diarrhoea

Anacardium occidentale


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Panama : marañón

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  ripe fruit (thickened peduncle), fresh juice1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)2 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit of Anacardium occidentale is widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995 Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

2 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

3 MELO CAVALCANTE AA, RUBENSAM G, PICADA JN, GOMES DA SILVA E, FONSECA MOREIRA JC, HENRIQUES JA, 2003 Mutagenicity, antioxidant potential, and antimutagenic activity against hydrogen peroxide of cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice and cajuina. Environ Mol Mutagen 41(5):360-369.

4 SATYNARAYANA D, MYTHIRAYEE C, KRISHNAMURTY V, MADHAVAKRISHNA W, 1978 Studies on the polyphenols of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale). Leather Sci (Madras) 25:51-54.

5 KUBO J, LEE JR, KUBO I, 1999 Anti-Helicobacter pylori agents from the cashew apple. J Agr Food Chem 47(2):533-537.

6 KUBO I, OCHI M, VIERA PC, KOMATSU S, 1993 Antitumor agents from the cashew (Anarcadium occidentale) apple juice. J Agr Food Chem 41(6):1012-1015.

7 MAC LEOD A, DE TROCONIS N, 1982 Volatile flavour components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale). Phytochemistry21:2527-2530.

8 PRICE RL, HOLANDA LF, MOURA FE, MAIA GA, MARTIN CB, 1975 Constituents of Brazilian cashew apple juice. Cienc Agron 5(1):61.

9 MAIA GA, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975 Cashew fatty acids. Hort Science10:233.

10 MAIA GA, STULL JW, 1977 Fatty acid and lipid composition of cashew (Anacardium occidentale). Cienc Agron7(1):49.

11 KUBO I, KOMATSU S, OCHI M, 1986 Molluscicides from the cashew Anacardium occidentale and their large scale isolation. J Agr Food Chem 34(6):970-973.

12 TSUCHIYA H, HAYASHI H, SATO M, SHIMIZU H, INUMA M, 1999 Quantitative analysis of all types of beta-carboline alkaloids in medicinal plants and dried edible plants by high performance liquid chromatography with selective fluorometric detection. Phytochem Anal10(5):247-253.

13 GEDAM PH, SAMPATHKUMARAN PS, SIVASAMBAN MA, 1972 Examination of components of cashew nut shell liquid by NMR. Indian J Chem 10:388-391.

14 TOYOMIZU S, SUGIYAMA S, JIN RL, NAKATSU T, 1993 Alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitors constituents of cashew Anacardium occidentale, nut-shell liquids. Phytother Res7(3):252-254.

15 AMALA B, SWARNALAKSHMI T, GOMATHI K, AMBUJAVALLI L, NAGARAJAN S, 1980 Anti-inflamatory activity of (-)-epicatechin. Abstr 13th Annu Conf Indian Pharmacol Soc Jammu-Tawi India Sept 30- Oct 2 1980: Abstr-F5

16 SWARNALAKSHMI T, GOMATHI K, SULOCHANA N, BASKAR EA, PARMAR NS, 1981 Anti-inflamatory activity of (-)-epicatechin, a bioflavonoid isolated from Anacardium occidentale Linn. Indian J Pharm Sci 43:205-208.

17 SUBRAMANIAN S, JOSEPH K, NAIR A, 1969 Polyphenols of Anacardium occidentale. Phytochemistry8:673.

18 GARG S, KASERA H, 1984 Antibacterial activity of the essential oil ofAnacardium occidentale. Indian Perfum 28(2):95-97.

19 ARYA R, BABU V, ILYAS M, NASIM KT, 1989 Phytochemical examination of the leaves of Anarcadium occidentale. J Iindian Chem Soc 66(1):67-68.

20 MOTA M, TOMAS G, BARBOSA FILHO J, 1985

Anti-inflamatory actions of tannins isolated from the bark ofAnacardium occidentale L. Lab. de Tecnologia Farmacéutica, Univ. Federal de Paraiba, 58.000, Joäo Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil.

21 DINDA B, CHATTERJEE L, BANERJEE, 1987 Sterols from Anacardium occidentale. J Indian Chem Soc 64(10):647-648.

22 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

23 CONSOLI RA, MENDES NM, PEREIRA JP, SANTOS BDS, LAMOUNIER MA, 1988 Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro 83(1):87-93.

24 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol21(3):315-318.

25 EICHBAUM F, 1949 Biological properties of anacardic acid O-penta-decadienyl-salicylic acid and related compounds. Memorias do Instituto Butantá 19:119-133.

26 LAURENS A, 1982 Study of antimicrobial activity ofAnacardium occidentale L. Ann. Pharm. Fr 40(2):143-146.

27 DE SOUZA CP, 1992 The use of the shell of the cashew nut, ofAnacardium occidentale, as an alternative molluscicide. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, Brazil 34(5):459-466.

28 TYMAN J, LAM S, 1978 Long chain phenol: part XI composition of natural cashew nut-shell liquid (Anacardium occidentale) from various sources. Lipids 13:525.

29KUBO I, 1994 Tyrosinase inhibitors from Anacardium occidentale fruits. J Nat Prod 57(4):545-551.

30 LIOGIER A, 1990 Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico y del Caribe. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Iberoamericana de Ediciones. p201.

31 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas nuevas frescas de Anacardium occidentale. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32GarcIa-GONZALEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda (3000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas nuevas frescas de Anacardium occidentale. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas nuevas frescas de Anacardium occidentale. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Chenopodium ambrosioides


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Quintana Roo : apazote
  • Quintana Roo : epazote
  • Colombia : paico
  • Colombia : yerba santa
  • Dominica : wormweed
  • Dominican Republic : apazote, epazote
  • Guatemala : epazote
  • Guatemala : apazote
  • Honduras : epazote
  • Honduras : apazote
  • Haiti : feuilles à vers
  • Haiti : simen-kontra
  • Martinique : simen-kontra
  • Martinique : zèb avè
  • Martinique : herbe à vers
  • Panama : paico
  • Venezuela : pazote

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf and/or aerial parts, infusion or decoction, orally1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites, is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In no case should the specified manner of preparation and dosage be altered.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, or more than 2 days in children over 5 years old, medical attention should be sought.

For diarrhea, this resource is considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain and intestinal parasites is recommended only when disorder is caused by ascaris, pinworms and hookworms; not for other types of diarrhoea, stomach pain or other intestinal parasites.

Use is contraindicated in individuals with hepatic disorders, renal insufficiency14, weakened individuals and the elderly.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, as it may be abortifacient, or during breast feeding or by children under 5 years old.

Use for skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and skin toxicity assays.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the skin ulcer last more than 5 days, medical attention should be sought for.

In topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

For intestinal parasites, diarrhea and stomach pain caused by parasites:

prepare a decoction or infusion with 7 grams of aerial parts (leaf, flower, stem) in 300 mL (more than 1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 7 grams of aerial parts, cover and leave to cool down during 10 minutes.  Strain and drink 1 cup (250 mL) for adults, 1/2 cup (125 mL) for people weighing 35 kg, and 1/3 cup (80 mL) for children over 5 years.  Drink once a day only for 3 consecutive days46 and do not repeat treatment within six months.

Taking a saline laxative is recommended (e.g. magnesium sulfate) after the last intake; however, no oily purgatives should be taken14.

For skin ulcer:

Wash the injury with purified water and soap.  Wash the aerial plant parts properly, press or crush, and apply to affected area.  Cover with a clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de Estudios Sociales y Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

3 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 HERRERA J,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

6 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL en Quintana Roo. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 SOTOMAYOR U, RUEDA R, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro nacional de la medicina popular tradicional CNMPT, Ministerio de Salud, Estelí, Nicaragua.

11 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Ngöbe-Buglé). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

14 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Quenopodio. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Barcelona, España, Editorial Masson. Nov.20,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

15 BOURGEOIS P, JOSEPH H, SAVARY H, 1989 Détermination d'huiles essentielles et dosage de l'ascaridole dans Chenopodium ambrosioides. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, Université des Antilles et de la Guyane UAG, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe.

16 TAKEMOTO T, NAKAJIMA T, 1957 Study of the essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides. V. On the structure of aritasone. Yakugaru Zasshi 77:1157-1158.

17 BAUER L, BRASIL E, SILVA GA, 1973 Essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Schinus terebenthifolia from Rio Grande do Sul. Rev Brasil Farm 54:240.

18 ARISAWA M, MINABE N, SAEKI R, TAKAKUWA T, NAKAOKI T, 1971 Studies on unutilized resources. V. The components of the flavonoids in Chenopodium genus plants. Yagugaku Zasshi 91:522.

19 JAIN N, LAM MS, KAMIL M, ILYAS M, NIWA M, SAKAE A, 1990 Two flavonol glycosides fromChenopodium ambrosioides.Phytochemistry 29(12):3988-3991.

20 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p41.

21 CAMBAR P, 1988 Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

22 DESTA B, 1993 Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 39(2):129-139.

23SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, La Paz, Bolivia.

24 MISRA P, PAL N, GURU P, katiyar JC, TANDON JS, 1991 Antimalarial activity of traditional plants against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium berghei. Int J Pharmacog29(1):19-23.

25 ROSS SA, EL-KELTAWI NE, MEGALLA SE, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia51:201-205.

26 BUTZ LN, LA LANDE JR, 1937 Antihelmintics II. A comparison of certain ozonides, Chenopodium oil and diheptanol peroxide. J Am Pharm Assoc 26:114.

27 BLISS AR, 1925 A pharmacodynamic study on the antihelmintic properties of two oils of Chenopodium. J Am Pharm Assoc14:93.

28 FERNAN-NUÑEZ M, 1927 A contribution of helmintic therapy. J Amer Med Assoc88:903.

29 KISHORE N, DUBEY NK, SINGH SK, DIXIT SN, 1981 Fungitoxicity of some volatile natural products against human pathogenic fungi. Indian Perf 25(3/4):1-3.

30 TENG X, 1980 Development of natural products as antimalarial agents. Proc US-China Pharmacology Symp:137-141.

31 KAPADIA GJ, CHUNG EB, GHOSH B, SHUKLA YN, BASAK SP, MORTON JF, PRADHAN SN, 1978 Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats. J Nat Cancer Inst60:683-686.

32 SALAN W, LIVINGSTONE AE, 1916 Experiments with oil of Chenopodium and cardiac stimulants on the isolated frog heart. Amer J Physiol 41:21.

33 SALAN W, LIVINGSTONE AE, 1915 Experiments with oil of Chenopodium on circulation and respiration. Amer J Physiol38:67.

34 SALAN W, MITCHELL C, 1915 Influence of oil of Chenopodium on intestinal contractility. Amer J Physiol39:37.

35 KLIKS MM, 1985 Studies on the traditional herbal antihelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials. Soc Sci Med 21(8):879-886.

36 feroz h, khare ak, srivastava mc, 1982 Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants.J Sci Res Pl Med3:6-12.

37 GONZALEZ A, 1990 Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica de plantas TRAMIL en conejos. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

38 OPDYKE DLJ, 1976 Monographs on fragance raw materials. Chenopodium oil. Food Chem Toxicol 14:713-715.

39 BHAKUNI OS, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

40 MOLE A, 1952 Acute fatal poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med (Naples) 35:955.

41 WOLF IJ, 1932 Fatal poisoning with oil of Chenopodium in a negro child with sickle-cell anemia. Arch Pediatr52:126.

42 CONTRERAS AA, ZOLLA C, 1982 Plantas tóxicas de México.México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

43 JELLIFFE DB, 1951 Oil of Chenopodium in the treatment of ascariasis. Report of 3 cases of fatal liver damage in African patients. J Trop Med Hyg54:143.

44 MELE A, 1952 Acute poisoning with Chenopodium oil. Folia Med35:955.

45 ANDRIEN J, PARMENTIER PD, COMPERE J, BOUNAMEAUX Y, 1971 Study on Chenopodium oil encephalitis. Three fatal cases. A Soc Belge Med Trop51:299.

46DELENS M, Ed., 2000 Cuaderno de Fitoterapia Clínica (Afecciones respiratorias y digestivas). Mérida, Venezuela: CONAPLAMED. p151.

47 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de hoja fresca de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

48 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria hoja fresca machacada de Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

49 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

50 Zambrano LE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

51 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, partes aéreas de Chenopodium ambrosioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

52 LOPEZ DE GUIMARAES D, NEYRA LLANOS RS, ROMERO ACEVEDO JH, 2001 Ascariasis; comparación de la eficacia terapéutica entre paico y albendazol en niños de Huaraz. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 21(3):212-219.

53 MACDONALD D, VANCREY K, HARRISON P, RANGACHARI PK, ROSENFELD J, WARREN C, SORGER G, 2004 Ascaridole-less infusions of Chenopodium ambrosioides contain a nematocide(s) that is(are) not toxic to mammalian smooth muscle. J Ethnopharmacol 92:215–221.

54 GADANOA AB, GURNI AA, CARBALLO MA, 2006 Argentine folk medicine: Genotoxic effects of Chenopodiaceae family. J Ethnopharmacol 103:246–251.

55 BOULOGNE I, 2009          

Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

Cinnamomum verum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Anguilla :
  • Dominica : Ceylon cinnamon
  • Dominica : cinnamon
  • Dominican Republic : canela
  • Guadeloupe : kannèl
  • French Guiana : kannèl
  • Haiti : kannèl
  • Martinique : kannèl

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bark (splinters), decoction, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on published scientific information available.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhoea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Avoid ingestion if the following conditions are present: gastroduodenal ulcer or gastritis; allergy to the plant.

In the event of accidental poisoning by ingestion of essential oil or of preparations containing essential oil, medical attention is required.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, or while breast feeding or by children under 3 years of age.

Not for use for more than three consecutive days.

The bark (powdered or fragmented) of Cinnamomum verum is widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction with 3 grams of bark fragments in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water, boil for 10 minutes minimum in a covered pot.  Leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup twice a day.

The daily dose average of bark for adults is 2 to 4 grams28.

 

1 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 LEUNG A, 1980 Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics. Hoboken, USA: Wiley Interscience Publication.

5 NAMBA T, KIKUCHI T, MIKAGE M, KADOTA S, KOMATZU K, SHMIZU M, TOMIMORI T, 1987 Studies on the natural medicinal resources from Sri Lanka (1). On anatomical and chemical differences among each grade of Cinnamomi veri cortex. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 41(1):35-42.

6 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p44.

7 RAJ RK, 1975 Screening of indigenous plants for antihelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part II. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 19(1):47-49.

8 ATTA AH, ALKOFALI A, 1998 Anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 60(2):117-124.

9 SHARMA A, GHANEKAR AS, PADWAL-DESAI SR, NADKARNI GB, 1984 Microbiological status and antifungal properties of irradiated spices. J Agric Food Chem 32(5):1061-1063.

10 GEORGE M, PETALAI K, 1949 Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

11 NAMBA T, SAWA K, GEWALI MB, HATTORI M, NARUSE Y, KAGAMIMORI S, 1989 Studies on development of immunomodulating drugs (II). Effect of Ayurvedic medicines on blastogenesis of lymphocytes from mice. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(3):250-255.

12 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989 Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

13 SUGAYA E, ISHIGE A, SEKIGUCHI K, IIZUKA S, SUGIMOTO A, YUZURIHARA M, HOSOYA E, 1988 Inhibitory effect of a mixture of herbal drugs TJ-960 (SK) on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice. Epilepsy Res 2(5):337-339.

14 SUGAYA E, ISHIGE A, SEKIGUCHI K, IIZUKA S, ITO K, SUGIMOTO A, ABURANDA M, HOSOYA E, 1988 Inhibitory effect of TJ-960 (SK) on pentylenetetrazol-induced EEG power spectrum changes. Epilepsy Res 2(1):27-31.

15 RAHARIVELOMANANA PJ, TERROM GP, BIANCHINI JP, COULANGES P, 1989 Study of the antimicrobial action of various essential oil extracts from Madagascar plants. II. The Lauraceae. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar 56(1):261-271.

16 REITER M, BRANDT W, 1985 Relaxant effects of terpenoid on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneim-Forsch 35(1):408-414.

17 SUGAYA E, TSUDA T, SUGAYA E, USAMI M, TAKAMURA K, 1979 Local anaesthetic action of the Chinese medicine Saiko-Keishi-To. Planta Med 37:274-276.

18 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978 Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oil. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

19 WAGNER H, WIERER M, BAUER R, 1986 In vitro inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by essential oils and phenolic compounds. Planta Med (3):184-187.

20 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

21 SIVASWAMY SN, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991 Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

22 UNGSURUNGSIE M, SUTHIENKUL O, PAOVALO C, 1982 Mutagenicity screening of popular Thai species. Food Chem Toxicol 20(5):527-530.

23 UNGSURUNGSIE M, PAOVALO C, NAOANI A, 1984 Mutagenicity of extracts from Ceylon cinnamom in the rec (recombination) assay. Food Chem Toxicol 22(2):109-112.

24 SHAH AH, AL-SHARCEF AH, AGEEL AM, QURESHI S, 1998 Toxicity studies on mice of common species: Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark and Piper longum fruits. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 52(3):231-239.

25 SANCHEZ-PALOMERA E, 1951 Concept of the mucous barrier and its significance. Gastroenterology 18:269-286.

26 SEETHARAM K, PASRICHA J, 1987 Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

27 STAGER J, WUTHRICH B, JOHANSSON S, 1991 Spice allergy in celery-sensitive patients. Allergy 46(6):475-478.

28 World Health Organization, 1999 Cortex Cinnamomi. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Vol. I. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. p95-104.

29 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las astillas de Cinnamomum verum . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Citrus aurantiifolia


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : limón
  • Colombia : limón agrio
  • Colombia : lima
  • Dominica : lime
  • Dominican Republic : limón, limón agrio, lima
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitron-vè
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitwon péyi
  • Guadeloupe : ti sitwon vè
  • Guadeloupe : sitwon péyi
  • French Guiana : citron vert
  • French Guiana : citron
  • Honduras : lima
  • Honduras : limón
  • Honduras : limón agrio
  • Haiti : ti sitwon vè
  • Haiti : sitwon péyi
  • St Martin : sitron-vè
  • St Martin : sitwon péyi
  • Martinique : sitron-vè
  • Martinique : sitwon péyi
  • Panama : limón agrio
  • Panama : lima
  • Panama : limón
  • Puerto Rico : limón agrio
  • Puerto Rico : lima
  • Puerto Rico : limón
  • Tobago : lime
  • Venezuela : limón agrio
  • Venezuela : limón
  • Venezuela : lima

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, orally3-5,7-10,34-36,42

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 HERRERA J,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

5 HAY YO,1998 Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

6 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

7 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

9 BENEDETTI MD,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

10 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

12 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991 Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

13 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p45.

15 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986 Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

16 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996 Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

17 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

18 EBANA RU, MADUNAGU BE, EKPE ED, OTUNG IN, 1991 Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantiifolia. J Appl Bacteriol 71(5):398-401.

19 KOICHUSAKUL S, SATHITNIRAIMAI S, 1977 Studies of the effect of sour fruits on acid secretion in the stomach. Undergraduate special problem report. Fac Med (Siriraj Hosp) Mahidol Univ, Bangkok, Thailand.

20 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

21 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

22 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

23 ADESINA S, 1982 Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

24 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

25 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México:Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

26 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989 Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

27 PELLECUER J, 1995 Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

28 Olmedo D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005 Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

29 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL GEF/UNEP.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

35 ZambranoLE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

36 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

37 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

38 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007 Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

39 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

40 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

41 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009 Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

42 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

43 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

45 BOULOGNE I, 2009 Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

46 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009 Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

Citrus aurantium


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Quintana Roo : naranja de babor
  • Quintana Roo : naranja agria
  • Cuba : naranja de babor
  • Cuba : naranja agria
  • Dominican Republic : naranja agria, naranja de babor
  • Grenada : sour orange
  • Haiti : zowanj si
  • Haiti : zowanj gospo
  • Martinique : zowanj anmè
  • Martinique : oranger amer
  • Puerto Rico : naranja de babor
  • Puerto Rico : naranja agria

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, orally2-3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

6 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

7 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986 The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

9 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992 Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

10 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991 Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium.Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

11 WIDMER WW, 1991 Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

12 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990 Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

13 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M,1990 Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

14 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

15 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975 Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

16 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

17 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983 The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

18 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

19 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000 Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

20 SANKAWA U, 1980 Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

21 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979 Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

22 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980 Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

23 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995 Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

24 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986 Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

25 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997 The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

26 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

27 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996 Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

28HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

29 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000 Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis.Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

30 SATO A, 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

31 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982 Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

32 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982 Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

33 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

36 GarcIa-GONZALEZ M, fallas LV, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

40 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Citrus sinensis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : naranja dulce (ou china)
  • Haiti : zowanj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit, juice, orally1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough, headache, sprains, strain and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In any application to the eye, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk or increasing irritation with the application of Citrus spp juice.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus sinensis are widely used for human consumption and are an industrial source of essential oil.

For headache, flu and fever:

Prepare decoction or infusion with 5-20 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to the 5-20 grams of leaf, cover pot and cool down.  Drink 2-3 cups a day36.

For conjunctivitis:

Instill (apply) in the eye 2-3 drops of fresh juice of fruit, 3 times a day.

For diarrhea, flu, cough, sprain, twist and fever:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

4 STEWART I, 1985 Identification of caffeine in Citrus flowers and leaves. J Agric Food Chem 33(6):1163-1165.

5 NICO KJ, CHANDLER BV, 1978 Roots as a probable site for Citrus limonoid biosynthesis. Proc Int Soc Citric. p40-42.

6 ABDEL-ALIM MA, ABDEL-HAFEZ OM, EL-KHRISY AM, 1990 The constituents of Citrus sinensis leaves. Fitoterapia 61(5):470-471.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOIU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1990 Nigerian sweet orange leaf oil composition. J Essent Oil Res 2(5):199-201.

9 GUANGHAN L, YU W, LEIMING Y, SHUANGLONG H, 1994 Determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by stripping voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode. Food Chem 51:237-239.

10 RADFORD T, KAWASHIMA K, FRIEDEL PK, POPE LE, GIANTURCO MA, 1975 Distribution of volatile compounds between the pulp and serum of some fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1066.

11 ROUSEFF RL, SEETHARAMAN K, NAIM M, NAGY S, ZEHAVI U, 1992 Improved HPLC determination of hydroxycinnamic acids in orange juice using solvents containing thf. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1139-1143.

12 SWATSITANG P, TUCKER G, ROBARDS K, JARDINE D, 2000 Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds in Citrus sinensis. Anal Chim Acta 417(2):231-240.

13 OOGHE WC, OOGHE SJ, DETAVERNIER M, HUYGHEBAERT A, 1995 Characterization of orange juice (Citrus sinensis) by polymethoxylated flavones. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2191-2195.

14 OOGHE WC, DETAVERNIER CM, 1999 Flavonoids as authenticity markers for Citrus sinensis juice. Fruit Process 9(8):308-313.

15 WIDMER WW, 2000 Determination of naringin and neohesperidin in orange juice by liquid chromatography with UV detection to detect the presence grapefruit juice: collaborative study. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem Int 83(5):1155-1165.

16 GROSS J, CARMON M, LIFSHITZ A, SKLARZ B, 1975 Structural elucidation of some orange juice carotenoids. Phytochemistry 14:249-252.

17 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996 Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

18 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI A, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1988 Effects of the juice of certain species of Citrus on plasma and urinary uric acid levels in rats on a hyperpurinic diet. Plant Med Phytother 22(2):92-97.

19 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS JI, 1978 Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35(6):1219-1220.

20 PEREZ C, ANESINI C, 1994 In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):41-46.

21 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI AM, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1984 Influence of the fruit juice of several Citrus species on steroidogenesis in the rat. Plant Med Phytother 18(1):8-14.

22 TROVATO A, MONFORTE MT, BARBERA R, ROSSITTO A, GALATI EM,

FORESTIERI AM, 1996 Effects of fruit juices of Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus limon L. on experimental hypercholesterolemia in the rat. Phytomedicine 2(3):221-227.

23 KUROWSKA EM, BORRADAILE NM, SPENCE JD, CARROLL KK, 2000 Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary Citrus juices in rabbits. Nutr Res 29(1):121-129.

24 HONG ND, KIM JW, KIM BW, SHON JG, 1982 Studies on the efficacy of the combined preparation of crude drugs. VI. Effect of “Saengkankunbi-Tang” on activities of the liver enzyme, protein contents and the excretory on bile juice in the serum of CCl4-intoxicated rabbits. Korean J Pharmacog 13:33-38.

25 GOTO M, INOUE H, SEYAMA Y, YAMASHITA S, INOUE O, YUMIOKA E., 1989 Comparative effect of traditional Chinese medicines (Dai-Saiko To, Hatimi-Ziogan and Byakko-Ka-Ninzin-To) on experimental diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Nippon Yakugaku Zasshi 93(3):179-186.

26 KAWAKAMI M, SUZUKI K, ISHIZUKA T, HIDAKA T, MATSUKI Y, NAKAMURA H, 1998 Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36(6):306-308.

27 ADESINA SK, 1982 Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

28 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

29 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman, Las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9ª edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editores. p1670-1671.

31 MIYAGI Y, OM AS, CHEE KM, BENNINK MR, 2000 Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice. Nutr Cancer 36(2):224-229.

32 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989 Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

33 PORTAL JA, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, BETANCOURT J, 1995 Estudio genotóxico in vitro de una tintura al 50 % de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Medi Ciego 1(1):3-6.

34 PORTAL JA, 1995 Evaluación genotóxica in vitro e in vivo de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

35 PELLECUER J, 1995 Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

36 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus sinensis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

37 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, de hojas frescas de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Tránsito Intestinal en ratones, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

Cymbopogon citratus


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Antigua : fever grass
  • Antigua : lemon grass
  • Barbados : fever grass
  • Barbados : lemon grass
  • Costa Rica : zacate limón
  • Costa Rica : té limón
  • Costa Rica : zacate té
  • Dominica : sitwonnèl
  • Dominica : zacate té
  • Dominican Republic : limoncillo
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitwonnèl
  • Marie-Galante Island : zacate té
  • Guatemala : té de limón
  • Honduras : zacate té
  • Honduras : zacate limón
  • Honduras : té limón
  • Saint Lucia : sitwonnèl
  • Saint Lucia : zacate té
  • St Martin : sitwonnèl
  • St Martin : zacate té
  • Martinique : sitwonnèl
  • Martinique : zacate té
  • Quintana Roo : té limón
  • Quintana Roo : zacate té
  • Quintana Roo : zacate limón
  • Puerto Rico : limoncillo
  • Tobago : lemon grass
  • Tobago : fever grass
  • Saint Vincent : fever grass
  • Saint Vincent : lemon grass
  • Venezuela : molojillo criollo

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, or should fever last more than 2 days, stomach pain more than 3, or cough more than 5, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

TRAMIL Research42

For diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-25 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 15-25 grams of leaf.  Cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL), 2-3 times a day.

In all the above-mentioned uses for oral administration, the preparation should be properly filtered, using a cloth, as a prerequisite for consumption, in order to avoid mechanical injuries to the mucosas, due to the microfilaments present in the leaf26.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

7 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

8 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 DELENS M, 1992 Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

11 O'REILLY A, 1992 TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

12 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

13 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

14 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

15 ABEGAZ B, YOHANNES P, DIETER R, 1983 Constituents of the essential oil of Ethiopian Cymbopogon citratus. J Nat Prod 46(3):424-426.

16 DE MATOUSCHEK B, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991 Phytochemical investigation of nonvolatile constituents ofCymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae). Pharm Acta Helv 66(9/10):242-245.

17 HANSON S, CRAWFORD M, KOKER M, MENEZES F, 1976 Cymbopogonol, a new triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus. Phytochemistry15:1074-1075.

18 YOKOYAMA Y, TSUYUKI T, NAKAMURA N, TAKAHASHI T, HANSON S, MATSUSHITA K, 1980 Revised structures of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol. Tetrahedron Lett21:3701-3702.

19 OLANIYI A, SOFOWORA E, OGUNTIMEHIN B, 1975 Phytochemical investigation of some Nigerian plants used against fevers. II. Cymbopogon citratus. Planta Med 28:186-189.

20 WILLAMAN JJ, LI H, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(Supp.3A):1-286.

21 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p57.

22 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

23 MORON F, SANCHEZ C, MARTINEZ MC, MOREJON Z, PINEDO Z, 2000 Actividad antiespasmódica in vitro de hojas frescas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

24 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de efectos antiinflamatorio y analgésico del extracto fluído de Cymbopogon citratus al 30% por vía oral. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):3-6.

25 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

26 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, DAGUILH R, HENRYS D, HENRYS J, ANTON R, 1986 Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):13-30.

27 CARLINI EA, CONTAR JD, SILVA-FILHO AR, SOLVEIRA-FILHO NG, FROCHTENGARTEN ML, BUENO OF, 1986 Pharmacology of lemon-grass Cymbopogon citratus I. Effect of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):37-64.

28 SOUZA FORMIGONI ML, LODDER HM, FILHO OG, FERREIRA TM, CARLINI EA, 1986 Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero". J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):65-74.

29 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, TOLON Z, 1989 Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol25(1):103-107.

30 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

31 LORENZETTI B, SOUZA G, SARTI S, FILHO DS, FERREIRA SH, 1991 Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34(1):43-48.

32 LEMOS TLG, MATOS FJA, ALENCAR JW, CRAVEIRO AA, CLARK AM, MC CHESNEY JD, 1990 Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants. Phytother Res4(2):82-84.

33 AWUAH R, 1989  Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Ann Appl Biol 115(3):451-453.

34 REYNOLDS JEF, PRASAD AB, Eds., 1982 MARTINDALE The extra pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London, England: The Pharmaceutical Press. p677.

35 SETH, G, KOKATE CK, VARMA KC, 1976 Effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on central nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol 14(3):370-371.

36 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

37 KOBAYASHI N, 1989 Pharmaceutical compositions containing lemongrass extracts and antioxidants. Patens Japan Kokai Tokio Koho., 01, 221, 320.

38 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

39 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

40 de la Torre RA, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ, Cortinas de Nava C, Izquierdo T, Moron F, 1994 Genotoxic activity of mebendazole in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 305(2):139-144.

41 LEITE JR, SEABRA ML, MALUF E, ASSOLANT K, SUCHECKI D, TUFIK S, KLEPACZ S, CALIL HM, CARLINI EA, 1986 Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):75-83.

42 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

43 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

44 ZambranoLE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

45 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

46 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

47 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

48 BOULOGNE I, 2009 Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.         

Jatropha gossypiifolia


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : túa túa

Matricaria recutita


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : manzanilla
  • Guatemala : manzanilla
  • Honduras : manzanilla

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  entire plant, decoction, orally2-3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, diarrhea, stomach pain and expulsion of placenta is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For diarrhea, the use of this plant can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the colic, diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

The pollen is potentially allergenic and may induce reactions of hypersensitivity in susceptible individuals or those with prior allergy to Asteraceae (esp. ragweed and Chrysanthemum).

 

For menstrual pain and stomach pain:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 grams of dried flower. Cover pot, leave to settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink one cup between meals, 3-4 times a day32-33.

There is no available information about preparation and dosage of the decoction of the entire plant, the infusion of the leaf, or the infusion of the leaf and flower, other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 RAUSCHERT S, 1974 Nomenklatorische Probleme in der Gattung Matricaria L.

Folia Geobot Phytotax Praha 9:249-260.

2 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

3 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

4 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 FRANZ C, WICKEL I, 1980 Contribution to the heredity of bisaboloids in Chamomilla recutita. (abstract). Planta Med 39:287-288.

6 SALAMON I, 1992 Production of chamomile, Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, in Slovakia. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1(1/2):37-45.

7 MANCHENO MN, 1987 La manzanilla dentro del plan terapéutico de tratamiento de la enfermedad diarreica aguda del Ministerio de Salud. Nicaragua. Rescate de la Medicina Popular Tradicional.

8 MERICLI AH, 1990 The lypophilic compounds of a Turkish Matricaria chamomilla variety with no chamazulene in the volatile oil. Int J Crude Drug Res 28(2):145-147.

9 TOPOLOV V, GABROLOV M, YANKOLOV J, 1983 Plantas medicinales and fitoterapia (Bilki and Bilcosvirane). Plovdiv, Bulgaria: Ed. Jristo G. Danov.

10 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996 Actividad espasmolítica del extracto fluído de Matricaria recutita (Manzanilla) en órganos aislados. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(1):19-24.

11 CAMBAR P, 1992 Efectos broncopulmonares de los extractos acuosos de flores de Matricaria chamomilla L. (Manzanilla) en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

12 ABDUL-GHANI AS, EL-LATI SG, SACAAN AI, SULEIMAN MS, AMIN RM, 1987 Anticonvulsant effects of some Arab medicinal plants. Int J Crude Drug Res 25(1):39-43.

13 HOERHAMMER L, 1962 Flavone concentration of medicinal plants with regard to their spasmolytic action. Congr Sci Farm Conf Commun 21st Pisa 1961(21):578-588.

14 JAKOVLEV V, ISAAC O, FLASKAMP E, 1983 Pharmacologische Untersuchungen von Kamillen-Inhaltsstoffen. VI. Untersuchungen zur antiphlogistiche Wirkung von Chamazulen und Matricin. Planta Med 49:67-73.

15 YAMAZAKI M, SHIROTA H, 1981 Application of experimental stress ulcer test in mice for the survey of neurotropic naturally occurring drug materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 35:96-102.

16 GERSHEBIN LL, 1977 Regeneration of rat liver in the presence of essential oils and their components. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(3):173-182.

17 ITOKAWA H, MIHASHI S, WATANABE K, NATSUMOTO H, HAMANAKA T, 1983 Studies on the constituents of crude drugs having inhibitory activity against contraction of the ileum caused by histamine or barium chloride (I). Screening test for the activity of commercially available crude drugs and the related plant materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(3):223-228.

18 LESLIE GB, 1978 A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

19 SZELENYI I, ISSAC O, THIEMER K, 1979 Pharmakologische Untersuchungen von Kamillen-inhaltsstoffen. III. Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen uber die ulkusprotektive Wirkung der Kamille. Planta Med 35:218-227.

20 SHIPOCHLIEV T, 1981 Uterotonic action of extract from a group of medicinal plants. Vett Med Nauki 18(4):94-98.

21 ACHTERRATH-TUCKERMANN U, KUNDE R, FLASKAMP E, ISAAC O, THIEMER K, 1980 Pharmacological investigations with compounds of chamomile. V. Investigations on the spasmolytic effect of compounds of chamomile and Kamillosan on the isolated guinea pig ileum. Planta Med 39(1):38-50.

22 AGGAG ME, YOUSEF RT, 1972 Study of antimicrobial activity of chamomile oil. Planta Med 22(2):140-144.

23 MANN C, STABA E, 1986 The chemistry, pharmacology and commercial formulations of chamomile. In: Herbs, spices and medicinal plants; recent advances in botany, horticulture and pharmacology. Phoenix, USA: Oryxpress 1:235-280.

24 ISAAC O, 1979 Pharmacological investigations with compounds of chamomile I. On the pharmacology of alfa-bisabolol and bisabolol oxides (review). Planta Med 35:118-124.

25 JAKOVLEV V, SCHLICHTEGROLL A, 1969 Antiinflammatory activity of (-)-alpha-bisabolol, an essential component of chamomille oil. Arzneim-Forsch 19:615.

26 AL-HINDAWI M, AL-DEEN I, NABI M, ISMAIL M, 1989 Antiinflamatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. J Ethnopharmacol 26(2):163-168.

27 LESLIE G, SALMON G, 1979 Repeated dose toxicity studies and reproductive studies on nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Swiss Med 1(1/2):1-3.

28 BENNER MH, LEE HJ, 1973 Anaphylactic reaction to chamomille tea. J Allergy Clin Immunol 52(5):307-308.

29 LEWIS R, TATKEN R, (Eds.), 1980 Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. Vol. 1. Cincinnati, USA: Nat. Instit. Occupational Health.

30 OPDYKE D, 1974 Monographs on fragrance raw materials. Chamomile oil German and Roman. Food Cosmet Toxicol 12(Suppl.):851-853.

31 ANON (Select Committee on GRAS Substances), 1976 GRAS status of foods and food additives. Washington, USA: Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration 41, 38644.

32 WICHTL M, 1994 Herbal drugs and phytopharmaceuticals. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publisher.

33 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garifuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p37.

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de decocción de flor seca de Matricaria recutita L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de una decocción de flor seca de Matricaria recutita L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

36 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BolaÑos An, arguedas cr, 2005 Efecto analgésico en ratas, por vía oral,del extracto acuoso (decocción) de la planta entera sin flor de Matricaria recutita dosis única. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, Arguedas R, y Fernández A, 2005 Efecto antiinflamatorio en ratas, por vía oral, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de la planta entera sin flor de Matricaria recutita dosis única. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Mentha sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Marie-Galante Island : mant
  • St Martin : mant
  • Dominica : peppermint
  • Cuba : toronjil de menta
  • Cuba : toronjil
  • Guadeloupe : mant
  • Martinique : mant
  • Panama : yerba buena
  • Venezuela : yerba buena

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the diarrhea or stomach pain last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Do not ingest in case of adverse gall bladder conditions or stones7.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The leaf of Mentha spicata is widely used for human consumption andMentha piperita is an industrial source of essential oil.

For stomach ache:

Prepare an infusion adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful of dried leaf. Cover pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

For diarrhea, flatulence, indigestion, flu, common cold and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1.5-3 grams (1 spoonful) of dried leaf in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of a decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3 grams of dried leaf, cover, leave to cool down for 5-10 minutes, and filter.

In all cases, drink 2-4 cups a day when required by symptomatic indication32-33.

1 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 CARBALLO A, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro de investigación de fitoterapia y medicina tradicional de Topes de Collantes, Trinidad, Cuba.

3 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

4 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

5 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

6 SOLIS P, CORREA M, GUPTA M, 1995 Encuesta TRAMIL (Comunidades afro-caribeñas). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

7 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Mentha sp. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Nov. 20, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

8 TAYLOR BA, DUTHIE HL, LUSCOMBE DK, 1985 Mechanism by which peppermint oil exerts its relaxant effect on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. J Pharm Pharmacol 37(Suppl):104.

9 GUEDON DJ, PASQUIER BP, 1994 Analysis and distribution of flavonoid glycosides and rosmarinic acid in 40 Mentha xpiperita clones. J Agr Food Chem 42(3):679-684.

10 HERRMANN EC, KUCERA LS, 1967 Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (Labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 124(3):874-878.

11 KIUCHI F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989 Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintic traditional medicines and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279-287.

12 LESLIE GB, 1978 A pharmacometric evaluation of nine bio-strath herbal remedies. Medita 8(10):3-19.

13 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, LUNDER TL, 1990 Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of a peppermint extract. Fitoterapia 61(3):215-221.

14 DELLA LOGGIA R, TUBARO A, REDAELLI C, 1981 Valutazione dell'attività sul S.N.C. del topo di alcuni estratti vegetali e di una loro associazione. (Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them). Rivista di Neurologia 51(5):297-310.

15 COSTA M, DI STASI LC, KIRIZAWA M, MENDACOLLI SL, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1989 Screening in mice of some medicinal plants used for analgesic purposes in the state of Sao Paulo. Part II. J Ethnopharmacol 27(1-2):25-33.

16 ROSS S, EL-KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Fitoterapia 51:201-205.

17 SCORTICHINI M, ROSSI M, 1989 In vitro activity of some essential oils toward Erwinia amylovora (Burril) Winslow. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 24(3/4):421-431.

18 RAI MK, UPADHYAY S, 1988 Laboratory evaluation of essential oil of Mentha piperita Linn. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Hindustan Antibiot Bull 30(3-4):82-84.

19 HARRIES N, JAMES KC, PUGH WK, 1978 Antifoaming and carminative actions of volatile oils. J Clin Pharmacol 2:171-177.

20 TADDEI I, GIACHETTI D, TADDEI E, MANTOVANI P, BIANCHI E, 1988 Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary essences and their major constituents. Fitoterapia 59(6):463-468.

21 MELZIG M, TEUSCHER E, 1991 Investigations of the influence of essential oils and their main components on the adenosine uptake by cultivated endothelial cells. Planta Med 57(1):41-42.

22 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agr Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

23 BRIGGS C, 1993 Peppermint: medicinal herb and flavouring agent. Can Pharmaceutical J 126(2):89-92.

24 DALVI SS, NADKARNI PM, PARDESI R, GUPTA KC, 1991 Effect of peppermint oil on gastric emptying in man: A preliminary study using a radiolabelled solid test meal. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 35(3):212-214.

25 MAY B, KUNTZ HD, KIESER M, KOHLER S, 1996 Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittel Forschung [Drug Research] 46(12):1149-1153.

26 BEZIAT M, 1983 Toxicité d'huiles essentielles. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

27 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002 Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and Drug administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CF...

28 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, VILLAESCUSA A, DECALO M, BETANCOURT J, 1997 Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo en tinturas de Melissa officinalis L. (toronjil) y Mentha piperita L. (toronjil de menta). Rev Cub Plantas Med 2(1):6-11.

29 MICROMEDEX T, 2003 Healthcare Series. Vol. 117. 9/2003 Thomson MICROMEDEX®.

30 BUDAVARI S (Ed.), 2001 The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemical, drugs, and biologicals. 30th ed. New Jersey, USA: Merck and Co., Inc. p1043-1044.

31 SIVASWAMY SM, BALACHANDRAN B, BALANEHRU S, SIVARAMAKRISHNAN VM, 1991 Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items. Indian J Exp Biol 29(8):730-737.

32 WICHTL M, 1999 Plantes thérapeutiques. Tec and Doc. p365.

33 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p721.

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Mentha nemorosa Willd.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002 Clases tóxicas agudas en rata de decocción (30%) de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita varcitrata (Ehrh.) Briq.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

36 GUERRA MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, 2002 Toxicidad aguda (DL50) en ratón de la decocción de hojas secas de Mentha x piperita var citrata(Ehrh.) Briq.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina Dr. Salvador Allende. Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

37 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

38 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

Musa sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : banana
  • Haiti : bannan matenten

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  stem sap (latex), with salt, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962 The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965 Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

7 WONG W, 1976 Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

8 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983 A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

9 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

10 FRIESE FW, 1934 Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

12 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989 Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

13 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

14 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

15 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

16 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

21 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

22 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Musa sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : banana
  • Haiti : bannan matenten

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit pulp, orally2-3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to the fruit pulp, broth with salt, or cooked fruit pulp, taken orally for asthenia and weakness.

Use for diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and on available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adults or 2 days in children older than 3, seek medical attention.

Use for injury, sore, inflammation and rheumatism is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, seek medical attention.

Not for use by children under 6 months of age.

The fruit of Musa xparadisiaca is widely used for human consumption and the leaf of the plant is used for producing foodstuffs.

TRAMIL Research16

For inflammation:

Prepare a decoction with 100-200 grams of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Filter, leave to cool down and soak affected area.

For injury and sore:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the grated mesoderm (pulp) of the fruit or the sap of the fruit peel to affected area16.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth, and replace 2 times a day.

For asthenia, weakness, diarrhea and rheumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 SIMMONDS NW, 1962 The evolution of the bananas. London, England: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. p170.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

6 PALMER J, WYMAN H, 1965 Organic acids in banana leaves. Phytochemistry 4(2):305-309.

7 WONG W, 1976 Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 30:103-142.

8 DUTTA PK, DAS AK, BANERJI N, 1983 A tetracyclic triterpenoid from Musa paradisiaca. Phytochemistry22(11):2563-2564.

9 WILLAMAN JJ, HUI-LIN L, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(3A)Supp.

10 FRIESE FW, 1934 Plantas medicinais brasileiras. Sao Paulo, Brasil: Inst Agro do Estado Sao Paulo. p252-494.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

12 RICHTER E, VORE L, 1989 Antimicrobial activity of banana puree. Food Microbiol 6(3):179-187.

13 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina: bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p125-126.

14 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

15 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

16 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

17 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, de la savia del fruto verde de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del mesodermo del fruto maduro de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, piel sana en conejos, porción de hoja calentada de Musa paradisiaca. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica oral de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

21 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico de la decocción de hojas frescas de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

22 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, VICTORIA MC, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Acción sobre el tránsito intestinal del zumo fresco del fruto maduro de Musa x paradisiaca L. (plátano) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

flower buds and leaf shoots, infusion, orally4,12,60,71-72

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, mashed, orally5,60

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

flower and apical bud, decoction or infusion, orally5,8,10

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

crust of the fresh stem, decoction, orally62-64

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, natural, as food3,5

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, with salt or sugar, orally7

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Psidium guajava


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : guayaba
  • Dominica : gwayav
  • Dominica : goyav
  • Dominican Republic : guayaba
  • Grenada : guava
  • Marie-Galante Island : goyav
  • Guadeloupe : gwayav
  • Guadeloupe : goyav
  • Marie-Galante Island : gwayav
  • Guatemala : guayaba
  • Honduras : guayabo
  • Haiti : gwayav
  • Haiti : goyav
  • Martinique : goyav
  • Martinique : gwayav
  • Quintana Roo : guayaba
  • Panama : guayaba
  • Tobago : guava
  • Venezuela : guayaba

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion (sometimes with salt or sugar), orally1-2,6-7,9

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for vomiting is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for nervous breakdown and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should nervous breakdown persist for more than 7 days, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea persist for more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in child, seek medical attention. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral rehydration therapy.

Use for rash and juma (dizziness) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

There is no available information from scientific sources to validate the use of leaf juice together with Allium sativum and Bunchosia glandulosa.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the rash and juma (dizziness) persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under3 years old.

 

The fruit of Psidium guajavais widely used for human consumption.

For diarrhea and juma (dizziness):

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5 grams of leaf (1-2 teaspoonfuls) in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of leaf and cover pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup 4-5 times a day59.

For nervous breakdown, vomiting, and rash:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 HERRERA J, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

9 DELENS M, 1990-92 Encuesta TRAMIL. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

10 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

11 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

12 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, MartInez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

15 WILSON CW, SHAW PE, 1978 Terpene hydrocarbons from Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 17:1435-1436.

16 MACLEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of guava. Phytochemistry 21(6):1339-1342.

17 MISRA K, SESHADRI TR, 1968 Chemical components of the fruits of Psidium guajava. Phytochemistry 7:641-645.

18 CHIANG H, LEE S, GUO S, 1986 Active principles of hypoglycemic effect from Psidium guajava. Part II. Asian J Pharm Suppl 6(8):58.

19 VARSHNEY I, BADHWAR G, KHAN A, SHRIVASTAVA A, 1971 Saponins and sapogenins of Sesbania grandiflora seeds, Albizzia lebbek pods and Psidium guajava fruits. Indian J Appl Chem 34:214.

20 BASSOLS F, DEMOLE EP, 1994 The occurrence of pentane-2-thiol in guava fruit. J Essent Oil Res 6(5):481-483.

21 DAVIS P, MUNROE K, SELHIME A, 1976 Laboratory Proc Fla State Hort Soc bioassay of volatile naturally occurring compounds against the Caribbean fruit fly. p174.

22 LOWRY JB, 1968 The distribution and potential taxonomic value of alkylated ellagic acids. Phytochemistry 7(10):1803-1813.

23 MAIR AGR, PANDIYAN M, VENKASUBRAMANIAN H, 1987 Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Psidium guajava. Fitoterapia 58(3):204-205.

24 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the leaves of Psidium guava-quercetin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and amritoside. Phytochemistry 4:989-992.

25 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

26 KAKIUCHI N, HATTORI M, NAMBA T, NISHIZAWA M, YAMAGISHI T, OKUDA T, 1985 Inhibitory effect of tannins on reverse transcriptase from RNA tumor virus. J Nat Prod 48(4):614-621.

27 LOZOYA X, MECKES M, ABOU-AAID M, TORTORIELLO J, NOZZOLILLO C, ARNASON J, 1994 Quercetin glycosides in Psidium guajava L. leaves and determination of a spasmolytic principle. Arch Med Res 25(1):11-15.

28 OKUDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, 1984 Guavin B, an ellagitannin of novel type. Chem Pharm Bull 32(9):3787-3788.

29 LUTTERODT GD, 1989 Inhibition of gastrointestinal release of acetylcholine by quercetin as a possible mode of action of Psidium guajava leaf extracts in the treatment of acute diarrhoeal disease. J Ethnopharmacol 25(3):235-247.

30 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, ASHIDA M, 1982 Tannins and related compounds in Myrtaceae. Ellagitannins of the Casuarinaceae, Stachyuraceae and Myrtaceae. Phytochemistry 21:2871-2874.

31 OKUDA T, YOSHIDA T, HATANO T, YAZAKI K, IKEGAMI Y, SHINGU T, 1987 Guavins A, C and D, complex tannins from Psidium guajava. Chem Pharm Bull 35(1):443-446.

32 OSMAN AM, YOUNES ME, SHETA AE, 1974 Triterpenoids of the leaves ofPsidium guajava. Phytochemistry 13:2015-2016.

33 OSMAN A, EL-GARBY Y, SHETA A, 1975 Chemical examination of local plants part. VII. Psidium guajava leaf extracts. Egypt J Chem 18:347.

34 SESHADRI TR, VASISHTA K, 1965 Polyphenols of the stem bark of Psidium guajava, the constitution of a new ellagic acid glycoside (amritoside). Phytochemistry 4:317-326

35 TANAKA T, ISHIDA N, ISHIMATSU M, NONAKA G, NISHIOKA I, 1992 Tannins and related compounds. CXVI. Six new complex tannins, guajavins, psidinins and psiguavin from the bark of Psidium guajava L. Chem Pharm Bull 40(8):2092-2098.

36 MISHRA C, MISRA K, 1981 Chemical constituents of Psidium guajava heartwood. J Indian Chem Soc 58:201-202.

37 SASAKI S, CHIANG HC, HABAGUCHI K, YAMADA T, NAKANISHI K, MATSUEDA S, HSU H, WU W, 1966 The constituents of medicinal plants in Taiwan. Yakugaku Zasshi 86(9):869-870.

38 TRIVEDI KK, MISRA K, 1984 Chemical investigation of Psidium guajava roots. Curr Sci 53(14):746-747.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p136.

40 ECHEMENDIA C, MORON F, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

41 ECHEMENDIA C, 1997 Efecto antidiarreico de la tintura al 20% de hojas de Psidium guajava (guayaba), en pacientes con diarrea aguda simple en atención primaria de salud (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

42 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

43 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

44 MORON F, MARTINEZ MC, MORON D, 1999 Disminución del tránsito intestinal en ratones por tintura de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.) oral. Rev Cubana Planta Med 4(2):54-56.

45 MISA C, HERNANDEZ N, ABRAHAM A, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cubana Med Trop 31:5-12.

46 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

47 GNAN SO, DEMELLO MT, 1999 Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by aqueous goiaba extracts. J Ethnopharmacology 68(1-3):103-108.

48 CACERES A, TORRES MF, ORTIZ S, CANO F, JAUREGUI E, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. IV. Vibriocidal activity of five American plants used to treat infections. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):73-75.

49 LOZOYA X, BECERRIL G, MARTINEZ M, 1990 Intraluminal perfusion model of in vitro guinea pig ileum as a model of study of the antidiarrheic properties of guava (Psidium guajava). Arch Invest Med (Mex) 21:155-162.

50 CHENG JT, YANG RS, 1983 Hypoglycemic effect of Guava juice in mice and human subjects. Am J Chin Med 11(1-4):74-76.

51 LUTTERODT G, 1992 Inhibition of microlax-induced experimental diarrhea with narcotic-like extracts of Psidium guajava leaf in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 37(2):151-157.

52 LOZOYA X, REYES-MORALES H, CHAVEZ-SOTO MA, MARTINEZ-GARCIA MC, SOTO-GONZALEZ Y, DOUBOVA SV, 2002 Intestinal anti-spasmodic effect of a phytodrug of Psidium guajava folia in the treatment of acute diarrheic disease. J Ethnopharmacol 83:19-24.

53 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

54 BETANCOURT J, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, MARTÍNEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, 2000 Ausencia de actividad genotóxica del extracto fluido de Psidium guajava L (guayaba) evaluada en un sistema de ensayo de Aspergillus nidulans. Rev Cubana Planta Med 5(2):38-40.

55 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vivo de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

56 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja de Psidium guajava L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

57 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda de hoja de Psidium guajava L. en el modelo de clases tóxicas agudas. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

58 JAIN AK, SHIMOI K, NAKAMURA Y, TOMITA I, KADA T, 1987 Preliminary study on the desmutagenic and antimutagenic effect of some natural products. Curr Sci 56(24):1266-1269.

59 GIRON L, CACERES A, FREIRE V, ALONZO A, SALVADOR L, 1995 Folleto informativo sobre algunas plantas medicinales comúnmente utilizadas por la población Garífuna de Livingston. Guatemala, Guatemala: Programa TRAMIL-Centroamérica/enda-caribe/CONAPLAMED/FARMAYA/CIID. p26.

60 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

61 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral aguda dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

62 MARTINEZ M, HERNANDEZ O, HERNANDEZ J, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Guajiquiro, La Paz. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

63 MARTINEZ M, MEDINA D, SUANSIN G, SARMIENTO E, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL-GEF Las Marías, Gracias a Dios. Laboratorio de Histolología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

64 HENDERSON C, KRISHNARAYAN V, CASTILLO J, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology BEST, Belmopan, Belize.

65 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 66 Abdelrahim SI, Almagboul AZ, Omer ME, Elegami A, 2002 Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Fitoterapia 73(7-8):713-715. 67 Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, 2000 Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine 7(1):31-38.

68 PAZOS L, QUIROS S, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Transito intestinal, en ratón, del extracto de la corteza fresca de Psidium guajava. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

69 Wei-Wei Zhang, Yan Li, Xue-Qing Wang, Feng Tian, Hong Cao, Min-Wei Wang, Qi-Shi Sun, 2005 Effects of magnolol and honokiol derived from traditional Chinese herbal remedies on gastrointestinal movement. World J Gastroenterol 11(28):4414-4418.

70 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel sana en conejos, de hoja por decocción de Psidum guajava. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

71 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

72 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

73 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

74 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2009 Toxicidad aguda oral a dosis repetidas de decocción al 50% de hojas frescas de Psidium guajava L. Investigación TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, C. Habana, Cuba.

Zingiber officinale


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Antigua : ginger
  • Barbados : ginger
  • Costa Rica : jengibre
  • Dominica : ginger
  • Guatemala : jengibre
  • Honduras : jengibre
  • Saint Lucia : ginger
  • Puerto Rico : jengibre
  • Puerto Rico : ginger
  • Saint Vincent : ginger
  • Venezuela : jengibre

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally6

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 DELENS M, 1992 Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 O'REILLY A, WILSON V, PHILLIP M, JOSEPH O, 1992 TRAMIL survey. Chemistry and Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua and Barbuda.

7 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

9 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

10 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

11 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

12 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 WHO, 1999 Rhizoma zingiberis. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume I. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. p284.

15 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Zingiber officinalis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul. 30, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

16 TANABE M, YASUDA M, ADACHI Y, KANOY, 1991 Capillary GC-MS analysis of volatile components in Japanese gingers. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 45(4):321-326.

17 NISHIMURA O, 1995 Identification of the characteristic odorants in fresh rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber oficinale Roscoe) using aroma extract dilution analysis and modified multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem 43(11):2941-2945.

18 SAKAMURA F, OGIHARA K, SUGA T, TANIGUCHI K, TANAKA R, 1986 Volatile constituents of Zingiber officinale rhizomes produced by in vitro shoot tip culture. Phytochemistry 25(6):1333-1335.

19 WU P, KUO MC, HO CT, 1990 Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Agric Food Chem 38(7):1553-1555.

20 HAGINIWA J, HARADA M, MORISHITA I, 1963 Pharmacological studies on crude drugs. VII. Properties of essential oil components of aromatics and their pharmacological effect on mouse intestine. Yakugaku Zasshi 83:624.

21 VAN BEEK TA, LELYVELD GP, 1991 Isolation and identification of the five major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of ginger. Phytochem Anal 2(1):26-34.

22 SHIBA M, MYATA A, OKADA M, WATANABE K, 1986 Antiulcer furanogermenone extraction from ginger. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-61 227,523.

23 YOSHIKAWA M, HATAKEYAMA S, CHATANI N, NISHINO Y, YAMAHARA J, 1993 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive principles in Zingiberis Rhizoma by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. On the evaluation of Zingiberis Rhizoma and chemical change of constituents during Zingiberis Rhizoma processing. Yakugaku Zasshi 113(4):307-315.

24 TANABE M, CHEN YD, SAITO KI, KANO Y, 1993 Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Chem Pharm Bull 41(4):710-713.

25 KANO Y, TANABE M, YASUDA M, 1990 On the evaluation of the preparation of Chinese medicinal prescriptions (V) diterpenes from Japanese ginger "kintoki". Shoyakugaku Zasshi 44(1):55-57.

26 KAWAKISHI S, MORIMITSU Y, OSAWA T, 1994 Chemistry of ginger components and inhibitory factors of the arachidonic acid cascade. Asc Symp Ser 547:244-250.

27 KIKUZAKI H, NAKATANI N, 1993 Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J Food Sci 58(6):1407-1410.

28 KIUCHI F, IWAKAMI S, SHIBUYA M, HANAOKA F, SANKAWA U, 1992 Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull 40(2):387-391.

29 HARVEY DJ, 1981 Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of ginger constituents. identification of gingerdiones and new hexahydrocurcumin analogues. J Chromatogr 211(1):75-84.

30 MASADA Y, INOUE T, HASHIMOTO K, FUJIOKA M, UCHINO C, 1974 Studies on the constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by GC-MS. Yakugaku Zasshi 94(6):735-738.

31 ANON, 1982 Analgesic formulations containing shogaol and gingerol. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-82 46,914.

32 CHEN CC, ROSEN RT, HO CT, 1986 Chromatographic analyses of isomeric shogaol compounds derived from isolated gingerol compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Chromatogr 360:175-184.

33 HARTMAN M, 1971 Chemical composition of certain products from ginger (Zingiber officinale). Zivocisna Vyroba 16(10/11):805-812.

34 SCHULTZ JM, HERRMANN K, 1980 Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

35 FU HY, HUANG TC, HO CT, DAUN H, 1993 Characterization of the major anthocyanin in acidified green ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Zhongguo Nongye Huaxue Huizhi 31(5):587-595.

36 NELSON EK, 1920 Constitution of capsaicin, the pungent principle of ginger. II. J Amer Chem Soc 42:597-599.

37 LIN ZK, HUA YF, 1987 Chemical constituents of the essential oil from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. of Sichuan. You-Ji Hua Hsueh 6:444-448.

38 ERLER J, VOSTROWSKY O, STROBEL H, KNOBLOCH K, 1988 Essential oils from ginger (Zingiber officinalis Roscoe). Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 186(3):231-234.

39 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p172.

40 KIUCHI F, SHIBUYA M, KINOSHITA T, SANKAWA U, 1983 Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by the constituents of medicinal plants. Chem Pharm Bull 31(10):3391-3396.

41 KIUCHI F, SHIBUYA M, SANKAWA U, 1982 Inhibitors of prostaglandin biosynthesis from ginger. Chem Pharm Bull 30(2):754-757.

42 SANKAWA U, 1983 Modulators of arachidonate cascade contained in medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. 3º Congress of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian biochemists, Bangkok, Thailand, p28.

43 SRIVASTAVA KC, 1984 Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibited platelet aggregation and altered arachidonic acid metabolism. Biomed Biochim Acta 43(8/9):5335-5346.

44 ADACHI I, YASUTA A, MATSUBARA T, UENO M, TERASAWA K, HORIKOSHI I, 1984 Macrophage procoagulant activity. Effects of hot water extracts of several Kanpo-prescriptions on macrophage procoagulant activity, I. Yakugaku Zasshi 104(9):959-965.

45 MASCOLO N, JAIN R, JAIN SC, CAPASSO F, 1989 Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol 27(1/2):129-140.

46 WOO W, LEE E, HAN B, 1979 Biological evaluation of Korean medicinal plants. III. Arch Pharm Res 2:127-131.

47 MAY G, WILLUHN G, 1978 Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures. Arzneim-Forsch 28(1):1-7.

48 ADEWUNMI CO, 1984 Natural products as agents of schistosomiasis control in Nigeria: A review of progress. Int J Crude Drug Res 22(4):161-166.

49 FEROZ H, KHARE AK, SRIVASTAVA MC, 1982 Review of scientific studies on anthelmintics from plants. J Sci Res Pl Med 3:6-12.

50 PANTHONG A, SIVAMOGSTHAM P, 1974 Pharmacological study of the action of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the gastrointestinal tract. Chien Mai Med Bull 13(1):41-53.

51 KASAHARA Y, SAITO E, HIKINO H, 1983 Pharmacological actions of Pinellia tubers and Zingiber rhizomes. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(1):73-83.

52 SAKAI K, MIYAZAKI Y, YAMANE T, SAITOH Y, IKAWA C, NISHIHATA T, 1989 Effect of extracts of Zingiberaceae herbs on gastric secretion in rabbits. Chem Pharm Bull 37(1):215-217.

53 YAMAHARA J, RONG HQ, NAITOH Y, KITANI T, FUJIMURA H, 1989 Inhibition of cytotoxic drug-induced vomiting in Suncus by a ginger constituent. J Ethnopharmacol 27(3):353-355.

54 YAMAHARA J, YAMADA T, KIMURA H, SAWADA T, FUJIMURA H, 1982 Biologically active principles of crude drugs. Anti-allergic principles of "Shoseiryu-To". I. Effect on delayed-type allergy reaction. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(9):881-886.

55 MOWREY DB, CLAYSON DE, 1982 Motion sickness, ginger and psychophysics. Lancet 82(1):655-657.

56 GRONTVED A, BRASK T, KAMBSKARD J, HENTZER E, 1988 Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockholm) 105(1/2):45-49.

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