jaundice

Cucurbita moschata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: auyama
 Haiti: jiroumou , jiwomon

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  flower, decoction or infusion, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use for jaundice, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved in hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The fruit and the flower of Cucurbita moschata are widely used for human consumption.

For asthenia and weakness

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For jaundice:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams of flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of the decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of flower.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day28.

For burns:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the leaf juice in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

6 DUKE JA, 2000 Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cucurbita moschata. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, August 10, 2000. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 WASHUTTL J, Reiderer P, Bancher E, 1973 A qualitative and quantitative study of sugar-alcohols in several foods. J Food Sci 38:1262-1263.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p55.

14 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en Medicina Tradicional Popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 VILENCHIK M, 1989 Fundamentos biológicos del envejecimiento y la longevidad. Moscú, URSS: Ed. MIR.

22 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 WENIGER B, 1992 Cytotoxicité, effets immunodulateurs et morphologique des extraits éthanolique 80% et aqueux de feuille deCucurbita. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

24 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990 Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea Soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

25 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

26 CHEN ZK, PU TC, LI DY, JIANG HA, 1980 Therapeutic effect of cucurbitine on dog taeniasis.Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao1(2):124-126.

28 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p226.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008 Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, de la hoja de Curcubita moschata. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Cucurbita moschata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: auyama
 Haiti: jiroumou , jiwomon

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, aqueous maceration, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use for jaundice, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved in hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The fruit and the flower of Cucurbita moschata are widely used for human consumption.

For asthenia and weakness

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For jaundice:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams of flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of the decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of flower.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day28.

For burns:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the leaf juice in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

6 DUKE JA, 2000 Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cucurbita moschata. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, August 10, 2000. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 WASHUTTL J, Reiderer P, Bancher E, 1973 A qualitative and quantitative study of sugar-alcohols in several foods. J Food Sci 38:1262-1263.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p55.

14 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en Medicina Tradicional Popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 VILENCHIK M, 1989 Fundamentos biológicos del envejecimiento y la longevidad. Moscú, URSS: Ed. MIR.

22 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 WENIGER B, 1992 Cytotoxicité, effets immunodulateurs et morphologique des extraits éthanolique 80% et aqueux de feuille deCucurbita. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

24 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990 Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea Soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

25 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

26 CHEN ZK, PU TC, LI DY, JIANG HA, 1980 Therapeutic effect of cucurbitine on dog taeniasis.Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao1(2):124-126.

28 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p226.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008 Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, de la hoja de Curcubita moschata. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Curcuma longa


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: safran , curcuma
 Saint Lucia: tjitjima , turmeric , Indian saffron

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  rhizome, aqueous maceration, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for jaundice and hepatic disorders is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice and hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the hepatic disorder last more than 5 days, or 3 days in children under 5 years, seek medical attention.

Not for use by women intending to become pregnant, during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

Use for abscess is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Not for use in patients with obstructions in the bile-conducting structures, such as stones, unless under supervision of a physician, nor in people with a record of hypersensitivity to the plant4-5.

Rhizome powder can cause reactions in case of contact with the skin.

The rhizome of Curcuma longa is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

For abscess and jaundice :

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (4 teaspoonfuls) of rhizome in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup 3-4 times a day.

For jaundice and hepatic disorders:

Grind 20 grams (4 teaspoonfuls) of rhizome and add to 1 liter (4 cups) of boiled water.  Let the preparation settle for 12 hours.  Filter and drink in several portions within the following 12 hours47.

1 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

4 WHO, 2002 WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Feb.28,2003, URL: http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/pdf/259to266.pdf

5 PDR® for Herbal Medicines, 2003 Feb.28,2003. URL: http://www.mdcc.edu/medical/library/catalog2.htm

6 OGBEIDE ON, EDUAVEGUAVOEN OI, PARVEZ M, 1985 Identification of 2-(hydroxymethyl) anthraquinone in Curcuma domestica. Pak J Sci 37(1/4):15-17.

7 SU HCF, HORVAT R, JILANI G, 1982 Isolation, purification, and characterization of insect repellents from Curcuma longa L. J Agric Food Chem 30:290-292.

8 OHSHIRO M, KUROYANAGI M, UENO A, 1990 Structures of sesquiterpenes from Curcuma longa. Phytochemistry 29(7):2201-2205.

9 CHEN YH, YU JG, FANG HJ, 1983 Studies on Chinese Curcuma. III. Comparison of the volatile oil and phenolic constituents from the rhizome and the tuber of Cucurma longa. Chung Yao T'ung Pao 8(1):27-29.

10 MOON CK, PARK NS, KOH SK, 1976 Studies on the lipid components of Curcuma longa. I. The composition of fatty acids and sterols. Soul Taehakkyo Yakhak Nonmunjip 1:132.

11 YASUDA K, TSUDA T, SHIMIZU H, SUGAYA A, 1988 Multiplication of Curcuma species by tissue culture. Planta Med 54(1):75-79.

12 SCHULTZ JM, HERRMANN K, 1980 Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

13 PARK SN, BOO YC, 1991 Cell protection from damage by active oxygen with curcuminoids. Patent-Fr Demande-2,655,054.

14 TODA S, MIYASE T, ARICHI H, TANIZAWA H, TAKINO Y, 1985 Natural antioxidants. III. Antioxidative components isolated from rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Chem Pharm Bull 33(4):1725-1728.

15 JENTZSCH K, SPIEGL P, KAMITZ R, 1970 Qualitative and quantitative studies of curcuma dyes in different Zingiberaceae drugs. 2. Quantitative studies. Sci Pharm 38:50.

16 KARIG F, 1975 Rapid identification of curcuma rhizomes with the tas (thermomicroseparation and application) process. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 115:325.

17 GONDA R, TOMODA M, TAKADA K, OHARA N, SHIMIZU N, 1992 The core structure of ukonan A, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, and immunological activities of degradation products. Chem Pharm Bull 40(4):990-993.

18 WOO WS, CHI HJ, YUN HS, WOO LK, 1977 Phytochemical screening of Korean medicinal plants (II). Korean J Pharmacog 8:103-108.

19 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

20 YANG M, DONG X, TANG Y, 1984 Studies of the chemical constituents of common turmeric (Curcuma longa). Chung Ts'ao Yao 15(5):197-198.

19 ZHAO DY, YANG MK, 1986 Separation and determination of cucurminoids in Curcuma longa L. and its preparation by HPLC. Yao Hsueh Pao 21(5):382-385.

22 KISO Y, SUZUKI Y, WATANABE N, OSHIMA Y, HIKINO H, 1983 Antihepatotoxic principles of Curcuma longa rhizomes. Planta Med 49(3):185-187.

23 GONDA R, TOMODA M, SHIMIZU N, KANARI M, 1990 Characterization of polysaccharides having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 38(2):482-486.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p56.

25 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

26 JOYEUX M, FLEURENTIN J, DORFMAN P, MONTIER F, 1988 Recherche d'une activité hépatotrope et antiradicalaire de plantes médicinales de la caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de pharmacognosie, Centre des Sciences pour l'Environnement, Metz, France.

27 CHANG IM, WOO WS, 1980 Screening of Korean medicinal plants for antitumor activity. Arch Pharm Res 3(2):75-78.

28 KOSUGE T, YOKOTA M, SUGIYAMA K, YAMAMOTO T, NI MY, YAN SC, 1985 Studies of antitumor activities and antitumor principles of Chinese herbs. Yakugaku Zasshi 105(8):791-795.

29 ITOKAWA H, 1988 Research on antineoplastic drugs from natural sources, especially from higher plants. Yakugaku Zasshi108(9):824-841.

30 SRIVASTAVA KC, 1989 Extracts from two frequently consumed spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibit platelet aggregation and alter eicosanoid biosynthesis in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids37(1):57-64.

31 DIXIT VP, JAIN P, JOSHI SC, 1988 Hypolipidaemic effects of Curcuma longa L. & Nardostachys jatamansi in triton-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 32(4):299-304.

32 DONATUS IA, SARDJOKO, VERMEULEN NPE, 1990 Cytotoxic and cytoprotective activities of curcumin. Effects on paracetamol induced cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion in rat hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 39(12):1869-1875.

33 AMMON HP, WAHL MA, 1991 Pharmacology ofCurcuma longa. Planta Med57(1):1-7.

34 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

35 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS Herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

36 KINOSHITA G, NAKAMURA F, MARUYAMA T, 1986 Immunological studies on polysaccharide fraction of crude drugs. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 40(3):325-332.

37 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne.Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

38 KOSUGE T, ISHIDA H, YAMAZAKI H, 1985 Studies on active substances in the herbs used for oketsu ("stagnant blood") in Chinese medicine III. On the anticoagulative principles in curcumae rhizoma. Chem Pharm Bulll (Tokyo) 33(4):1499-1502.

39 BLANCK W,1990 Processes for the preparation of medicinal compositions, compositions obtained by these processes and use thereof for the preparation of medicines against viral hepatitis B and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. World Intellectual Property Org./U.S.Patent & Trademark Office, Bibliographic File of Published PCT Internat. Applications. Jan.1983 to Dec.1989; Prototype Jun.1990. Int. Pub. No. 8805304.

40 SONI KB, LAHIRI M, CHACKRADEO P, BHIDE SV, KUTTAN R, 1997 Protective effect of food additives on aflatoxin-induced mutagenicity and hepatocarcinogenicity. Cancer Lett 115(2):129-133.

41 AZUINE MA, KAYAL JJ, BHIDE SV, 1992 Protective role of aqueous turmeric extract against mutagenicity of direct-acting carcinogens as well as benzo [alpha] pyrene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 118(6):447-52.

42 YEGNANARAYANA M, SARAF AP, BALWANI JH, 1976 Comparison of anti-inflammatory effect of various extracts of Curcuma longa. Indian J Med Res64(4):601-608.

43 POLASA K, SESIKARAN B, KRISHNA TP, KRISHNASWAMY K, 1991 Turmeric (Curcuma longa) - induced reduction in urinary mutagens. Food Chem Toxicol 29(10):699-706.

44 QURESHI S, SHAH AH, AGEEL AM, 1992 Toxicity studies on Alpinia galanga and Curcuma longa. Planta Med 58(2):124-127.

45 VIJAYALAXMI, 1980 Genetic effect of turmeric and curcumin in mice and rats. Mut Res 79:125-132.

46 KAMBOJ VP, 1988 A review of Indian medicinal plants with interceptive activity. Indian J Med Res 4:336-355.

47 SEETHARAM KA, PASRICHA JS, 1987 Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

48 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p227.

49 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de rizoma fresco de Curcuma longa. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Curcuma longa


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: safran , curcuma
 Saint Lucia: tjitjima , turmeric , Indian saffron

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  rhizome, decoction with salt, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for jaundice and hepatic disorders is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice and hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the hepatic disorder last more than 5 days, or 3 days in children under 5 years, seek medical attention.

Not for use by women intending to become pregnant, during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

Use for abscess is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Not for use in patients with obstructions in the bile-conducting structures, such as stones, unless under supervision of a physician, nor in people with a record of hypersensitivity to the plant4-5.

Rhizome powder can cause reactions in case of contact with the skin.

The rhizome of Curcuma longa is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

For abscess and jaundice :

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (4 teaspoonfuls) of rhizome in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup 3-4 times a day.

For jaundice and hepatic disorders:

Grind 20 grams (4 teaspoonfuls) of rhizome and add to 1 liter (4 cups) of boiled water.  Let the preparation settle for 12 hours.  Filter and drink in several portions within the following 12 hours47.

1 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

4 WHO, 2002 WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Feb.28,2003, URL: http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/pdf/259to266.pdf

5 PDR® for Herbal Medicines, 2003 Feb.28,2003. URL: http://www.mdcc.edu/medical/library/catalog2.htm

6 OGBEIDE ON, EDUAVEGUAVOEN OI, PARVEZ M, 1985 Identification of 2-(hydroxymethyl) anthraquinone in Curcuma domestica. Pak J Sci 37(1/4):15-17.

7 SU HCF, HORVAT R, JILANI G, 1982 Isolation, purification, and characterization of insect repellents from Curcuma longa L. J Agric Food Chem 30:290-292.

8 OHSHIRO M, KUROYANAGI M, UENO A, 1990 Structures of sesquiterpenes from Curcuma longa. Phytochemistry 29(7):2201-2205.

9 CHEN YH, YU JG, FANG HJ, 1983 Studies on Chinese Curcuma. III. Comparison of the volatile oil and phenolic constituents from the rhizome and the tuber of Cucurma longa. Chung Yao T'ung Pao 8(1):27-29.

10 MOON CK, PARK NS, KOH SK, 1976 Studies on the lipid components of Curcuma longa. I. The composition of fatty acids and sterols. Soul Taehakkyo Yakhak Nonmunjip 1:132.

11 YASUDA K, TSUDA T, SHIMIZU H, SUGAYA A, 1988 Multiplication of Curcuma species by tissue culture. Planta Med 54(1):75-79.

12 SCHULTZ JM, HERRMANN K, 1980 Occurrence of hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic acid in spices. IV. Phenolics of spices. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 171:193-199.

13 PARK SN, BOO YC, 1991 Cell protection from damage by active oxygen with curcuminoids. Patent-Fr Demande-2,655,054.

14 TODA S, MIYASE T, ARICHI H, TANIZAWA H, TAKINO Y, 1985 Natural antioxidants. III. Antioxidative components isolated from rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Chem Pharm Bull 33(4):1725-1728.

15 JENTZSCH K, SPIEGL P, KAMITZ R, 1970 Qualitative and quantitative studies of curcuma dyes in different Zingiberaceae drugs. 2. Quantitative studies. Sci Pharm 38:50.

16 KARIG F, 1975 Rapid identification of curcuma rhizomes with the tas (thermomicroseparation and application) process. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 115:325.

17 GONDA R, TOMODA M, TAKADA K, OHARA N, SHIMIZU N, 1992 The core structure of ukonan A, a phagocytosis-activating polysaccharide from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, and immunological activities of degradation products. Chem Pharm Bull 40(4):990-993.

18 WOO WS, CHI HJ, YUN HS, WOO LK, 1977 Phytochemical screening of Korean medicinal plants (II). Korean J Pharmacog 8:103-108.

19 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

20 YANG M, DONG X, TANG Y, 1984 Studies of the chemical constituents of common turmeric (Curcuma longa). Chung Ts'ao Yao 15(5):197-198.

19 ZHAO DY, YANG MK, 1986 Separation and determination of cucurminoids in Curcuma longa L. and its preparation by HPLC. Yao Hsueh Pao 21(5):382-385.

22 KISO Y, SUZUKI Y, WATANABE N, OSHIMA Y, HIKINO H, 1983 Antihepatotoxic principles of Curcuma longa rhizomes. Planta Med 49(3):185-187.

23 GONDA R, TOMODA M, SHIMIZU N, KANARI M, 1990 Characterization of polysaccharides having activity on the reticuloendothelial system from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo 38(2):482-486.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p56.

25 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

26 JOYEUX M, FLEURENTIN J, DORFMAN P, MONTIER F, 1988 Recherche d'une activité hépatotrope et antiradicalaire de plantes médicinales de la caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de pharmacognosie, Centre des Sciences pour l'Environnement, Metz, France.

27 CHANG IM, WOO WS, 1980 Screening of Korean medicinal plants for antitumor activity. Arch Pharm Res 3(2):75-78.

28 KOSUGE T, YOKOTA M, SUGIYAMA K, YAMAMOTO T, NI MY, YAN SC, 1985 Studies of antitumor activities and antitumor principles of Chinese herbs. Yakugaku Zasshi 105(8):791-795.

29 ITOKAWA H, 1988 Research on antineoplastic drugs from natural sources, especially from higher plants. Yakugaku Zasshi108(9):824-841.

30 SRIVASTAVA KC, 1989 Extracts from two frequently consumed spices cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) inhibit platelet aggregation and alter eicosanoid biosynthesis in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids37(1):57-64.

31 DIXIT VP, JAIN P, JOSHI SC, 1988 Hypolipidaemic effects of Curcuma longa L. & Nardostachys jatamansi in triton-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 32(4):299-304.

32 DONATUS IA, SARDJOKO, VERMEULEN NPE, 1990 Cytotoxic and cytoprotective activities of curcumin. Effects on paracetamol induced cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion in rat hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 39(12):1869-1875.

33 AMMON HP, WAHL MA, 1991 Pharmacology ofCurcuma longa. Planta Med57(1):1-7.

34 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

35 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS Herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

36 KINOSHITA G, NAKAMURA F, MARUYAMA T, 1986 Immunological studies on polysaccharide fraction of crude drugs. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 40(3):325-332.

37 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne.Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

38 KOSUGE T, ISHIDA H, YAMAZAKI H, 1985 Studies on active substances in the herbs used for oketsu ("stagnant blood") in Chinese medicine III. On the anticoagulative principles in curcumae rhizoma. Chem Pharm Bulll (Tokyo) 33(4):1499-1502.

39 BLANCK W,1990 Processes for the preparation of medicinal compositions, compositions obtained by these processes and use thereof for the preparation of medicines against viral hepatitis B and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. World Intellectual Property Org./U.S.Patent & Trademark Office, Bibliographic File of Published PCT Internat. Applications. Jan.1983 to Dec.1989; Prototype Jun.1990. Int. Pub. No. 8805304.

40 SONI KB, LAHIRI M, CHACKRADEO P, BHIDE SV, KUTTAN R, 1997 Protective effect of food additives on aflatoxin-induced mutagenicity and hepatocarcinogenicity. Cancer Lett 115(2):129-133.

41 AZUINE MA, KAYAL JJ, BHIDE SV, 1992 Protective role of aqueous turmeric extract against mutagenicity of direct-acting carcinogens as well as benzo [alpha] pyrene-induced genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 118(6):447-52.

42 YEGNANARAYANA M, SARAF AP, BALWANI JH, 1976 Comparison of anti-inflammatory effect of various extracts of Curcuma longa. Indian J Med Res64(4):601-608.

43 POLASA K, SESIKARAN B, KRISHNA TP, KRISHNASWAMY K, 1991 Turmeric (Curcuma longa) - induced reduction in urinary mutagens. Food Chem Toxicol 29(10):699-706.

44 QURESHI S, SHAH AH, AGEEL AM, 1992 Toxicity studies on Alpinia galanga and Curcuma longa. Planta Med 58(2):124-127.

45 VIJAYALAXMI, 1980 Genetic effect of turmeric and curcumin in mice and rats. Mut Res 79:125-132.

46 KAMBOJ VP, 1988 A review of Indian medicinal plants with interceptive activity. Indian J Med Res 4:336-355.

47 SEETHARAM KA, PASRICHA JS, 1987 Condiments and contact dermatitis of the finger-tips. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(6):325-328.

48 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p227.

49 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, del extracto de rizoma fresco de Curcuma longa. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Senna occidentalis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominica: café moucha
 Dominican Republic: bruca
 Guatemala: frijolillo
 Honduras: frijolillo
 Haiti: terrier rouge

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

Use for "bad blood" is part of the cultural tradition of our communities.  It has not been listed in the TRAMIL classification.

According to published and other information:

Use of the leaf for skin conditions, headache, body ache, sorethroat, fever and jaundice, and use of the seed for sore and tinea are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use of the leaf for stomach pain, of the seed for body ache and of the root for stomach pain, sorethroat and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, jaundice or stomach pain for more than 3 days, or skin conditions for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Thoroughly wash 30–50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets), mash and apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

For stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15 grams of leaf (7-10 leaflets) and 15 grams of root in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day36.

For headache, fever, jaundice, sorethroat and body ache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977 Anthraquinone pigments from Cassia occidentalis. Planta Med Suppl 32(4):375-377.

7 RAI PP, SHOK M, 1983 Anthraquinone glycosides from plant parts of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J Pharm Sci 45(2):87-88.

8 ANTON R, DUQUENOIS P, 1968 Contribution à l'étude chimique duCassia occidentalis L. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 26(2):673-680.

9 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977 Flavonoids from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry16(7):1107-1108.

10 MAJUMDAR SG, BASAK B, LASKAR S, 1987 Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of some Cassia species. J Indian Chem Soc 64(4):259-260.

11 ALVES AC, 1964 Pharmacological study of the root of Cassia occidentalis. An Fac Farm Porto 24:65-119.

12 WADER GR, KUDAV NA, 1987 Chemical investigation ofCassia occidentalis Linn. with special reference to isolation of xanthones fromCassia spp. Indian J of Chemisitry 26(B7):703.

13 KUDAV NA, KULKARNI A, 1974 Chemical investigation on Cassia occidentalis. II. Isolation of islandicin, helminthosporine, xanthonin and NMR spectral studies of cassiollin and its derivatives. Indian J Chem 12:1042-1044.

14 LAL-JAWAHAR, GUPTA-PURAN-CHANDRA, 1973 Physcion and phytosterol from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 12(5):1186.

15 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, OCAMPO R, Pazos L, 2001 Tránsito intestinal en ratones, con extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

18 PEREZ C, SUAREZ C, 1997 Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Candida albicans. Amer J Chinese Med 25(2):181-184.

19 HUSSAIN HS, DEENI YY, 1991 Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

20 SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN G, ROJAS DE ARIAS A, 1992 A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother Res 6(2):68-73.

21 TONA L, NGIMBI NP, TSAKALA M, MESIA K, CIMANGA K, ASPERS S, DE BRUYNE T, PIETERS L, TOTTE J, VLIETINCK AJ, 1999 Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1/3):193-203.

22 SADIQUE J, CHANDRA T, THENMOZHI V, ELANGO V, 1987 Biochemical modes of action ofCassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19(2):201-212.

23 SARAF S, DIXIT VK, TRIPATHI SC, PATNAIK GK, 1994 Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int J Pharmacog 32(2):178-183.

24 JAFRI MA, JALIS SUBHANI M, JAVED K, SINGH S, 1999 Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66(3):355-361.

25 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HS, 1962 Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

26 Garcia GM, Coto MT, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 Garcia GM, Coto MT, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990 Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica deMomordica charantia L. yCassia occidentalis L. en conejo y cobayo. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de semillas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 O'HARA P, PIERCE K, 1974 A toxic cardiomyopathy caused byCassia occidentalis. II Biochemical studies in poisoned rabbits. Vet Pathol 11(2):110-124.

33 COLVIN BM, HARRISON LR, SANGSTER LT, GOSSER HS, 1986 Cassia occidentalis toxicosis in growing pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(4):423-426.

34 MARTINS E, MARTINS VM, RIET-CORREA F, SONCINI RA, PARABONI SV, 1986 Intoxicação por Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae) em suínos. Pesq Vet Bras 6(2):35-38.

35BARTH AT, KOMMERS GO, SALLES MS, WOUTERS F, DE BARROS CS, 1994 Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(6):541-545.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p174.