burning

Bixa orellana


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : bija
  • Haiti : woukou

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed, crushed, topical application1

seed, crushed, deep-fried in oil (coconut or other), topical application1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on significant traditional use documented by TRAMIL surveys and available published scientific information.

Traditional use should be limited to non-extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) superficial burns only (epidermal injury), located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.  Preparation should only be used for topical application.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The seed oil taken orally can cause hypersensitivity reactions.

The dried seed of Bixa orellana is widely used as a spice.

TRAMIL Research22

For burns:

Deep-fry 10 grams of crushed seeds in 40 mL of vegetal oil and allow cooling.

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with a dressing or clean cloth.  Replace every 12 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988
Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. CIFLORPAN, Universidad de Panamá, Ciudad de Panamá, Panamá.

4 ANGELUCCI E, ARIMA HK, KUMAGAI EA, 1980
Annatto. 1. Preliminary data of the chemical composition. Col Inst Technol Aliments 11:89-96.

5 TIRIMANA A, 1981
Study of the carotenoid pigments of Bixa orellana L. seeds by T.L.C. Mikrochim Acta 2:11-16.

6 MERCADANTE AZ, STECK A, PFANDER H, 1997
Isolation and structure elucidation of minor carotenoids from annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seeds. Phytochemistry 46(8):1379-1383.

7 CRAVEIRO AA, OLIVERIRA CLA, A-RAUJO FWL, 1989
The presence of geranil-geraniol in Bixa orellana Linn. Quim Nova 12(3):297-298.

8 MERCADANTE A, STECK A, PFANDER H, 1999
Three minor carotenoids from annatto (Bixa orellana) seeds. Phytochemistry 52(1):135-139.

9 JONDIKO IJO, PATTENDEN G, 1989
Terpenoids and an apocarotenoid from seeds of Bixa orellana. Phytochemistry 28(11):3159-3162.

10 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p27.

11 SERRANO G, SANDBERG F, 1988
Actividad antiinflamatoria de Bixa orellana: informe preliminar. Universidad de Uppsala, Uppsala, Suecia.

12 WENIGER B, 1992
Etude sur Bixa orellana. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

13 GEORGE M, PETALAI KM, 1949
Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

14 WENIGER B, JIANG Y, OULAD-ALI A, ITALIANO L, BECK JP, ANTON R, 1993
Biological effects of bixin and Bixa orellana extracts on lymphoid cells in culture. Planta Med Suppl 59(7):A680.

15 MORRISON E, WEST M, 1982
A preliminary study of the effects of some West Indian medicinal plants on blood sugar levels in the dog. West Indian Med J 31(2):194-197.

16GARCIA D, SAENZ T, 1995
Toxicidad aguda de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Farmacognosia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, España.

17Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000
Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológicode algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

18 ROCKWELL P, RAW I, 1979
A mutagenic screening of various herbs, spices and food additives. Nutr Cancer 1:10-15.

19 DUNHAM N, ALLARD K, 1959
A preliminary pharmacological investigation of the roots of Bixa orellana. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 49(4):218-219.

20 MIKKELSEN H, LARSEN JC, TARDING F, 1978
Hypersensitivity reactions to food colours with special reference to the natural colour annatto extract (butter colour). Arch Toxicol Suppl 1:141-143.

21 MORRISON EY, SMITH RS, 1987
Toxicity of the hyperglycemic inducing extract of Bixa orellana in dog. West Indian Med J 36(2):99-103.

22CARBALLO A, 1995
Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Apuntes científicos. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

23 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
 Irritabilidad dérmicade semilla seca de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

24 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005
Clases Tóxicas Agudas por vía tópicade semilla seca de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

25 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo de hojas de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008
Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, semillas de Bixa orellana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Cocos nucifera


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominica : coconut tree
  • Dominica : coco-tree
  • Dominican Republic : cocotero
  • Guatemala : cocotero
  • Honduras : cocotero
  • Saint Vincent : coconut tree
  • Saint Vincent : coco-tree

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit oil, cataplasm2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for asthma, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

There is no information available on this resource for asthmatic crisis.

Use for urinary infections is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, urinary infection or renal stones, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urinary infection symptoms last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use as an orally administered medicine during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

External use for arthritis, flu, burns and nacíos (boils) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)6 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should boils persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research31

For asthma:

Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day.

For urinary ailments:

Drink 250 mL (1 cup) of coconut water 4-6 times a day31.

For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

7 MOURAFE J, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975 Unsaponifiable matter of crude and processed coconut oil. J Sci Food Agr26:523.

8 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale.Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

9 SAITTAGAROON S, KAWAKISHI S, NAMIKI M, 1985 Generation of mannitol from copra meal. J Food Sci50(3):757-760.

10 ATAKEUCHI K, 1961 Amino acids in the endosperm of some Amazonian Palmae. Chiba Daigaku Buurii Gakuba Kiyo Shizen Kagaku 3:321-325.

11 JANSZ ER, JEYA RAJ EE, PIERIS N, ABEYRATNE DJ, 1974 Cyanide liberation from linamarin. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 2:57-65.

12 KINDERLERER JL, KELLARD B, 1987 Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut. Chem Ind (London) 16:567-568.

13 MANNAN A, AHMAD K, 1966 Studies on vitamin E in foods of East Pakistan. Pak J Biol Agr Sci9:13.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

15 CAMBAR P, ALGER J, 1989 Efectos broncopulmonares del aceite de coco en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

16 CAMBAR P, 1987 Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas.Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

18 VENKATARAMAN S, RAMANUJAN T, VENKATASUBBU V, 1980 Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shellCocos nucifera L. J Ethnopharmacol2(3):291-293.

19 JAIN SK, AGRAWAL SC, 1992 Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 46(1):1-6.

20 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1992 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

21 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol48(2):85-88.

22 CACERES A, GIRON LM, MARTINEZ AM, 1987 Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatments of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol19(3):233-245.

23 RODRÍGUEZ M, SÁNCHEZ C, 1982 Diuresis del agua de pipa (Cocos nucifera) en ratas. Rev Méd Panamá 7(3):186-19l.

24 KETUSINH O, 1954 Risks associate with intravenous infusion of coconut juice. J Med Ass Thailand 37(5):249-271.

25 MORTON J, 1981 Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America.Springfield, USA: III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

26 BOOTH AN, BICKOFF EM, KOHLER GO, 1960 Estrogen-like activity in vegetable oils and mill by-products. Science 131:1807.

27 SALERNO JW, SMITH DE, 1991 The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibiting of human colon cancer growth in vitro. Anticancer Res 11(1):209-215.

28 LOCNISKAR M, BELURY MA, CUMBERLAND AG, PATRICK KE, FISCHER SM, 1991 The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide, comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil. Carcinogenesis 12(6):1023-1028.

29 BERTON TR, FISCHER SM, CONTI CJ, LOCNISKAR MF, 1996 Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil. Nutr Cancer 26(3):353-363.

30 CHINDAVANIG A, 1971 Effect of vegetable oils in plasma cholesterol in man and dog. Master Thesis, Dept. Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

31 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

32 Olmedo D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005 Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

33 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso del aceite del fruto de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, de aceite del fruto fresco de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del aceite del fruto puro de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del aceite del fruto de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

Cucurbita moschata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : auyama
  • Haiti : jiroumou
  • Haiti : jiwomon

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, juice, applied locally 2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Use for jaundice, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Due to the health risks involved in hepatic disorders, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The fruit and the flower of Cucurbita moschata are widely used for human consumption.

For asthenia and weakness

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For jaundice:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-7 grams of flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. In the case of the decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 5 grams of flower.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day28.

For burns:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the leaf juice in sufficient quantity to affected area.  Cover injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace twice a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

6 DUKE JA, 2000 Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cucurbita moschata. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. USDA-ARS-NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, USA, August 10, 2000. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/farmacy2.pl

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

11 WASHUTTL J, Reiderer P, Bancher E, 1973 A qualitative and quantitative study of sugar-alcohols in several foods. J Food Sci 38:1262-1263.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p55.

14 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en Medicina Tradicional Popular en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

20 VILENCHIK M, 1989 Fundamentos biológicos del envejecimiento y la longevidad. Moscú, URSS: Ed. MIR.

22 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 WENIGER B, 1992 Cytotoxicité, effets immunodulateurs et morphologique des extraits éthanolique 80% et aqueux de feuille deCucurbita. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

24 HURTADO M, CARBALLO A, 1990 Las plantas medicinales TRAMIL en la farmacopea Soviética. Centro de Investigaciones de Fitoterapia y Medicina Tradicional, Topes de Collantes, Cuba.

25 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

26 CHEN ZK, PU TC, LI DY, JIANG HA, 1980 Therapeutic effect of cucurbitine on dog taeniasis.Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao1(2):124-126.

28 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina tradicional herbaria. Guía de Fitoterapia. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p226.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008 Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, de la hoja de Curcubita moschata. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Lycopersicon esculentum


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : tomate
  • Guatemala : tomate
  • Haiti : tomat

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, mashed, cataplasm3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for candidiasis (thrush) in mouth, toothache and burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Traditional use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high-risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The leaf should be properly washed and cleaned, and its external indumentum (the covering of hairs on the leaf) should be removed, as it may cause dermatomucosal irritation and reactions of hypersensitivity.

The ripe fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum is widely used for human consumption.

For candidiasis in the mouth and toothache:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For burns:

Wash injury with cooled boiled water and soap, apply 8-10 grams of leaf, previously washed, on the affected area.  Cover the injury with dressing or clean cloth and replace every 12 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA PJ, (Eds.), 1996 Biologically active natural products. Annual proceedings of the phytochemical society of Europe. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

6 SCHREIBER K, AURICH O, 1966 Isolation of several alkaloids and 3-beta-hydroxy-5-alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one from Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium Mill. Phytochemistry 5:707-712.

7 YAHARA S, UDA N, NOHARA T, 1996 Lycoperosides A-C, three stereoisomeric 23-acetoxyspirosolan-3-beta-ol beta-lycotetraosides from Lycopersicon esculentum. Phytochemistry 42(1):169-172.

8 RESCHKE A, HERRMANN K, 1982 Occurrence of 1-o-hydroxycinnamyl-beta-d-glucoses in vegetables I. Phenolic acid compounds of vegetables. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 174(1):5-8.

9 VERHOEFF K, LIEM JI, 1975 Toxicity of tomatine to Botrytis cinerea in relation to latency. Phytopathol Z 82:333-338.

10 WILLAMAN J, SCHUBERT B, 1961 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. Washington, USA: Tech. Bull. 1234, U.S. Dep. of Agric.

11 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel & Stuttgart: Birkhauser Verlag.

12 FLEURIET A, MACHEIT J, 1981 Quinyl esters and glucose derivatives of hydroxycinnamic acids during growth and ripening of tomato fruit. Phytochemistry 20(4):667-671.

13 CAVALIN G, 1983 Tomate et tomatine (Thèse Doctorat Pharmacie). Toulouse, France.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p102.

15 GASPERI-CAMPANI A, BARBIERI L, BATTELLI M, STIRPE F, 1985 On the distribution of ribosome-inactivating proteins amongst plants. J Nat Prod 48(3):446-454.

16 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES M, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

17 SHINOHARA K, KUROKI S, MIWA M, KONG ZL, HOSODA H, 1988 Antimutagenicity of dialyzates of vegetables and fruits. Agr Biol Chem 52(6):1369-1375.

18 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS J, 1978 Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35:1219-1220.

19 SINGH J, DUBEY A, TRIPATHI N, 1994 Antifungal activity of Mentha spicata. Int J Pharmacog 32(4):314-319.

20 SINGH K, PATHAK R, 1984 Effect of leaves extracts of some higher plants on spore germination of Ustilago maydes and U. nuda. Fitoterapia 55(5):318-320.

21 KUBAS J, 1972 Investigations on known or potential antitumoral plants by means of microbiological tests. Part III. Biological activity of some cultivated plant species in Neurospora crassa test. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 15:87-100.

22 CELAYETA F, 1960 Action of the tissues of various plants on the growth of Sphacelia segetum. Farmacognosia (Madrid) 20:91-101.

23 ANON, 1987 Pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions containing tomato plant extracts for the treatment of skin diseases. Patent-Israëli 78,820.

24 DUFFEY S, ISMAN M, 1981 Inhibition of insect larval growth by phenolics in glandular trichomes of tomato leaves. Experientia 37(6):574-576.

25 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

26 ASWAL B, BHAKUNI D, GOEL A, KAR K, MAHROTRA B, MUKHERJEE K, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

27 DUKE JA, 1988 Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

28 CONTRERAS A, ZOLLA C, 1982 Plantas tóxicas de México. México, México: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social.

Moringa pterygosperma


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Haiti : graines benné
  • Haiti : benzoliv
  • Haiti : ben olifère
  • Haiti : bambou-bananier

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed, oil, applied locally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for burns is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Traditional use should be limited only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The seed of Moringa pterygosperma is widely used for human consumption.

For burns:

Wash the injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the seed oil (cold extraction being the recommended procedure) to the affected area.  Cover the injury with a dressing or clean cloth and replace 2 times a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

3 DELAVEAU P, BOTTEAU P, 1980 Huiles a intérêt pharmacologique, cosmétologique et diététique. IV.- Huiles deMoringa oleifera. Plantes Médicinales and Phytothérapie 14(1):29-33.

4 KHAN FW, GUL P, MALIK MN, 1975 Chemical composition of oil from Moringa oleifera. Pak J For 25:100-102.

5 VILLASENOR IM, FINCH P, LIM-SYLIANCO CY, DAYRIT F, 1989 Structure of a mutagen from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Carcinogenesis 10(6):1085-1087

6 VILLASENOR IM, Lim-Sylianco CY, Dayrit F, 1989 Mutagens from roasted seeds ofMoringa oleifera. Mutat Res 224(2):209-212.

7 GUEVARA AP, VARGAS C, SAKURAI H, FUJIWARA Y, HASHIMOTO K, MAOKA T, KOZUKA M, ITO Y, TOKUDA H, NISHINO H, 1999 An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam. Mutat Res 440(2):181-188.

8 VILLASENOR IM, DAYRIT FM, LIM-SYLIANCO CY, 1990 Studies on Moringa oleifera seeds. II. Thermal degradation of roasted seeds. Philippine J Sci 119(1):33-39.

9 BADGETT BL, 1964 The mustard oil glucoside from Moringa oleifera seed ascorbic acid analogs with deoxy side chains. Diss Abstr 25:1556.

10 EILERT U, WOLTERS B, NAHRSTEDT A, 1981 Antibiotic principle of seeds of Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala. Planta Med 42(1):55-61.

11 DAYRIT FM, ALCANTAR AD, VILLASENOR IM, 1990 Studies on Moringa oleifera seeds. Part I. The antibiotic compound and its deactivation in aqueous solution. Philippine J Sci 119(1):23-32.

12 FAIZI S, SIDDIQUI BS, SALEEM R, SIDDIQUI S, AFTAB K, GILANI AUH, 1995 Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera. Phytochemistry 38(4):957-963.

13 RAMACHANDRAN C, PETER KV, GOPALAKRISHNAN PK, 1980 Drumstick (Moringa oleifera): A multipurpose Indian vegetable. Econ Bot 34:276-283.

14 DANIEL M, 1989 Polyphenols of some Indian vegetables. Curr Sci 58(23):1332-1334.

15 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part I. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

16 FAIZI S, SIDDIQUI BS, SALEEM R, SIDDIQUI S, AFTAB K, GILANI AUH, 1994 Isolation and structure elucidation of new nitrile and mustard oil glycosides from Moringa oleifera and their effect on blood pressure. J Nat Prod 57(9):1256-1261.

17 FAIZI S, SIDDIQUI BS, SALEEM R, SIDDIQUI S, AFTAB K, GILANI AUH, 1994 Novel hypotensive agents, niazimin A, niazimin B, niazicin A and niazicin B from Moringa oleifera: Isolation of first naturally occurring carbamates. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans I 1994(20):3035-3040.

18 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

19 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet inmunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Rapport TRAMIL. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

20 CAceres A, LOpez S, 1992 Informe TRAMIL sobre Moringa pterygosperma. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

21 CAceres A, LOpez S, 1991 Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 3: Effect of seed extracts on the treatment of experimental pyodermia. Fitoterapia 62:449-450.

22 CAceres A, SARAVIA A, RIZZO S, ZABALA L, DE LEON E, NAVE F, 1992 Pharmacologic properties of Moringa oleifera. 2: Screening for antispasmodic, antiinflammatory and diuretic activity. J Ethnopharmacol 36:233-237.

23 AL AZARIA JAHN S, 1981 Traditional water purification in tropical developing countries. Existing methods and potential application. Eschborn, Germany: Ed GTZ.

24 KERHARO J, 1969 Un remède populaire sénégalais: le "nebreday"(Moringa oleifera Lam). Plantes médicinales et phytothérapie 3:214-219.

25 RAGHUNANDANA R, GEORGE M, 1949 Investigation of plant antibiotics. III. Pterygospermin: The antibacterial principle of Moringa pterygosperma Gaernt. Indian J Med Res 37:159-167.

26 KURUP PA, NARASIMIHA RAO PL, 1954 Antibiotic principle from Moringa pterygosperma IV: Effect of addition of vitamins and aminoacids on the antibacterial activity of pterygospermin. Indian J Med Res 42:101-107.

27 DAS B, KURUP P, NARASIMHA R, 1957 Antibiotic principle of Moringa pterygosperma VII: Antibacterial activity and chemical structure of components related to pterygospermin. Indian J Med Res 45:195-196.

28 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986 Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. London, England: Cambridge University Press.

29 CACERES A, CABRERA O, MORALES O, MOLLINEDO P, MENDIA P, 1991 Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 1: Preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):213-216.

30 BERGER M, HABS M, JAHN SA, SCHMAHL D, 1984 Toxicological assessment of seeds from Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala, two highly efficient primary coagulants for domestic water treatment of tropical raw waters. East Afr Med J 61(9):712-716.

31 GRABOW W, SLABBERT JL, MORGAN WSG, JAHN SAA, 1985 Toxicity and mutagenicity evaluation of water coagulated with Moringa oleifera seed preparations using fish, protozoa, bacterial, coliphage, enzyme and Ames Salmonella assays. Water SA (Pretoria) 11(1):9-14.

32 Ingel TH, Bhide BV, 1951 Chemical Investigation of the gum from the drumstick plant Moringa oleifera. Curr Sci 20:107-108

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : castor oil
  • Dominica : cawapat
  • Dominican Republic : higuera
  • Marie-Galante Island : karapat blanc
  • Guadeloupe : karapat
  • Guadeloupe : carapate
  • Haiti : maskèti
  • Saint Lucia : cawapat
  • Martinique : ricin
  • Martinique : palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

dried leaf, powdered, applied locally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Barbados : castor oil
  • Dominica : cawapat
  • Dominican Republic : higuera
  • Marie-Galante Island : karapat blanc
  • Guadeloupe : karapat
  • Guadeloupe : carapate
  • Haiti : maskèti
  • Saint Lucia : cawapat
  • Martinique : ricin
  • Martinique : palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, applied locally1
 

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).