcer last more than 5 days, medical attention should be sought for.

In topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For intestinal parasites, diarrhea and stomach pain caused by parasites:

prepare a decoction or infusion with 7 grams of aerial parts (leaf, flower, stem) in 300 mL (more than 1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 7 grams of aerial parts, cover and leave to cool down during 10 minutes.  Strain and drink 1 cup (250 mL) for adults, 1/2 cup (125 mL) for people weighing 35 kg, and 1/3 cup (80 mL) for children over 5 years.  Drink once a day only for 3 consecutive days46 and do not repeat treatment within six months.

Taking a saline laxative is recommended (e.g. magnesium sulfate) after the last intake; however, no oily purgatives should be taken14.

For skin ulcer:

Wash the injury with purified water and soap.  Wash the aerial plant parts properly, press or crush, and apply to affected area.  Cover with a clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 HERRERA J,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

6 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 SOTOMAYOR U, RUEDA R, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro nacional de la medicina popular tradicional CNMPT, Ministerio de Salud, Estelí, Nicaragua.

11 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Ngöbe-Buglé). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

14 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Quenopodio. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Barcelona, España, Editorial Masson. Nov.20,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

15 BOURGEOIS P, JOSEPH H, SAVARY H, 1989 Détermination d'huiles essentielles et dosage de l'ascaridole dans Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane UAG, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

16 TAKEMOTO T, NAKAJIMA T, 1957 Study of the essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides. V. On the structure of aritasone. Yakugaru Zasshi 77:1157-1158.

17 BAUER L, BRASIL E, SILVA GA, 1973 Essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Schinus terebenthifolia from Rio Grande do Sul. Rev Brasil Farm 54:240.

18 ARISAWA M, MINABE N, SAEKI R, TAKAKUWA T, NAKAOKI T, 1971 Studies on unutilized resources. V. The components of the flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants. Yagugaku Zasshi 91:522.

19 JAIN N, LAM MS, KAMIL M, ILYAS M, NIWA M, SAKAE A, 1990 Two flavonol glycosides fromChenopodium ambrosioides.Phytochemistry 29(12):3988-3991.

20 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p41.

21 CAMBAR P, 1988 Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

22 DESTA B, 1993 Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 39(2):129-139.

23SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, La Paz, Bolivia.

24 MISRA P, PAL N, GURU P, katiyar JC, TANDON JS, 1991 Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei. Int J Pharmacog29(1):19-23.

25 ROSS SA, EL-KELTAWI NE, MEGALLA SE, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia51:201-205.

26 BUTZ LN, LA LANDE JR, 1937 Antihelmintics II. A comparison of certain ozonides, Chenopodium oil and diheptanol peroxide. J Am Pharm Assoc 26:114.

27 BLISS AR, 1925 A pharmacodynamic study on the antihelmintic properties of two oils of Chenopodium. J Am Pharm Assoc14:93.

28 FERNAN-NUÑEZ M, 1927 A contribution of helmintic therapy. J Amer Med Assoc88:903.

29 KISHORE N, DUBEY NK, SINGH SK, DIXIT SN, 1981 Fungitoxicity of some volatile natural products against human pathogenic fungi. Indian Perf 25(3/4):1-3.

30 TENG X, 1980 Development of natural products as antimalarial agents. Proc US-China Pharmacology Symp:137-141.

31 KAPADIA GJ, CHUNG EB, GHOSH B, SHUKLA YN, BASAK SP, MORTON JF, PRADHAN SN, 1978 Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats. J Nat Cancer Inst60:683-686.

32 SALAN W, LIVINGSTONE AE, 1916 Experiments with oil of Chenopodium and cardiac stimulants on the isolated frog heart. Amer J Physiol 41:21.

33 SALAN W, LIVINGSTONE AE, 1915 Experiments with oil of Chenopodium on circulation and respiration. Amer J Physiol38:67.

34 SALAN W, MITCHELL C, 1915 Influence of oil of Chenopodium on intestinal contractility. Amer J Physiol39:37.

35 KLIKS MM, 1985 Studies on the traditional herbal antihelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. Soc Sci Med 21(8):879-886.

36 feroz h, khare ak, srivastava mc, 1982 Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants.J Sci Res Pl Med3:6-12.

37 GONZALEZ A, 1990 Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de plantas TRAMIL en conejos. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

38 OPDYKE DLJ, 1976 Monographs on fragance raw materials. Chenopodium oil. Food Chem Toxicol 14:713-715.

39 BHAKUNI OS, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

40 MOLE A, 1952 Acute fatal poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med (Naples) 35:955.

41 WOLF IJ, 1932 Fatal poisoning with oil of Chenopodium in a negro child with sickle-cell anemia. Arch Pediatr52:126.

42 CONTRERAS AA, ZOLLA C, 1982 Plantas tóxicas de México.México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

43 JELLIFFE DB, 1951 Oil of Chenopodium in the treatment of ascariasis. Report of 3 cases of fatal liver damage in African patients. J Trop Med Hyg54:143.

44 MELE A, 1952 Acute poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med35:955.

45 ANDRIEN J, PARMENTIER PD, COMPERE J, BOUNAMEAUX Y, 1971 Study on Chenopodium oil encephalitis. Three fatal cases. A Soc Belge Med Trop51:299.

46DELENS M, Ed., 2000 Cuaderno de Fitoterapia Clínica (Afecciones respiratorias y digestivas). Mérida, Venezuela: CONAPLAMED. p151.

47 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de hoja fresca de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

48 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria hoja fresca machacada de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

49 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

50 Zambrano LE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

51 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, partes aéreas de Chenopodium ambrosioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

52 LOPEZ DE GUIMARAES D, NEYRA LLANOS RS, ROMERO ACEVEDO JH, 2001 Ascariasis; comparación de la eficacia terapéutica entre paico y albendazol en niños de Huaraz. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 21(3):212-219.

53 MACDONALD D, VANCREY K, HARRISON P, RANGACHARI PK, ROSENFELD J, WARREN C, SORGER G, 2004 Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle. J Ethnopharmacol 92:215–221.

54 GADANOA AB, GURNI AA, CARBALLO MA, 2006 Argentine folk medicine: Genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 103:246–251.

55 BOULOGNE I, 2009          

Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

Citrus aurantium


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Cuba: naranja agria , naranja de babor
 Dominican Republic: naranja agria, naranja de babor
 Grenada: sour orange
 Haiti: zowanj gospo , zowanj si
 Martinique: zowanj anmè , oranger amer
 Puerto Rico: naranja de babor , naranja agria

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction, orally6

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

6 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

7 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986 The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

9 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992 Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

10 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991 Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium.Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

11 WIDMER WW, 1991 Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

12 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990 Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

13 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M,1990 Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

14 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

15 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975 Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

16 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

17 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983 The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

18 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

19 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000 Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

20 SANKAWA U, 1980 Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

21 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979 Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

22 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980 Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

23 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995 Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

24 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986 Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

25 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997 The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

26 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

27 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996 Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

28HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

29 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000 Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis.Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

30 SATO A, 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

31 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982 Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

32 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982 Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

33 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

36 GarcIa-GONZALEZ M, fallas LV, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

40 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Coffea arabica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: café
 Haiti: kafé

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  ripe leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for asthma and pneumonia, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma and pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for hepatitis, intestinal worms and vertigo is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice or vertigo last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Use for after anger and poor blood quality is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Not for use if gastritis, peptic ulcer and hyperthyroidism are present.

The roasted and ground seeds of Coffea arabica are widely used for human consumption.

For asthma:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 grams (2 hearts) of fresh leaf 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  Leave to cool down, filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 16 grams of roasted and ground seeds in 1.5 liter (6 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink one and a half cup 3 times a day.

To obtain beneficial effects on pneumonia and even bronchodilator effects, take one and a half cup of the traditional coffee preparation made with roasted and ground seed31.

For after anger, hepatitis, poor blood quality, intestinal parasites and vertigo:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4(original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 MIYAKE T, SHIBAMOTO T, 1993 Quantitative analysis of acetaldehyde in foods and beverages. J Agric Food Chem 41(11):1968-1970.

6 KASAI H, KUMENO K, AMAIZUMI Z, NISHIMURA S, NAGAO M, FUJITA Y, SUGIMURA T, NUKAYA H, KOSUGE T, 1982 Mutagenicity of methylglyoxal in coffee. Jpn J Cancer Res (GANN) 73:681-683.

7 NEURATH GB, DUNGER M, PEIN FG, AMBROSIUS D, SCHREIBER O, 1977 Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:275-282.

8 AMORIM HV, CORTEZ JG, 1973 Methods of organic analysis of coffee. II. Comparison of methods of caffeine determination in green coffee. An Esc Super Agr Luiz De Queiroz Univ Sao Paulo 30:281.

9 DEISINGER PJ, HILL TS, ENGLISH JC, 1996 Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone. J Toxicol Environ Health 47(1):31-46.

10 NISHINA A, KAJISHIMA F, MATSUNAGA M, TEZUKA H, INATOMI H, OSAWA T, 1994 Antimicrobial substance, 3',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone, in coffee residue. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2):293-296.

11 AESCHBACH R, KUSY A, MAIER HG, 1982 Diterpenes of coffee. I. Atractyligenin. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 175(5):337-341.

12 GROSS G, JACCAUD E, HUGGETT AC, 1997 Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol 35(6):547-554.

13 DUPLATRE A, TISSE C, ESTIENNE J, 1984 Identification of arabica and robusta [coffee] species by studying the sterol fraction. Ann Falsif Expert Chim Toxicol 77(828):259-270.

14 ANDRADE PB, LEITAO R, SEABRA RM, OLIVEIRA MB, FERREIRA MA, 1997 Development of an HPLC/diode-array detector method for simultaneous determination of seven hydroxy-cinnamic acids in green coffee. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 20(13):2023-2030.

15 SONDHEIMER E, 1958 On the distribution of caffeic acid and the chlorogenic acid isomers in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 74(1):131-138.

16 MEISSNER W, PODKOWINSKA H, WALKOWSKI A, 1974 Determination of chlorogenic acids in green coffee. Zesz Nauk Akad Ekon Poznaniu Ser 1(58):71.

17 OKUDA T, HATANO T, AGATA I, NISHIBE S, KIMURA K, 1986 Tannins in Artemisia montana, A.princeps and related species of plant. Yakugaku Zasshi 106(10):894-899.

18 HAGGAG MY, 1975 A study of the lipid content of Coffea arabica seeds. Pharmazie 30:409.

19 MAZAAFERA P, 1991 Trigonelline in coffee. Phytochemistry 30(7):2309-2310.

20 TSUJI S, SHIBATA T, OHARA K, OKADA N, ITO Y, 1991 Factors affecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide in coffee. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 32(6):504-512.

21 STOFFELSMA J, SIPMA G, KETTENES DK, PYPKER J, 1968 New volatile components of roasted coffee. J Agric Food Chem 16(6):1000.

22 SPIRO M, 1997 Coffee, tea and chemistry. Chem Rev 6(5):11-15.

23 KOENIG WA, RAHN W, VETTER R, 1980 Identify and quantify emetic active constituents in roast coffee. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 9:145-149.

24 HOFMANN E, SCHLEE D, REINBOTHE H, 1969 On the occurrence and distribution of allantoin in Boraginaceae. Flora Abt A Physiol Biochem (Jena) 159:510-518.

25 MOLINA MR, DE LA FUENTE G, BATTEN MA, BRESSANI R, 1974 Decaffeination. A process to detoxify coffee pulp. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1055.

26 KOLLING-SPEER I, SPEER K, 1997 Diterpenes in coffee leaves. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 17(15):1-154.

27 WALLER GR, JURZYSTE M, KARNS TKB, GENO PW, 1991 Isolation and identification of ursolic acid from Coffea arabica L. (coffee) leaves. Colloq Sci Int Cafe [C.R.] 14:245-247.

28 HIGUCHI K, SUZUKI T, ASHIHARA H, 1995 Pipecolic acid from the developing fruits (pericarp and seeds) of Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis. Colloq Sci Int Café[C.R.] 16:389-395.

29 GONZALEZ J, NORIEGA R, SANDOVAL R, 1975 Contribution to the study of flavonoids of coffee tree (Coffea) leaves. Rev Colomb Quim 5:85.

30 CHOU C, WALLER G, 1980 Isolation and identification by mass spectrometry of phytotoxins inCoffea arabica. Bot Bull Acad Sinica (Taiwan) 21(1):25-34.

31 SERAFIN WE, 1996 Drugs used in the treatment of asthma. In: Hardman JG, Gilman AG, Limbird LE Eds. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, International Edition. p672-679.

32 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

33 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, CASTRO E, CASTRO C, MEJIA A, MEDINA F, LAGOS K, AGUILAR J, 1996 Efectos respiratorios y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

34 GARCIA M,Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, GAMES V, CASTRO E, MEJIA A, CASTRO C, 1996 Efectos de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en la producción de úlceras gástricas por ligadura del píloro en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

36 DAGLIA M, CUZZONI MT, DACARRO C, 1994 Antibacterial activity of coffee. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2270-2272.

37 TODA M, OKUBO S, HIYOSHI R, SHIMAMURA T, 1989 The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 8(4):123-125.

38 KOLEY J, KOLEY BN, MAITRA SR, 1973 Effect of drinking tea, coffee and caffeine on work performance. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 27:96.

39 ESTLE C, 1982 Caffeine psychotrope agents. Berlin, Germany: Springer verlag, 17:369-389.

40 CURATOLO PW, ROBERTSON D, 1983 The health consequences of caffeine. Ann Intern Med 98:641-653.

41 GREDEN R, 1974 Anxiety of caffeinism. Am J Psychiatry 131:1089-1092.

42 REY H, 1979 Effet d'un gel de caféine par voie cutanée sur la lipolyse locale. Thèse doctorat Médecine, Bordeaux, France.

43 THIERMAM-DUFFAUD D, 1983 Le café augmente-t-il la cholestérolémie? La Presse Médicale 12(34):2062.

44 DEBAS HT, COHEN MM, HOLUBITSKY IB, HARRISON RC, 1971 Caffeine simulated gastric and pepsine secretion: dose-response studies. Scand J Gastroenterol 6(5):453-457.

45 WRIGHT LF, GIBSON RG, HIRSCHOWITZ RI, 1977 Lack of caffeine stimulation of gastric secretion release in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 154(4):538-539.

46 MCARTHUR K, HOGAN D, ISENBERG JI, 1982 Relative stimulatory effects of commonly ingested beverages on gastric secretion in human. Gastroenterology 83(1/2):199-203.

47 GARCIA M,Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

48 STADLER RH, TURESKY RJ, MULLER O, MARKOVIC J, LEONG-MORGENTHALER PM, 1994 The inhibitory effects of coffee on radical-mediated oxidation and mutagenicity. Mutat Res 308(2):177-190.

49 STICH HF, ROSIN MP, BRYSON L, 1982 Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea. Mutat Res 95:119-128.

50 OBANA H, NAKAMURA SI, TANAKA RI, 1986 Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens. Mutat Res 175(2):47-50.

51 FUJITA FY, WAKABAYASHI K, NAGAO M, SUGIMURA T, 1985 Characteristics of major mutagenicity of instant coffee. Mutat Res 142(4):145-148.

52 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977 A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. I. Body weight, food comsumption, hematological parameters and plasma chemistry. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:7.

53 NOLEN GA, 1981 The effect of brewed and instant coffee on reproduction and teratogenesis in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 58(2):171-183.

54 ABRAHAM SK, 1995 Inhibitory effects of coffee on transplacental genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res 347(1):45-52.

55 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977 A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. II. Incidence and types of neoplasms. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:289.

56 NAGASAWA H, YASUDA M, SAKAMOTO S, INATOMI H, 1995 Protection by coffee cherry against spontaneous mammary tumour development in mice. Anticancer Res 15(1):141-146.

57 HASEGAWA R, ITO N, 1992 Liver medium-term bioassay in rats for screening of carcinogens and modifying factors in hepatocarcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol 30(11):979-992.

58 WILLETT WC, STAMPFER MJ, MANSON JE, COLDITZ GA, ROSNER BA, SPEIZER RE, HENNEKENS CH, 1996 Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. J Amer Med Assoc 275(6):458-462.

59 TAVANI A, PREGNOLATO A, LA VECCHIA C, NEGRI E, TALAMINI R, FRANCESCHI S, 1997 Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int J Cancer 73(2):193-197.

60 BARON JA, GREENBERG ER, HAILE R, MANDEL J, SANDLER RS, MOTT L, 1997 Coffee and tea and the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(1):7-10.

61 LUBIN F, RON E, WAX Y, MODAN B, 1985 Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 74(3):569-573.

62 WILLIAMS MA, MONSON RR, GOLDMAN MB, MITTENDORF R, 1990 Coffee and delayed conception. Lancet 335(8705):1603.

63 PIRACCINI BM, BARDAZZI F, VINCENZI C, TARDIO MP, 1990 Occupational contact dermatitis due to coffee. Contact Dermatitis 23(2):114.

64 NISHIBE Y, TOMONO N, HIRASAWA H, OKADA T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing extracts of Coffea arabica seeds. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 92,057.