amenorrhoea

Beta vulgaris


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: bètrouj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

root, juice, taken orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for period delay (amenorrhoea), asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to health risks involved with asthenia and weakness, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

The root of Beta vulgaris is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of sucrose.

For period delay (amenorrhoea), asthenia and weakness:

Wash the fresh crude root. Prepare 100 mL juice. Drink one or more times a day29.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 CHIERICI L, 1953 Allantoin and tyrosine in beets. Ateneo Parmense 24:185-188.

5 DUBBELS R, REITER RJ, KLENKE E, GOEBEL A, SCHNAKENBERG E, EHLERS C, SCHIWARA HW, SCHLOOT W, 1995 Melatonin in edible plants identified by radioimmunoassay and by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pineal Res 18(1):28-31.

6 TYIHAK E, 1964 Effective component in the effect of the red beet (Beta vulgaris var conditiva) on tumors. Naturwissenschaften 51:315-316.

7 IKEKITA M, MORIYA H, MORIWAKI C, RURIKAWA T, 1979 Some properties of anti-bradykinin substance from beet (Beta vulgaris L. var rapaDumort.f rubra DC.) roots. Yakugaku Zasshi 99:607-611.

8 NEURATH GB, DUNGER M, PEIN FG, AMBROSIUS D, SCHREIBER O, 1977 Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15(4):275-282.

9 PARFENENKO VV, BUZINA GV, LUTSENKO OK, 1974 Production of gel-forming beet pectin in the presence of 1.1% hydrochloric acid. Khlebopek Konditer Prom 1974(10):20.

10 CHOLLET MM, 1950 Sucrose and raffinose in beets. Bull Soc Bot Fr 1950:173-177.

11 PIATTELLI M, MINALE L, PROTA G, 1965 Pigments of centrospermae. III. Betaxanthins from Beta vulgaris L. Phytochemistry 4:121-125.

12 HERRMANN K, 1957 Oxidative enzymes and phenolic substrate in vegetables and fruit. I. hydroxycinnamic acids. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 106:341-348.

13 BURBA M, NITZSCHKE U, 1974 Oxalic acid in sugar beet roots. Int Sugar J 76:326.

14 TAKAHASHI H, SASAKI T, ITO M, 1987 New flavonoids isolated from infected sugar beet roots. Bull Chem Soc Japan 60(6):2261-2262.

15 ELLIGER CA, HALLOIN JM, 1994 Phenolics induced in Beta vulgaris by Rhizoctonia solani infection. Phytochemistry 37(3):691-693.

16 YOSHIKAWA M, MURAKAMI T, KADOYA M, MATSUDA H, MURAOKA O, YAMAHARA J, MURAKAMI N, 1996 Medicinal foodstuffs. III. Sugar beet. (1): Hypoglycemic oleanolic acid oligoglycosides, betavulgarosides I, II, III, and IV, from the root of Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae). Chem Pharm Bull 44(6):1212-1217.

17 YOSHIKAWA M, MURAKAWI T, KADOYA M, YAMAHARA J, MATSUDA H, 1998 Medicinal foodstuffs. XV. Sugar beet. (2): Structures of betavulgarosides V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X from the roots and leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., Chenopodiaceae). Chem Pharm Bull 46(11):1758-1763.

18 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p26.

19MORON F, 1990 Actividades biológicas de Beta vulgaris. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

20CARBALLO A, RODRIGUEZ A, RODRIGUEZ O, LLENDERROZOS A, 1992 Efectividad de la administración del zumo de raíces de remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.) en el control de la astenia. Estudio clínico controlado. Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas. Santa Clara, Cuba.

21 KOSHIMIZU K, OHIGASHI H, KONDO A, YAMAGUCHI K, 1988 Screening of edible plants against possible anti-tumor promoting activity. Cancer Lett39(3):247-257.

22 GUERIN JC, REVEILLERE HP, 1984 Antifungal activity of plant extracts used in therapy I. Study of 41 plant extracts against 9 fungi species. Ann Pharm Fr42(6):553-559.

23 PRAHOVEANU E, ESANU V, ANTON G, FRUNZULIC S, 1986 Prophylactic effect of a Beta vulgaris extract on experimental influenza infection in mice. Rev Roum Med Virol37(2):121-124.

24 JOSEPH H, GRANDGUILLOTTE M, 1986 Recherches bibliographiques. TRAMIL II, Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, UASD/enda-caribe.

25 RAO VSN, DASARADHAN P, KRISHNALAH KS, 1979 Antifertility effect of some indigenous plants. Indian J Med Res70:517-520.

26 NAVRATIL B, ZEMAN L, 1976 Effect of the daily ration and the type of complete mixed feed fed to pregnant sows on the number and weight of piglets. Zivocisna Uyrpba21:295-303.

27 GREER MA, ASTWOOD EB, 1948 The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodine. Endocrinology43:105-119.

28 ALKOFAHI A, ABDELAZIZ A, MAHMOUD I, ABUIRJIE M, HUNAITI A, EL-OQLA A, 1990 Cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimicrobial activity of forty Jordanian medicinal plants. Int J Crude Drug Res28(2):139-144.

29 VANACLOCHA B, CAÑIGUERAL S, (eds.) 2003 Beta vulgaris. En: Fitoterapia. Vademecum de Prescripción. 4ta Edición. Editorial MASSON, Barcelona, España, p. 428.

Catalpa longissima


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: roble
 Haiti: bwa dchèn , bwadoèn

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  bark, decoction with salt, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach pain and delayed menstruation (amenorrhea) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional practice documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, validation and published scientific information available.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain last more than 3 days, medical attention should be sought for.

The use for fever is also classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and published scientific information available.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, medical attention should be sought for.

Not for use by women during pregnancy as it may lead to abortion, during lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

Not for use for more than seven consecutive days in any class of patient.

For period delay (amenorrhea) and stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams of bark pieces in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, with or without a pinch of salt, depending on use, boil for a minimum of 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Sift, leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup every 6 hours14.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 10 grams of fresh leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water with a pinch of salt; boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Strain, leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup every 6 hours14.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Faculté de Médicine, Université d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 BOURGEOIS P, 1988 Etude chimique de Catalpa longissima. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, UAG, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe.

5 CHAUHAN AK, DOBHAL MP, UNIYAL PN, 1988 Phytochemical investigation of Catalpa longissima L. Part I. Herba Pol 34(1/2):3-5.

6 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel & Stuttgart, Schweiz und Deutchland: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

7 DUKE J, 1999 Chemicals and their biological activities in:Catalpa longissima (Jacq.) Dum.Cours. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, Nov.20,2000. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

8 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

9 HERRERA J, 1988 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Trabajo TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

10 SOUZA BRITO A, 1995 Actividad farmacológica de Catalpa longissima. Trabajo TRAMIL. Dep. de Fisiología y Biofísica, Universidad de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

11 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, 1964 Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 16:115.

12 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic-chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey), 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie-Verlag.

13 SOUZA BRITO A, 1995 Toxicidad aguda de Catalpa longissima. Trabajo TRAMIL. Dep. de Fisiología y Biofísica, Universidad de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

14 MINISTERE DE L’EMPLOI ET DE LA SOLIDARITE, 1998 Les médicaments à base de plantes. Paris, France: Agence du Médicament.

Haematoxylum campechianum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: bwa kanpèch

Haematoxylum campechianum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: bwa kanpèch

Persea americana


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: aguacate
 Guatemala: aguacate
 Martinique: zaboka
 Mexico: aguacate

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

(and/or abortifacient) : leaf or fruit, decoction, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for amenorrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma, bronchitis or cough last more than 5 days, or should urinary infection persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the risks of documented interactions with warfarin and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by persons taking these medicines5.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

 

Not for use during pregnancy because it may have abortifacient effect.

The fruit of Persea americana is widely used for human consumption.

For amenorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1/2-1 cup 3-4 times a day26.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

5 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Persea americana. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Feb. 26, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

6 BERGH BO, SCORA RW, STOREY WB, 1973 Comparison of leaf terpenes in Persea subgenus persea. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 134:130-134.

7 KING JR, KNIGHT RJ, 1992 Volatile components of the leaves of various avocado cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1182-1185.

8 DE ALMEIDA AP, MIRANDA MMFS, SIMONI IC, WIGG MD, LAGROTA MHC, COSTA SS, 1998 Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion. Phytother Res 12(8):562-567.

9 MERIÇLI F, MERIÇLI AH, YILMAZ F, YÜNCÜLER G, YÜNCÜLER O, 1992 Flavonoids of avocado (Persea americana) leaves. Acta Pharm Turc 34(2):61-63.

10 BATE-SMITH EC, 1975 Phytochemistry of proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 14(4):1107-1113.

11 MURAKOSHI S, ISOGAI A, CHANG CF, KAMIKADO T, SAKURAI A, TAMURA S, 1976 The effects of two components from avocado leaves (Persea americana) and related compounds on the growth of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkaishi 20:87-91.

12 HIRAI N, KOSHIMIZU K, 1983 A new conjugate of dihydrophaseic acid from avocado fruit. Agr Biol Chem 47(2):365-371.

13 WILSON C, WILSON III CW, SAW PE, NAGY S, 1979 Analysis of monosaccharides in avocado by HPLC. Liq Chromat Anal Food Beverages 1:225-236.

14 SARDI JC, TORRES OA, 1978 Study on avocado (Persea americana) oil. Arch Bioquim Quim Farm 20:45-49.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p324.

16 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas TRAMIL en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de ciencias químicas y farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

17 HERRERA J, 1986 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

18 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003 Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 ADEYEMI OO, OKPO SO, OGUNTI OO, 2002 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill Lauraceae. Fitoterapia 73(5):375-380.

21 MIWA M, KONG ZL, SHINOHARA K, WATANABE M, 1990 Macrophage stimulating activity of foods. Agric Biol Chem 54(7):1863-1866.

22 HERRERA J, 1988 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 CRAIGMILL AL, SEAWRIGHT AA, MATTILA T, FROST AJ, 1989 Pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (Persea americana). Aust Vet J 66(7):206-211.

25 GRANT R, BASSON PA, BOOKER HH, HOFHERR JB, ANTHONISSEN M, 1991 Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leaves. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62(1):21-22.

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p185.

27 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca machacada de Persea americana Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

28 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Tradescantia spathacea


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: magueyito
 Haiti: boul di mas

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  hoja, decocción, vía oral2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for late period (amenorrhea) without pregnancy, twisting and traumatism are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Topical use for headache is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Not for use by pregnant women for risk of abortion, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For late period (amenorrhea) other than pregnancy, apply treatment for three consecutive days.

Do not use decoction by oral administrationfor more than five consecutive days.

If the patient’s condition deteriorates, or if headache, twisting or traumatism persist for more than three days, seek medical attention.

Contact of the leaf with the skin may cause irritation5.

For headache, late period (amenorrhea), twisting or traumatism:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 LAMPE KF, FAGERSTRÖM R, 1968 Plant toxicity and dermatitis: A manual for physicians. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins.

6 IDAKA E, OGAWA T, KONDO T, GOTO T, 1987 Isolation of highly acylated anthocyanins from Commelinaceae plants, Zebrina pendula, Rhoeo spathacea and Setcreasea purpurea. Agr Biol Chem 51(8):2215-2220.

7 YEOH HH, WEE YC, WATSON L, 1986 Taxonomic variation in total leaf protein amino acid compositions of monocotyledonous plants. Biochem Syst Ecol 14(1):91-96.

8 WENIGER B, HAAG-BERRURIER M, ANTON R, 1982 Plants of Haiti used as antifertility agents. J of Ethnopharmacology 6(1):67-84.

9 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá. TRAMIL III, La Habana, Cuba, MINSAP/enda-caribe.

10 PEREZ RM, 1996 Anti-inflammatory activity of Ambrosia artemisiaefolia and Rhoeo spathacea. Phytomedicine 3(2):163-167.

11 SUFFNESS M, ABBOTT B, STATZ DW, WONILOWICZ E, SPJUT R, 1988 The utility of P388 leukemia compared to B16 melanoma and colon carcinoma 38 for in vivo screening of plant extracts. Phytother Res 2(2):89-97.