fever

Allium sativum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : garlic
  • Dominican Republic : ajo
  • Guatemala : ajo
  • Haiti : lay
  • Saint Lucia : lay
  • Martinique : lay
  • Martinique : ail

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

bulb, decoction, taken orally3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

Use for “bad blood” is a traditional cultural use of our communities and is not classified in the TRAMIL Program.

According to published and other information:

Use for skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence, and intestinal parasites is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and published scientific information.

Use for toothaches, earaches, and fever is classified as REC, based on significant traditional uses (OMS/WHO)7 documented by TRAMIL surveys.

The bulb can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum.  If the patient’s condition worsens or if the earache persists for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Contraindicated for use in hyperthyroidism8. The extracts from garlic interact with anticoagulant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic treatments.

The bulb of Allium sativum is widely used for human consumption.

The garlic bulb for medicinal purposes should be taken together with meals, so as to prevent gastro-intestinal problems71.

For fever, gastric bloating, nausea, flatulence and intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 2 to 5 grams of fresh garlic71 (1 to 2.5 cloves) or 2 to 4 grams of dried garlic71 in 1 cup of water (250 mL), boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Cool and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For other forms of administration of garlic bulb, the daily consumption doses recommended by OMS71 are: for oil: 2 to 5 mg; for extracts, 300 to 1000 mg (as solid material).  Other type of pharmaceutical preparations should meet alliine values of 4-12 mg or allicine values of 2-5 mg71.

For treatment of skin conditions, pruritus, candidiasis, toothache, and earache:

2 to 5 g (1 to 2.5 cloves) of peeled fresh garlic; wash thoroughly and crush, then apply to the affected area twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988
TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

6 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

7 WHO, 1991
Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 ARTECHI A (Ed.), 1998
Fitoterapia Vademécum de prescripción Plantas Medicinales. Barcelona, España: Masson. p63.

9 SENDL A, ELBL G, STEINKE B, REDL K, BREU W, WAGNER H, 1992
Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 58:11-17.

10 CALVEY EM, ROACH JAG, BLOCK E, 1994
Supercritical fluid chromatography of garlic (Allium sativum) extracts with mass spectrometric identification of allicin. J Chromatogr Sci 32:393-396.

11 BLOCK E, AHMAD S, CATALFAMO JL, JAIN MK, APITZ-CASTRO R, 1986
Antithrombotic organosulfur compounds from garlic: structural, mechanistic, and synthetic studies. J Amer Chem Soc 108:227045-227055.

12 MOCHIZUKI E, YAMAMOTO T, KOMIYAMA Y, NAKAZAWA H, 1998
Identification of Allium products using flame photometric detection gas chromatography and distribution patterns of volatile sulfur compounds. J Agr Food Chem 46:125170-125176.

13 UEDA Y, SAKAGUCHI M, HIRAYAMA K, MIYAJIMA R, KIMIZUKA A, 1990
Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agr Biol Chem 54:1163-1169.

14 KOCH HP, JAGER W, 1989
Garlic allicin release from fresh and dried garlic and products thereof. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 129:6273-6276.

15 LAWSON LD, WANG ZYJ, HUGHES BG, 1991
Identification and hplc quantitation of the sulfides and dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates in commercial garlic products. Planta Med 57:363-370.

16 OHSUMI C, HAYASHI T, KUBOTA K, KOBAYASHI A, 1993
Volatile flavor compounds formed in an interspecific hybrid between onion and garlic. J Agr Food Chem 41:101808-101810.

17 LAWSON LD, WOOD SG, HUGHES BG, 1991
hplc analysis of allicin and other thiosulfinates in garlic clove homogenates. Planta Med 57:3263-3270.

18 MUTSCH-ECKNER M, ERDELMEIER CAJ, STICHER O, REUTER HD, 1993
A novel amino acid glycoside and three amino acids from Allium sativum. J Nat Prod 56:6864-6869.

19 INAGAKI M, HARADA Y, YAMADA K, ISOBE R, HIGUCHI R, MATSUURA H, ITAKURA Y, 1998
Isolation and structure determination of cerebrosides from garlic, the bulbs of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 46:71153-71156.

20 AL-NAGDY SA, ABDEL-RAHMAN MO, HEIBA HI, 1988
Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 2:4196-4197.

21 ROLLERI F, 1943
Occurrence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in curative plants. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 281:118.

22 RAKHIMBAEV IR, OL'SHANSKAYA RV, 1981
Preliminary identification of natural gibberellins of garlic. Izv Akad Nauk Kaz Ssr Ser Biol 1981:217-222.

23 KOCH HP, JAGER W, GROH U, HOVIE JE, PLANK G, SEDLAK U, PRAZNIK W, 1993
Carbohydrates from garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) As inhibitors of adenosine deaminase enzyme activity. Phytother Res 7(5):387-389.

24 BAUMGARTNER S, DAX TG, PRAZNIK W, FALK H, 2000
Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.). Carbohydr Res 328:2177-2183.

25 PENG JP, CHEN H, QIAO YQ, MA LR, NARUI T, SUZUKI H, OKUYAMA T, KOBAYASHI H, 1996
Two new steroidal saponins from Allium sativum and their inhibitory effects on blood coagulability. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31:8607-8612.

26 MATSUURA H, USHIROGUCHI T, ITAKURA Y, FUWA T, 1989
Further studies on steroidal glycosides from bulbs, roots and leaves of Allium sativum L. Chem Pharm Bull 37:102741-102743.

27 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Ratón, USA: CRC Press. p13.

28 DAS I, KHAN N, SOORANA S, 1995
Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basic for therapeutic application. J Med Res Opin 5(13):257-263.

29 KABELIK J, 1970
Antimicrobial properties of garlic. Pharmazie 25(4):266-270.

30 ADETUMBI M, JAVOR G, LAN B, 1986
Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother30(3):499-501.

31 TSAI Y, COLE LL, DAVIS LE, LOCKWOOD SJ, SIMMONS V, WILD GC, 1985
Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects onInfluenza b, Herpes simplex and Coxsackie viruses. Planta Med 51(5):460-461.

32 SHARMA V, SETHI M, KUMAR A, RAROTRA JR, 1977
Antibacterial property of Allium sativum in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exp Biol15:466.

33 FROMTLING R, BULMER G, 1978
In vitro effect of aqueous extract of garlic on the growth and viability of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycology 70:397-400.

34 GRAHAM H, GRAHAM E, 1987
Inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth andtoxin productionby garlic. Journal Food Safety 8:101-108.

35 MOLINA NM, 1992
Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Allium sativum. Evaluación preclínica, farmacológica y toxicológica (Tesis de graduación). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba. p287.

36 EL-TANBOULY ND, ABDEL-MEGID RM, 1994
HPLC determination of allicin in garlic and garlic products and their antimicrobial activity. Zagazig J Pharm Sci 3(3A):120-124.

37 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

38 KIUCHI ,F, NAKAMURA N, MIYASHITA N, NISHIZAWA S, TSUDA Y, KONDO K, 1989
Nematocidal activity of some anthelmintics, traditional medicines, and spices by a new assay method using larvae of Toxocara canis. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43(4):279.

39 CHOWDHURY A, AHSAN M, ISLAM SK, AHMED ZU, 1991
Efficacy of aqueous extract of garlic and allicin in experimental shiguellosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res93(1):33-36.

40 STANDEN O, 1953
Experimental chemotherapy of oxyuriasis. Brit Med JII:757-758.

41 TAKASUGI N, KOTOO K, FUWA T, SAITO H, 1984
Effect of garlic on mice exposed to various stresses. Oyo Yakuri Pharmacolo 28(6):991-1002.

42 PRASAD DN, BHATTACHARYA SK, DAS PK, 1966
A study of antinflammatory activity of some indigenous drugs in albino rats. Indian J Med Res 54:582.

43 BHAKUNI D, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, 1971
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part III. Indian J Exp Biol 9:91.

44 AUGUSTI K, MATHEW P, 1973
Effect on long-term feeding of the aqueous extracts of onion and garlic on normal rats. Ind J Exper Biol11(3):239-240.

45 HIKINO H, TOHKIN M, KISO Y, NAMIKI T, NISHIMURA S, TAKEYAMA K, 1986
Antihepatotoxic actions of Allium sativum bulbs. Planta Med 52(3):163-168.

46 SHARAF A, 1969
Food plant as a possible factor in fertility control. Qual Plant MaterVeg17:153.

47 PRASAD G, SHARMA V, KUMAR A, 1982
Efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum L.) therapy against experimental dematophytosis in rabbits. Indian J Med Res75:465-467.

48 TUTAKNE M, BHARDWAJ J, SATYANARAYANAN G, SETHI Y, 1983
Sporotrichosis treated with garlic juice. Indian J Dermatology 28:40-47.

49 DELAHA E, GARAGUSI V, 1985
Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum ). Antimicrob Agents Chemother27(4):485-486.

50 PETKOV V, 1966
Pharmacological and clinical study of garlic. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 106(51):1861-1867.

51 FOUSHEE D, RUFFIN J, BANERJEE U, 1982
Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: a preliminary report. Cytobios34(135-136):145-152.

52 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981
Précis de Matière Médicale, Tome II, 2è éd. révisée. Paris, France: Ed. Masson. p61-62.

53 RIBEIRO R, BARROS F, MARGARIDA M, MELO R, MUNIZ C, CHIEIA S, WANDERLEY M, GOMES C, TROLIN G, 1988.
Acute diuretic effects in conscious rats produced by some medicinal plants used in the state of Sao Paulo, Brasil. J Ethnopharmacol 24(1):19-29.

54 SPADA C, HOSHIKAWA-FUJIMURA AY, 2001
Perspectivas do emprego do Allium sativum (alho) em estudos epidemiológicos da patologia cardiovascular (conferencia). Caxambu, Brazil: Congresso da VII Reunião Anual da Federação de Sociedades de Biologia Experimental.

55 CHUTANI SK, BORDIA A, 1981
The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Therosclerosis 38:417-421.

56 DAMRAU F, FERGUSON E, 1949
The modus vivendi of carminative. The therapeutic value of garlic in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rev Med J2:757-758.

57 YU WC, BLOT WJ, CHANG YS, ERSHOW A, ZT YANG, AN Q, FRAUMENI JR JF, WANG TG, 1989
Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 81(2):162-164.

58 FERNANDEZ EJ, 1995
Efecto de dos formulaciones hidroalcohólicas de Allium sativum en el tratamiento de pacientes con dermatofitosis (Tesis de especialidad en farmacología). Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

59 ALONSO JR, 1998
Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ed. ISIS S.R.L. p208.

60 DURAFFOURD C, D'HERVICOURT L, LAPRAZ JC, 1994
Cahiers de phytothérapie clinique. Paris, France: Revue de la Societé Française de Phytothérapie et Aromathérapie.

61 CHAUHAN L, GARG J, BEDI H, GUPT R, BOMB B, AGARWAL M, 1982
Effect of onion, garlic and clofibrate on coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of blood in cholesterol fed rabbits. Indian Med J 76(10):126-127.

62 KANEZAWA A, NAKAGAWA S, SUMIYOSHI H, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, DATE S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, FUWA T, 1984
General toxicity tests of garlic extract preparation contained vitamins (Kyoleopin). Pharmacometrics 27(5):909-929.

63 SUMIYOSHI H, KANEZAWA A, MASAMOTO K, HARADA H, NAKAGAMI S, YOKOTA A, NISHIKAWA M, NAKAGAWA S, 1984
Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats. J Toxicol Sci 9:61-75.

64 AL-BEKAIRI AM, SHAH AH, QURESHI S, 1990
Effect ofAllium sativum on epididymal spermatozoa, estradiol-treated mice and general toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol 29(2):117-125.

65 HUH K, PARK JM, LEE S-IL, 1985
Effect of garlic on the therapeutic glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat. Arch Pharm Res 8(4):197-203.

66 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961
Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

67 BOJS G, SVENSSON A, 1988
Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Derm18(3):179-181.

68 PAPAGEORGION C, CORBET JP, BRANDAO FM, PECEGUEIRO M, BENEZIA C, 1983.
Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic (Allium sativum) identification of the allergens the role of mono-di and trisulfides present in Garlic. A comparative study in man and animal. Arch Dermatol Res 275(4):229-234.

69 CAPORASO N, SMITH S, ENG R, 1983
Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestions of garlic. Antimicob Agents Chemother23(5):700-702.

70 SITPRIJA S, PLENGVIDHYA C, KANGKAYA V, BHUVAPANICH S, TUNKAYOON M, 1987.
Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase III clinical trial. J Med Assoc 70(2):223-227.

71 WHO, 2004
Allium sativum. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants. Volume 1. Bulbis Alii Sativi. Ginebra, Suiza, Oct.28,2004. URL: http://www.who.int/medicines/library/trm/medicinalplants/monograph_volum...

72 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de bulbo fresco machacado de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

73 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de bulbo de Allium sativum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

74 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008
Enquête TRAMIL, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

75 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique

Catalpa longissima


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : roble
  • Haiti : bwa dchèn
  • Haiti : bwadoèn

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction with salt, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for stomach pain and delayed menstruation (amenorrhea) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional practice documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, validation and published scientific information available.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain last more than 3 days, medical attention should be sought for.

The use for fever is also classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and published scientific information available.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, medical attention should be sought for.

Not for use by women during pregnancy as it may lead to abortion, during lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

Not for use for more than seven consecutive days in any class of patient.

For period delay (amenorrhea) and stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams of bark pieces in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, with or without a pinch of salt, depending on use, boil for a minimum of 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Sift, leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup every 6 hours14.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 10 grams of fresh leaves in 1 liter (4 cups) of water with a pinch of salt; boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot. Strain, leave to cool down, and drink 1 cup every 6 hours14.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Faculté de Médicine, Université d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 BOURGEOIS P, 1988 Etude chimique de Catalpa longissima. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de phytochimie, Faculté des Sciences, UAG, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe.

5 CHAUHAN AK, DOBHAL MP, UNIYAL PN, 1988 Phytochemical investigation of Catalpa longissima L. Part I. Herba Pol 34(1/2):3-5.

6 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel & Stuttgart, Schweiz und Deutchland: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

7 DUKE J, 1999 Chemicals and their biological activities in:Catalpa longissima (Jacq.) Dum.Cours. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases.USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, Nov.20,2000. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

8 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

9 HERRERA J, 1988 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Trabajo TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

10 SOUZA BRITO A, 1995 Actividad farmacológica de Catalpa longissima. Trabajo TRAMIL. Dep. de Fisiología y Biofísica, Universidad de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

11 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, 1964 Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 16:115.

12 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic-chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey), 6th ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie-Verlag.

13 SOUZA BRITO A, 1995 Toxicidad aguda de Catalpa longissima. Trabajo TRAMIL. Dep. de Fisiología y Biofísica, Universidad de Campinas, Campinas, Brasil.

14 MINISTERE DE L’EMPLOI ET DE LA SOLIDARITE, 1998 Les médicaments à base de plantes. Paris, France: Agence du Médicament.

Citrus aurantiifolia


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : limón
  • Colombia : limón agrio
  • Colombia : lima
  • Dominica : lime
  • Dominican Republic : limón, limón agrio, lima
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitron-vè
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitwon péyi
  • Guadeloupe : ti sitwon vè
  • Guadeloupe : sitwon péyi
  • French Guiana : citron vert
  • French Guiana : citron
  • Honduras : lima
  • Honduras : limón
  • Honduras : limón agrio
  • Haiti : ti sitwon vè
  • Haiti : sitwon péyi
  • St Martin : sitron-vè
  • St Martin : sitwon péyi
  • Martinique : sitron-vè
  • Martinique : sitwon péyi
  • Panama : limón agrio
  • Panama : lima
  • Panama : limón
  • Puerto Rico : limón agrio
  • Puerto Rico : lima
  • Puerto Rico : limón
  • Tobago : lime
  • Venezuela : limón agrio
  • Venezuela : limón
  • Venezuela : lima

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

peel or leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1-2,5-6

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 HERRERA J,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

5 HAY YO,1998 Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

6 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

7 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

9 BENEDETTI MD,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

10 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

12 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991 Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

13 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p45.

15 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986 Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

16 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996 Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

17 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

18 EBANA RU, MADUNAGU BE, EKPE ED, OTUNG IN, 1991 Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantiifolia. J Appl Bacteriol 71(5):398-401.

19 KOICHUSAKUL S, SATHITNIRAIMAI S, 1977 Studies of the effect of sour fruits on acid secretion in the stomach. Undergraduate special problem report. Fac Med (Siriraj Hosp) Mahidol Univ, Bangkok, Thailand.

20 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

21 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

22 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

23 ADESINA S, 1982 Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

24 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

25 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México:Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

26 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989 Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

27 PELLECUER J, 1995 Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

28 Olmedo D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005 Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

29 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL GEF/UNEP.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

35 ZambranoLE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

36 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

37 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

38 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007 Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

39 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

40 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

41 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009 Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

42 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

43 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

45 BOULOGNE I, 2009 Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

46 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009 Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

Citrus aurantium


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Quintana Roo : naranja de babor
  • Quintana Roo : naranja agria
  • Cuba : naranja de babor
  • Cuba : naranja agria
  • Dominican Republic : naranja agria, naranja de babor
  • Grenada : sour orange
  • Haiti : zowanj si
  • Haiti : zowanj gospo
  • Martinique : zowanj anmè
  • Martinique : oranger amer
  • Puerto Rico : naranja de babor
  • Puerto Rico : naranja agria

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

peel or leaf, decoction or infusion, orally3-4

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

6 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

7 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986 The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

9 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992 Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

10 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991 Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium.Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

11 WIDMER WW, 1991 Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

12 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990 Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

13 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M,1990 Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

14 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

15 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975 Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

16 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

17 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983 The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

18 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

19 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000 Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

20 SANKAWA U, 1980 Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

21 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979 Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

22 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980 Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

23 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995 Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

24 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986 Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

25 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997 The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

26 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

27 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996 Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

28HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

29 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000 Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis.Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

30 SATO A, 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

31 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982 Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

32 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982 Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

33 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

36 GarcIa-GONZALEZ M, fallas LV, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

40 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Citrus sinensis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : naranja dulce (ou china)
  • Haiti : zowanj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  peel or leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough, headache, sprains, strain and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In any application to the eye, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk or increasing irritation with the application of Citrus spp juice.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus sinensis are widely used for human consumption and are an industrial source of essential oil.

For headache, flu and fever:

Prepare decoction or infusion with 5-20 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to the 5-20 grams of leaf, cover pot and cool down.  Drink 2-3 cups a day36.

For conjunctivitis:

Instill (apply) in the eye 2-3 drops of fresh juice of fruit, 3 times a day.

For diarrhea, flu, cough, sprain, twist and fever:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

4 STEWART I, 1985 Identification of caffeine in Citrus flowers and leaves. J Agric Food Chem 33(6):1163-1165.

5 NICO KJ, CHANDLER BV, 1978 Roots as a probable site for Citrus limonoid biosynthesis. Proc Int Soc Citric. p40-42.

6 ABDEL-ALIM MA, ABDEL-HAFEZ OM, EL-KHRISY AM, 1990 The constituents of Citrus sinensis leaves. Fitoterapia 61(5):470-471.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOIU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1990 Nigerian sweet orange leaf oil composition. J Essent Oil Res 2(5):199-201.

9 GUANGHAN L, YU W, LEIMING Y, SHUANGLONG H, 1994 Determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by stripping voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode. Food Chem 51:237-239.

10 RADFORD T, KAWASHIMA K, FRIEDEL PK, POPE LE, GIANTURCO MA, 1975 Distribution of volatile compounds between the pulp and serum of some fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1066.

11 ROUSEFF RL, SEETHARAMAN K, NAIM M, NAGY S, ZEHAVI U, 1992 Improved HPLC determination of hydroxycinnamic acids in orange juice using solvents containing thf. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1139-1143.

12 SWATSITANG P, TUCKER G, ROBARDS K, JARDINE D, 2000 Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds in Citrus sinensis. Anal Chim Acta 417(2):231-240.

13 OOGHE WC, OOGHE SJ, DETAVERNIER M, HUYGHEBAERT A, 1995 Characterization of orange juice (Citrus sinensis) by polymethoxylated flavones. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2191-2195.

14 OOGHE WC, DETAVERNIER CM, 1999 Flavonoids as authenticity markers for Citrus sinensis juice. Fruit Process 9(8):308-313.

15 WIDMER WW, 2000 Determination of naringin and neohesperidin in orange juice by liquid chromatography with UV detection to detect the presence grapefruit juice: collaborative study. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem Int 83(5):1155-1165.

16 GROSS J, CARMON M, LIFSHITZ A, SKLARZ B, 1975 Structural elucidation of some orange juice carotenoids. Phytochemistry 14:249-252.

17 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996 Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

18 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI A, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1988 Effects of the juice of certain species of Citrus on plasma and urinary uric acid levels in rats on a hyperpurinic diet. Plant Med Phytother 22(2):92-97.

19 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS JI, 1978 Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35(6):1219-1220.

20 PEREZ C, ANESINI C, 1994 In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):41-46.

21 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI AM, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1984 Influence of the fruit juice of several Citrus species on steroidogenesis in the rat. Plant Med Phytother 18(1):8-14.

22 TROVATO A, MONFORTE MT, BARBERA R, ROSSITTO A, GALATI EM,

FORESTIERI AM, 1996 Effects of fruit juices of Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus limon L. on experimental hypercholesterolemia in the rat. Phytomedicine 2(3):221-227.

23 KUROWSKA EM, BORRADAILE NM, SPENCE JD, CARROLL KK, 2000 Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary Citrus juices in rabbits. Nutr Res 29(1):121-129.

24 HONG ND, KIM JW, KIM BW, SHON JG, 1982 Studies on the efficacy of the combined preparation of crude drugs. VI. Effect of “Saengkankunbi-Tang” on activities of the liver enzyme, protein contents and the excretory on bile juice in the serum of CCl4-intoxicated rabbits. Korean J Pharmacog 13:33-38.

25 GOTO M, INOUE H, SEYAMA Y, YAMASHITA S, INOUE O, YUMIOKA E., 1989 Comparative effect of traditional Chinese medicines (Dai-Saiko To, Hatimi-Ziogan and Byakko-Ka-Ninzin-To) on experimental diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Nippon Yakugaku Zasshi 93(3):179-186.

26 KAWAKAMI M, SUZUKI K, ISHIZUKA T, HIDAKA T, MATSUKI Y, NAKAMURA H, 1998 Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36(6):306-308.

27 ADESINA SK, 1982 Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

28 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

29 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman, Las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9ª edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editores. p1670-1671.

31 MIYAGI Y, OM AS, CHEE KM, BENNINK MR, 2000 Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice. Nutr Cancer 36(2):224-229.

32 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989 Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

33 PORTAL JA, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, BETANCOURT J, 1995 Estudio genotóxico in vitro de una tintura al 50 % de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Medi Ciego 1(1):3-6.

34 PORTAL JA, 1995 Evaluación genotóxica in vitro e in vivo de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

35 PELLECUER J, 1995 Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

36 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus sinensis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

37 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, de hojas frescas de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Tránsito Intestinal en ratones, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

Cymbopogon citratus


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Antigua : lemon grass
  • Antigua : fever grass
  • Barbados : lemon grass
  • Barbados : fever grass
  • Costa Rica : zacate limón
  • Costa Rica : té limón
  • Costa Rica : zacate té
  • Dominica : sitwonnèl
  • Dominica : zacate té
  • Dominican Republic : limoncillo
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitwonnèl
  • Marie-Galante Island : zacate té
  • Guatemala : té de limón
  • Honduras : zacate té
  • Honduras : zacate limón
  • Honduras : té limón
  • Saint Lucia : sitwonnèl
  • Saint Lucia : zacate té
  • St Martin : sitwonnèl
  • St Martin : zacate té
  • Martinique : sitwonnèl
  • Martinique : zacate té
  • Quintana Roo : té limón
  • Quintana Roo : zacate té
  • Quintana Roo : zacate limón
  • Puerto Rico : limoncillo
  • Tobago : lemon grass
  • Tobago : fever grass
  • Saint Vincent : lemon grass
  • Saint Vincent : fever grass
  • Venezuela : molojillo criollo

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1,3-7,14,43

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, or should fever last more than 2 days, stomach pain more than 3, or cough more than 5, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

TRAMIL Research42

For diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-25 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 15-25 grams of leaf.  Cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL), 2-3 times a day.

In all the above-mentioned uses for oral administration, the preparation should be properly filtered, using a cloth, as a prerequisite for consumption, in order to avoid mechanical injuries to the mucosas, due to the microfilaments present in the leaf26.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

7 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

8 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 DELENS M, 1992 Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

11 O'REILLY A, 1992 TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

12 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

13 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

14 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

15 ABEGAZ B, YOHANNES P, DIETER R, 1983 Constituents of the essential oil of Ethiopian Cymbopogon citratus. J Nat Prod 46(3):424-426.

16 DE MATOUSCHEK B, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991 Phytochemical investigation of nonvolatile constituents ofCymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae). Pharm Acta Helv 66(9/10):242-245.

17 HANSON S, CRAWFORD M, KOKER M, MENEZES F, 1976 Cymbopogonol, a new triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus. Phytochemistry15:1074-1075.

18 YOKOYAMA Y, TSUYUKI T, NAKAMURA N, TAKAHASHI T, HANSON S, MATSUSHITA K, 1980 Revised structures of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol. Tetrahedron Lett21:3701-3702.

19 OLANIYI A, SOFOWORA E, OGUNTIMEHIN B, 1975 Phytochemical investigation of some Nigerian plants used against fevers. II. Cymbopogon citratus. Planta Med 28:186-189.

20 WILLAMAN JJ, LI H, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(Supp.3A):1-286.

21 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p57.

22 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

23 MORON F, SANCHEZ C, MARTINEZ MC, MOREJON Z, PINEDO Z, 2000 Actividad antiespasmódica in vitro de hojas frescas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

24 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de efectos antiinflamatorio y analgésico del extracto fluído de Cymbopogon citratus al 30% por vía oral. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):3-6.

25 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

26 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, DAGUILH R, HENRYS D, HENRYS J, ANTON R, 1986 Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):13-30.

27 CARLINI EA, CONTAR JD, SILVA-FILHO AR, SOLVEIRA-FILHO NG, FROCHTENGARTEN ML, BUENO OF, 1986 Pharmacology of lemon-grass Cymbopogon citratus I. Effect of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):37-64.

28 SOUZA FORMIGONI ML, LODDER HM, FILHO OG, FERREIRA TM, CARLINI EA, 1986 Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero". J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):65-74.

29 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, TOLON Z, 1989 Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol25(1):103-107.

30 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

31 LORENZETTI B, SOUZA G, SARTI S, FILHO DS, FERREIRA SH, 1991 Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34(1):43-48.

32 LEMOS TLG, MATOS FJA, ALENCAR JW, CRAVEIRO AA, CLARK AM, MC CHESNEY JD, 1990 Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants. Phytother Res4(2):82-84.

33 AWUAH R, 1989  Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Ann Appl Biol 115(3):451-453.

34 REYNOLDS JEF, PRASAD AB, Eds., 1982 MARTINDALE The extra pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London, England: The Pharmaceutical Press. p677.

35 SETH, G, KOKATE CK, VARMA KC, 1976 Effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on central nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol 14(3):370-371.

36 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

37 KOBAYASHI N, 1989 Pharmaceutical compositions containing lemongrass extracts and antioxidants. Patens Japan Kokai Tokio Koho., 01, 221, 320.

38 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

39 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

40 de la Torre RA, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ, Cortinas de Nava C, Izquierdo T, Moron F, 1994 Genotoxic activity of mebendazole in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 305(2):139-144.

41 LEITE JR, SEABRA ML, MALUF E, ASSOLANT K, SUCHECKI D, TUFIK S, KLEPACZ S, CALIL HM, CARLINI EA, 1986 Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):75-83.

42 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

43 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

44 ZambranoLE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

45 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

46 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

47 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

48 BOULOGNE I, 2009 Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.         

Eryngium foetidum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Costa Rica : spirit weed
  • Costa Rica : culantro de coyote
  • Dominica : fit weed
  • Dominica : chadwon beni
  • Dominican Republic : koulant
  • Dominican Republic : cilantro ancho
  • Honduras : culantro
  • Haiti : koulant
  • Martinique : chadwon beni
  • Martinique : fit weed
  • Tobago : chadwon beni
  • Tobago : fit weed

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

entire plant, decoction or infusion, orally2,23,24

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for flatulence, flue, vomiting, chest pain and attacks, palpitations and tiredness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever or vomiting last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The leaf ofEryngium foetidum is widely used for human consumption.

For fever, flatulence, flu and vomiting:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 20-30 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of leaf in 1L (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.

For infusion, add boiling water to 20-30 grams (2-3 spoonfuls) of leaf, cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL) 3 times a day.

For chest pain and attacks, palpitations and tiredness:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-1995 Encuestas TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

5 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

7 FORGACS P, JACQUEMIN H, MORETTI C, PROVOST J, TOUCHE A, 1983 Etude phytochimique et activités biologiques de 18 plantes de la Guyane Française. Plantes Médicinales Phytothér 17(1):22-32.

8 WONG K, FENG M, SAM T, TAN G, 1994 Composition of the leaf and root oils of Eryngium foetidum L. J Essent Oil Res 6(4):369-374.

9 MUNSELL H, Williams LO, Guild LP, Troescher CB, Nightingale G, Harris RS, 1950 Composition of food plants of Central America. IV: El Salvador. Food Res15(4):263-296.

10 ARBAIN D, CANNON JR, AFRIASTINI, KARTAWINATA K, DJAMAL R, BUSTARI A, DHARMA A, ROSMAWATY RIVAI H, ZAHERMAN, BASIR D, SJAFAR M, SJAIFUL, NAWFA R, KOSELA S, 1989 Survey of some West Sumatran plants for alkaloids. Econ Bot43(1):73-78.

11 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

12 SARAVIA A, 1992 Estudios sobre plantas TRAMIL. Departamento de Farmacología, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

13 GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 1995 Toxicidad aguda de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Farmacognosia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.

14 SIMON O, SINGH N, 1986 Demonstration of anticonvulsant properties of an aqueous extract of spirit weed (Eryngium foetidum). Wi Med J 35(2):121-125.

15 SAUVAIN M, 1989 Etude des plantes antiparasitaires du plancton des Guyanes en Amazonie: antipaludiques et antileishmanioses (Thèse de Doctorat).Université Paris-Sud, Paris, France.

16 CACERES A, SAMAYOA B, 1989 Tamizaje de la actividad antibacteriana de plantas usadas en Guatemala para el tratamiento de afecciones gastrointestinales. Guatemala, Guatemala: Dirección General de Investigaciones, Universidad de San Carlos (DIGI-USAC).

17 GARCIA GM, COTO MT, GONZÁLEZ CS, PAZOS L, 1996 Toxicidad sub-crónica, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Eryngium foetidum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

18 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004 Toxicidad oral, subcrónica en ratones, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de planta entera de Eryngium foetidum. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

20 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Guadeloupe : rose kayenn
  • Haiti : choublak
  • Martinique : kokliko wouj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  flower or leaf, infusion or decoction, orally2-3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Topical use for conjunctivitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In the event of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation further as a result of applying the leaf juice.  In any application to the eye, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Oral use for fever, flu and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or cough persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to risk of abortion, not for oral use during pregnancy nor during lactation or by children under 10 years old.

The flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is widely used for human consumption or as a spice.

For conjunctivitis:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For fever, flu and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1–2 flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.

For decoction, boil for at least 3-4 minutes2-3 in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to the flowers, cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

5 MEDITSCH J, BARROS E, 1978 Hibiscus dyes as acid-base indicators. An Assoc Bras Quim 29(1):89.

6 SHRIVASTAVA D, 1974 Phytochemical analysis of japakusum. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 9(4):103-104.

7 LIN Y, 1975 The study of red pigments in Taiwan plants. Proc Natl Sci Counc Part I (Taiwan) 1975(8):133-137.

8 PATTANAIK S, 1949 A comparative study of the catalase activity of the petals and leaves ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis. Curr Sci 18:212-213.

9 GRIFFITHS L, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plant. J Exp Biol 10:437.

10 AGARWAL S, SHINDE S, 1967 Studies onHibiscus rosa-sinensis II. Preliminary pharmacological investigations. Indian J Med Res 55:1007-1010.

11 SRIVASTAVA D, BHATT S, UDUPA K, 1976 Gas chromatographic identification of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and hydrocarbons ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 53:607.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p84.

13 HERRERA J, 1994 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

14 VAN DEN BERGHE D, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK A, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities II: Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41:463-467.

15 BHAKUNI O, DHAR M, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, 1969 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

16 SINGH N, NATH R, AGARWAL A, KOHLI R, 1978 A pharmacological investigation of some indigenous drugs of plant origin for evaluation of their antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 13:58-62.

17 KHOLKUTE S, CHATTERJEE S, UDUPA K, 1976 Effect ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis on estrous cycle and reproductive organs in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 14:703-704.

18 PRAKASH A, 1979 Acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in the uterus of rat treated withHibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts. Curr Sci 48:501-503.

19 SINGH M, SINGH R, UDUPA K, 1982 Antifertility activity of a benzene extract ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers on female albino rats. Planta Med 44:171-174.

20 PRAKASH A, 1984 Biological evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for contraceptive efficacy. Contracept Deliv Syst5(3):9-10.

21 KHOLKUTE S, UDUPA K, 1974 Antifertility properties ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 9(4):99-102.

22 TIWARI P, 1974 Preliminary clinical trial on flowers ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis as an oral contraceptive agent. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 9(4):96-98.

23 TRIVEDI V, SHUKLA K, 1980 A study of effects of an indigenous compound drug on reproductive physiology. J Sci Res Pl Med 1(3/4):41-47.

24 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

25 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Lantana camara


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominica : mabizou
  • Dominica : red sage
  • Guatemala : siete negritos
  • Tobago : guanatel
  • Tobago : kayakeet
  • Tobago : graterwood
  • Venezuela : cariaquito
  • Venezuela : cariaquillo

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

aerial parts, syrup or infusion, orally1,24

Warnings
References

According to published and other information:

Use of aerial parts for fever, flu, pneumonia and skin diseases is classified as tOxic (TOX).

Given the toxicity of the aerial parts of this plant, its oral and topical uses are discouraged, regardless of how recognized its alleged therapeutic properties may be.

In the event of poisoning from ingestion, seek medical attention.

1 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 DELENS M, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 SUNDARARAMAIAH T, BAI VV, 1973 Chemical examination of Lantana camara. J Indian Chem Soc 50(9):620.

5 HART N, LAMBERTON J, SIOUMIS A, SUARES H, 1976 New triterpenes of Lantana camara H. A comparative study of the constituents of several taxa. Aust J Chem 29:655-671.

6 TAOUBI K, FAUVEL M, GLEYE J, MOULIS C, FOURASTE I, 1997 Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Lantana camara and Lippia multiflora. Planta Med 63(12):192-193.

7 PAN WD, MAI LT, LI YJ, XU XL, YU DQ, 1993 Studies on the chemical constituents of the leaves of Lantana camara. Yao Xue Xue Bao 28(1):35-39.

8 VERMA D, SINGH S, TRIPATHI V, 1997 A rare antibacterial flavone glucoside from Lantana camara. Indian Drugs 34(1):32-35.

9 WOLLENWEBER E, DORR M, MUNIAPPAN R, SIEMS K, 1997 Flavonoid aglycones and triterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Lantana camara and Lantana montevidensis. Biochem Syst Ecol 25(3):269-270.

10 AHMED Z, EL-MOGHAZY SHOAIB A, WASSEL G, EL-SAYYAD S, 1972 Phytochemical study of Lantana camara. I. Planta Med 21(3):282-288.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p280.

12 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 OCCHIUTO F, CIRCOSTA C, COSTA DE PASQUALE R, 1989 Studies on some medicinal plants on Senegal: effects on isolated guinea pig ileum. J Ethnopharmacol 26(2):205-210.

14 CACERES A, FIGUEROA L, TARACENA A, SAMAYOA B, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 2: Evaluation of activity of 16 plants against gram + bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):77-82.

15 WANJARI D, 1983 Antihaemorrhagic activity of Lantana camara. Nagarjun 27(2):40-41.

16 AYENSU E, 1982 Medicinal plants of the West Indies. Algonac, USA: Reference Publications Inc.

17 DUKE JA, 1988 Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

18 AKHTER MH, MATHUR M, BHIDE NK, 1990 Skin and liver toxicity in experimental Lantana camara poisoning in albino rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 34(1):13-16.

19 SHARMA VK, KAUR S, 1987 Contact dermatitis due to plants in Chandigarh. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(1):26-30.

20 SHARMA OP, DAWRA RK, MAKKAR HP, 1989 Toxicity of isolated lantana (Lantana camara L.) constituents to male and female guinea pigs. Vet Hum Toxicol 31(1):10-13.

21 FOURIE N, VAN DER LUGT JJ, NEWSHOLME SJ, NEL PW, 1990 Acute Lantana camara toxicity in cattle. J South African Vet Assoc 58(4):173-178.

22 NAOUAR-LABOUP M, 1984 Connaissance sur des Verbénacées: Lantana camara L., espèce hépatotoxique. Constituants chimiques du genre Clerodendron. Doctorat d'Etat n°98, mention pharmacie. Université de Toulouse, France.

23 PASS MA, STEWART C, 1984 Administration of activated charcoal for the treatment of Lantana poisoning of sheep and cattle. J Appl Toxicol 4(5):267-269. 

24 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

Senna occidentalis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominica : café moucha
  • Dominican Republic : bruca
  • Guatemala : frijolillo
  • Honduras : frijolillo
  • Haiti : terrier rouge

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoctioon, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

Use for "bad blood" is part of the cultural tradition of our communities.  It has not been listed in the TRAMIL classification.

According to published and other information:

Use of the leaf for skin conditions, headache, body ache, sorethroat, fever and jaundice, and use of the seed for sore and tinea are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use of the leaf for stomach pain, of the seed for body ache and of the root for stomach pain, sorethroat and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, jaundice or stomach pain for more than 3 days, or skin conditions for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Thoroughly wash 30–50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets), mash and apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

For stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15 grams of leaf (7-10 leaflets) and 15 grams of root in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day36.

For headache, fever, jaundice, sorethroat and body ache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977 Anthraquinone pigments from Cassia occidentalis. Planta Med Suppl 32(4):375-377.

7 RAI PP, SHOK M, 1983 Anthraquinone glycosides from plant parts of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J Pharm Sci 45(2):87-88.

8 ANTON R, DUQUENOIS P, 1968 Contribution à l'étude chimique duCassia occidentalis L. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 26(2):673-680.

9 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977 Flavonoids from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry16(7):1107-1108.

10 MAJUMDAR SG, BASAK B, LASKAR S, 1987 Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of some Cassia species. J Indian Chem Soc 64(4):259-260.

11 ALVES AC, 1964 Pharmacological study of the root of Cassia occidentalis. An Fac Farm Porto 24:65-119.

12 WADER GR, KUDAV NA, 1987 Chemical investigation ofCassia occidentalis Linn. with special reference to isolation of xanthones fromCassia spp. Indian J of Chemisitry 26(B7):703.

13 KUDAV NA, KULKARNI A, 1974 Chemical investigation on Cassia occidentalis. II. Isolation of islandicin, helminthosporine, xanthonin and NMR spectral studies of cassiollin and its derivatives. Indian J Chem 12:1042-1044.

14 LAL-JAWAHAR, GUPTA-PURAN-CHANDRA, 1973 Physcion and phytosterol from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 12(5):1186.

15 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, OCAMPO R, Pazos L, 2001 Tránsito intestinal en ratones, con extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

18 PEREZ C, SUAREZ C, 1997 Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Candida albicans. Amer J Chinese Med 25(2):181-184.

19 HUSSAIN HS, DEENI YY, 1991 Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

20 SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN G, ROJAS DE ARIAS A, 1992 A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother Res 6(2):68-73.

21 TONA L, NGIMBI NP, TSAKALA M, MESIA K, CIMANGA K, ASPERS S, DE BRUYNE T, PIETERS L, TOTTE J, VLIETINCK AJ, 1999 Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1/3):193-203.

22 SADIQUE J, CHANDRA T, THENMOZHI V, ELANGO V, 1987 Biochemical modes of action ofCassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19(2):201-212.

23 SARAF S, DIXIT VK, TRIPATHI SC, PATNAIK GK, 1994 Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int J Pharmacog 32(2):178-183.

24 JAFRI MA, JALIS SUBHANI M, JAVED K, SINGH S, 1999 Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66(3):355-361.

25 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HS, 1962 Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

26 Garcia GM, Coto MT, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 Garcia GM, Coto MT, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990 Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica deMomordica charantia L. yCassia occidentalis L. en conejo y cobayo. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de semillas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 O'HARA P, PIERCE K, 1974 A toxic cardiomyopathy caused byCassia occidentalis. II Biochemical studies in poisoned rabbits. Vet Pathol 11(2):110-124.

33 COLVIN BM, HARRISON LR, SANGSTER LT, GOSSER HS, 1986 Cassia occidentalis toxicosis in growing pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(4):423-426.

34 MARTINS E, MARTINS VM, RIET-CORREA F, SONCINI RA, PARABONI SV, 1986 Intoxicação por Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae) em suínos. Pesq Vet Bras 6(2):35-38.

35BARTH AT, KOMMERS GO, SALLES MS, WOUTERS F, DE BARROS CS, 1994 Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(6):541-545.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p174.

Senna occidentalis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominica : café moucha
  • Dominican Republic : bruca
  • Guatemala : frijolillo
  • Honduras : frijolillo
  • Haiti : terrier rouge

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf and root, decoction, applied locally as cataplasm3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

Use for "bad blood" is part of the cultural tradition of our communities.  It has not been listed in the TRAMIL classification.

According to published and other information:

Use of the leaf for skin conditions, headache, body ache, sorethroat, fever and jaundice, and use of the seed for sore and tinea are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use of the leaf for stomach pain, of the seed for body ache and of the root for stomach pain, sorethroat and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, jaundice or stomach pain for more than 3 days, or skin conditions for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with jaundice, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Not for use during pregnancy, lactation, or by children under 3 years old.

For skin conditions:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Thoroughly wash 30–50 grams of leaf (15-20 leaflets), mash and apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace 3-4 times a day.

For stomach pain:

Prepare a decoction with 15 grams of leaf (7-10 leaflets) and 15 grams of root in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, and boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day36.

For headache, fever, jaundice, sorethroat and body ache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

5 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

6 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977 Anthraquinone pigments from Cassia occidentalis. Planta Med Suppl 32(4):375-377.

7 RAI PP, SHOK M, 1983 Anthraquinone glycosides from plant parts of Cassia occidentalis. Indian J Pharm Sci 45(2):87-88.

8 ANTON R, DUQUENOIS P, 1968 Contribution à l'étude chimique duCassia occidentalis L. Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises 26(2):673-680.

9 TIWARI RD, SINGH J, 1977 Flavonoids from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry16(7):1107-1108.

10 MAJUMDAR SG, BASAK B, LASKAR S, 1987 Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of some Cassia species. J Indian Chem Soc 64(4):259-260.

11 ALVES AC, 1964 Pharmacological study of the root of Cassia occidentalis. An Fac Farm Porto 24:65-119.

12 WADER GR, KUDAV NA, 1987 Chemical investigation ofCassia occidentalis Linn. with special reference to isolation of xanthones fromCassia spp. Indian J of Chemisitry 26(B7):703.

13 KUDAV NA, KULKARNI A, 1974 Chemical investigation on Cassia occidentalis. II. Isolation of islandicin, helminthosporine, xanthonin and NMR spectral studies of cassiollin and its derivatives. Indian J Chem 12:1042-1044.

14 LAL-JAWAHAR, GUPTA-PURAN-CHANDRA, 1973 Physcion and phytosterol from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. Phytochemistry 12(5):1186.

15 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, OCAMPO R, Pazos L, 2001 Tránsito intestinal en ratones, con extracto acuoso de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CACERES A, LOPEZ BR, GIRON MA, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 31(3):263-276.

17 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

18 PEREZ C, SUAREZ C, 1997 Antifungal activity of plant extracts against Candida albicans. Amer J Chinese Med 25(2):181-184.

19 HUSSAIN HS, DEENI YY, 1991 Plants in Kano ethomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids. Int J Pharmacog 29(1):51-56.

20 SCHMEDA-HIRSCHMANN G, ROJAS DE ARIAS A, 1992 A screening method for natural products on triatomine bugs. Phytother Res 6(2):68-73.

21 TONA L, NGIMBI NP, TSAKALA M, MESIA K, CIMANGA K, ASPERS S, DE BRUYNE T, PIETERS L, TOTTE J, VLIETINCK AJ, 1999 Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1/3):193-203.

22 SADIQUE J, CHANDRA T, THENMOZHI V, ELANGO V, 1987 Biochemical modes of action ofCassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 19(2):201-212.

23 SARAF S, DIXIT VK, TRIPATHI SC, PATNAIK GK, 1994 Antihepatotoxic activity of Cassia occidentalis. Int J Pharmacog 32(2):178-183.

24 JAFRI MA, JALIS SUBHANI M, JAVED K, SINGH S, 1999 Hepatoprotective activity of leaves of Cassia occidentalis against paracetamol and ethyl alcohol intoxication in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 66(3):355-361.

25 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HS, 1962 Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

26 Garcia GM, Coto MT, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 Garcia GM, Coto MT, Gonzalez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad sub-crónica en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 GONZALEZ A, ALFONSO H, 1990 Evaluación de la toxicidad dérmica deMomordica charantia L. yCassia occidentalis L. en conejo y cobayo. Informe TRAMIL. Centro Nacional de Salud Animal, La Habana, Cuba.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de raíz fresca de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

31 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad de la mucosa en conejo, de semillas frescas de Senna occidentalis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 O'HARA P, PIERCE K, 1974 A toxic cardiomyopathy caused byCassia occidentalis. II Biochemical studies in poisoned rabbits. Vet Pathol 11(2):110-124.

33 COLVIN BM, HARRISON LR, SANGSTER LT, GOSSER HS, 1986 Cassia occidentalis toxicosis in growing pigs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189(4):423-426.

34 MARTINS E, MARTINS VM, RIET-CORREA F, SONCINI RA, PARABONI SV, 1986 Intoxicação por Cassia occidentalis (Leguminosae) em suínos. Pesq Vet Bras 6(2):35-38.

35BARTH AT, KOMMERS GO, SALLES MS, WOUTERS F, DE BARROS CS, 1994 Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis) poisoning in cattle in Brazil. Vet Hum Toxicol 36(6):541-545.

36 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p174.

Vetiveria zizanioides


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Guatemala : valeriana
  • Honduras : valeriana
  • Haiti : vetivè

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root and entire plant, decoction, orally and in baths3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982 Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21:793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997 New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996 New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989 Extraction of khusimol and other components fromVetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003 Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989 Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004 Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996 Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958 Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982 Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

19 DIKSHIT A, HUSAIN A, 1984 Antifungal action of some essential oils against animal pathogens. Fitoterapia 55(3):171-176.

20 SINGH B, AGRAWAL S, 1988 Efficacy of odoriferous organic compounds on the growth of keratinophilic fungi. Curr Sci 57(14):807-809.

21 KINDRA K, SATYANARAYANA T, 1978 Inhibitory activity of essential oils of some plants against pathogenic bacteria. Indian Drugs 16:15-17.

22 CHAUMONT J, BARDEY I, 1989 In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils. Fitoterapia 60(3):147-153.

23 GANGRADE SK, SHRIVASTAVA RD, SHARMA OP, JAIN NK, TRIVEDI KC, 1991 In vitro antifungal effect of the essential oils. Indian Perfum 35(1):46-49.

24 PELLEGRINO J, 1967 Protection against human Schistosome cercariae. Exp Parasitol 21(1):112-131.

25 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 Hiruma-Lima CA, Souza Brito AR, 2002 Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Zingiber officinale


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Antigua : ginger
  • Barbados : ginger
  • Costa Rica : jengibre
  • Dominica : ginger
  • Guatemala : jengibre
  • Honduras : jengibre
  • Saint Lucia : ginger
  • Puerto Rico : jengibre
  • Puerto Rico : ginger
  • Saint Vincent : ginger
  • Venezuela : jengibre

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally1,3,8,9,11

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

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