asthma

Aloe vera


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: aloe
 Guadeloupe: lalwé
 Puerto Rico: sábila
 Trinidad and Tobago: aloe
 Venezuela: sábila

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

“crystal”, liquefied, decoction or infusion, administered orally1,69

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for asthma, colds, baldness, cuts, bounds and skin rashes is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented inthe TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and published scientific information.

Due to the health risks related to asthma, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this plant remedy should be considered complementary to medical treatment.  There is no available information about its use for asthmatic crisis.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Not for oral administration to  pregnant or lactating women or to children under 5 years of age.  The use of this resource should be avoided in cases of diabetes mellitus.

The gel can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.  It should not be used if it has turned a reddish color.

When cutting out the gelatinous part of the leaf, avoid contact with the yellow juice.  This juice can cause reactions of skin hypersensitivity or, if swallowed, it can have laxative effects.

Use for asthma or colds:

Peal the leaf and blend 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of the “crystal” (gel, pulp, mesophyll) with 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-30 grams of gel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of gel, cover, and let cool.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For baldness, cuts, bounds and skin rashes:

Wash and peal the leaf, cut 15-30 grams (1-2 spoonfuls) of gel and apply to affected area of skin or scalp, twice a day.

1 BENEDETTI MD, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

2 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003
TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

3 DELAIGUE J, 2005
TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

4 YAMAGUCHI I, MEGA N, SANADA H, 1993
Components of the gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Biosci Biotech Biochem57(8):1350-1352.

5 GOWDA DC, NEELISIDDAIAH B, ANJANEYALU YV, 1979
Structural studies of polysaccharides from Aloe vera. Carbohydr Res72:201-205.

6 MANDAL G, DAS A, 1980b
Structure of the glucomannan isolated from the leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr Res 87:249-256.

7 MANDAL G, GHOSH R, DAS A, 1984
Characterization of the polysaccharides of Aloe barbadensis Miller: part III. Structure of a acidic oligosaccharide. Indian J Chem Ser B22:890-893.

8 HAQ N, HANNAN A, 1981
Studies on glucogalactomannan from the leaves of Aloe vera Tourn. (ex Linn.). Bangladesh J Scient & Ind Res16:68-72.

9 HART LA, VAN DER BERG AJJ, KUIS L, VAN DIJK H, LABADIE RP, 1989
An anti-complementary polysaccharide with immunological adjuvant activity from the leaf parenchyma cells of Aloe vera. Planta Med 55(6):509-512.

10 McANALLEY BH, 1988
Process for preparation of Aloe products, produced thereby and composition thereof. Patent - USA: 4,735,935

11 MANNA S, McANALLEY BH, 1993
Determination of the position of the O acetyl group in a b(1®4) mannan (acemannan) from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr Res 241:317-319.

12 YAMAGUCHI I, MEGA N, SANADA H, 1993
Components of the gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.F. Bioscience, Biotechnology, Biochemistry57:1350-1352.

13 MARY NY, CHRISTENSEN BV, BEAL JL, 1956
A paper chromatographic study of Aloe, aloin and cascara sagrada. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 45:229-232.

14 HOLDSWORTH DK, 1971
Chromones in Aloe species. Part I. Aloesin-A C-glucosyl-7-hydroxychromone. Planta Med 19:322-325.

15 PASZKIEWICZ-GADEK A, CHLABICZ J, GALASINSKI W, 1988
The influence of selected potential oncostatics of plant origin on the protein biosynthesis in vitro. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 40(2):183-190.

16 RAUWALD H, 1987
New hydroxyaloins: the periodate-positive substance from cape aloes and cinnamoyl esters from Curacao aloes. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 9(4):215.

17 ZWAVING JH, ELEMA ET, 1976
A comparative investigation of two methods for the determination of 1,8-dihydroxyanthracene derivatives in vegetable drugs. Pharm Weekbl (Sci Ed) 111:1315.

18 WALLER GR, MANGIAFICO S, RITCHEY CR, 1978
A chemical investigation of Aloe barbadensis. Proc Okla Acad Sci58:69.

19 WALLER GR, MANGIAFICO S, RITCHEY CR, CUMBERLAND CD, 1978
Natural products from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Lloydia41:648A.

20 SUGA T, HIRATA T, 1983
The efficacy of the Aloe plants chemical constituents and biological activities. Cosmet Toiletries98(6):105-108.

21 MUKERJI B, 1953
The Indian pharmaceutical codex. Volume I - Indigenous drugs. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

22 MANDAL G, DAS A, 1980
Characterization of the polysaccharides of Aloe barbadensis Miller. part I. Structure of the D-galacatan isolated from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr Res86:247-257.

23 MANDAL G, DAS A, 1980
Characterization of the polysaccharides of Aloe barbadensis Miller. part II. Structure of the glucomannan isolated from the leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydr Res 87:249-256.

24 GUARDARRAMA I, HERNANDEZ M, DIAZ-ACOSTA A, CARBALLO A, 1993
Observaciones clínicas sobre el efecto delAloe barbadensis L. en el tratamiento de pacientes asmáticos. Estudio preliminar. Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas, Santa Clara, Cuba.TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre,Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

25GUARDARRAMA I, TORRES ORLANDO, HERNANDEZ M, RUIZ MM, GOMEZ M, CLAVO Y, 1994
Prueba de hiperreactividad bronquial a la carbacolina en pacientes asmáticos tratados con Aloe barbadensis. Medicentro 10(1):93-101.

26 RAINE TJ, LONDON MD, GOLUCH L, HEGGERS JP, ROBSON MC, 1980
Antiprostagladins and antithromboxanes for treatment of frostbite. American College of Surgeons 1980 Surgical Forum31:557-559.

27MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, ALONSO N, 1996
Ausencia de actividad antimicrobiana de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Aloe vera (sábila). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(3):18-20.

28 GOTTSHALL RY, LUCAS E, LICKFELDT A, ROBERTS J, 1949
The occurrence of antibacterial substances active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in seed plants. J Clin Invest 28:920-923.

29 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987
Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol20(3):223-237.

30 BUNYAPRAPHATSARA N, JIRAKULCAIWONG S, THIRAWARAPAN S, MANONUKUL J, 1996
The efficacy of Aloe vera cream in the treatment of first, second and third degree burns in mice. Phytomedicine2(3):247-251.

31 ROWE TD, LOVELL BK, PARKS LM, 1941
Further observations on the use of Aloe vera leaf in the treatment of third degree X-ray reactions. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed30:266-269.

32 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, BYRNE ME, 1989
Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 79(11):559-562.

33 DAVIS RH, DONATO J, HARTMAN G, HAAS R, 1994
Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc84(2):77-81.

34 DAVIS RH, AGNEW PS, SHAPIRO E, 1986
Antiarthritic activity of anthraquinones found in Aloe for podiatric medicine. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc76:61-66.

35 MOHSIN A, SHAH AH, AL-YAHYA MA, TARIQ M, TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, 1989
Analgesic antipyretic activity and phytochemical screening of some plants used in traditional Arab system of medicine. Fitoterapia 60(2):174-177.

36FURONES JA, MORON FJ, PINEDO Z, 1996
Acción analgésica de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Aloe vera L. en ratones. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(2):15-17.

37 STRICKLAND FM, PELLEY RP, KRIPKE ML, 1994
Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity by Aloe barbadensis gel extracts. J Invest Dermatol102(2):197-204.

38 ROMAN-RAMOS R, FLORES-SAENZ JL, PARTIDA-HERNANDEZ G, LARA-LEMUS A, ALARCON-AGUILAR F, 1991
Experimental study of hypoglycemic activity of some antidiabetic plants. Arch Invest Med22(1):87-93.

39 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, 1987
Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera as measured by ear swelling. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 77(11):610-612.

40 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, 1988
Aloe vera. A natural approach for treating wounds, edema and pain in diabetes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc78(2):60-68.

41 DAVIS RH, KABBANI JM, MARO NP, 1986
Wound healing and antiinflammatory activity of Aloe vera. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences60:79.

42 DAVIS RH, LEITNER MG, RUSSO JM, MARO NP, 1987c
Biological activity of Aloe vera. Med Sci Res15:235.

43 RODRIGUEZ-BIGAS M, CRUZ NI, SUÁREZ A, 1988
Comparative evaluation of Aloe vera in the management of burn wounds in guinea pigs. Plast Reconstr Surg81:386-389.

44 KIVETT WF, 1989
Aloe vera for burns. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 83:195.

45 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, FUENTES V, 1991
Pharmacological screening of plant decoctions commonly used in Cuban folk medicine. J Ethnopharmacol33(1/2):21-24.

46 DAVIS RH, DI DONATO JJ, JOHNSON RW, STEWART CB, 1994
Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc84.(12):614-621.

47 LUSHBAUGH CC, HALE DB, 1953
Experimental acute radiodermatitis following beta irradiation. V. Histopathological study of the mode of action of therapy with Aloe vera. Cancer 6:690-698.

48 ROVATTI B, BRENNAN RJ, 1959
Experimental thermal burns. Induct Med Surg 28:364.

49 NORTHWAY RB, 1975
Experimental use of Aloe vera extract in clinical practice. Vet Med Small Animal Clinic70:80.

50 COBBLE HH, 1975
Stabilized Aloe vera gel. Patent - USA: 3,892,853.

51 FULTON JE, 1990
The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized Aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol16(5):460-467.

52 YAGI A, SHIDA T, NISHIMURA H, 1987
Effect of amino acids in Aloe extract on phagocytosis by peripheral neutrophil in adult bronchial asthma. Jap J Allergol36(12):1094-1101.

53 KAVOUSSI H, KAVOUSSI HP, 1993
Saturated solution of purified sodium chloride in purified Aloe vera for inducing and stimulating hair growth and for decreasing hair loss. Patent - USA: 5,215,760.

54LEONJE, ROSALES V, ROSALES RA, PAVON V, 1999
Actividad antiinflamatoria y cicatrizante del ungüento rectal de Aloe vera L (sábila). Rev Cubana Plantas Med 4(3):106-109.

55 VISUTHIKOSOL V, CHOWCHUEN B, SUKWANARAT Y, SRIURAIRATANA S, BOONPUCKNAVIG V, 1995
Effect of Aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 78(8):403-409.

56 CREWE JE, 1939
Aloes in the treatment of burns and scalds. Minnesota Med22:538-539.

57 SYED T, AHMAD S, HOLT A, AHMAD S, AHMAD S, AFZAL M, 1996
Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health 1(4):505-509.

58 SYDISKIA RJ, OWEN DG, 1987
Aloe emodin and other anthraquinones and anthraquinone-like compounds from plants virucidal against Herpes simplex viruses. Patent - USA: 4,670,265.

59RAMOS A, EDREIRA AYMEE, VILLESCUSA A, VIZOZO A, MARTINEZ MJ, 1996
Evaluación genotóxica de un extracto acuoso de Aloe vera L. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 1(2):18-23.

60 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, GARCIA A, PILOTO J, PAVON V, 2000
Estudio genotóxico in vitro e in vivo del extracto fluido de Cassia grandis L. y el gel de Aloe vera L. Rev Cubana Plantas Med 5(3):91-96.

61 DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, RAY C, 1968
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part I. Indian J Exp Biol6:232-247.

62 BHAKUNI D, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, GUPTA B, SRIMALI RC, 1971
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part III. Indian J Exp Biol9:91.

63 SHAH AH, QURESHI S, TARIQU M, AGEEL AM, 1989
Toxicity studies on six plants used in the traditional Arab system of medicine. Phytother Res3(1):25-29.

64 YOKEL R, OGZEWALLA C, 1981
Effects of plants ingestion in rats determined by the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Toxicon19(2):223-232.

65 PRAKASH A, MATHUR R, 1976
Screening of Indian plant for antifertility activity. Indian J Exp Biol 14:623-626.

66 SETHI N, NATH D, SING R, 1989
Teratological evaluation of some commonly used indigenous antifertility plants in rats. Int J Crude Drug Res27(2):118-120.

67 MORROW DM, RAPAPORT MJ, STRICK RA, 1980
Hypersensitivity to Aloe. Archives of Dermatology 116:1064-1065.

68 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001
Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

69 Zambrano LE, 2007
Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

70 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007
Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

Cocos nucifera


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominica: coconut tree , coco-tree
 Dominican Republic: cocotero
 Guatemala: cocotero
 Honduras: cocotero
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: coconut tree , coco-tree

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit oil, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for asthma, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

There is no information available on this resource for asthmatic crisis.

Use for urinary infections is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, urinary infection or renal stones, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should urinary infection symptoms last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use as an orally administered medicine during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

External use for arthritis, flu, burns and nacíos (boils) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)6 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injury) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should boils persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research31

For asthma:

Drink 15-30 mL (1-2 spoonfuls) of coconut oil 2-3 times a day.

For urinary ailments:

Drink 250 mL (1 cup) of coconut water 4-6 times a day31.

For arthritis, nacíos (boils), flu and burns:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

6 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

7 MOURAFE J, BROWN WH, WHITING FM, STULL JW, 1975 Unsaponifiable matter of crude and processed coconut oil. J Sci Food Agr26:523.

8 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale.Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

9 SAITTAGAROON S, KAWAKISHI S, NAMIKI M, 1985 Generation of mannitol from copra meal. J Food Sci50(3):757-760.

10 ATAKEUCHI K, 1961 Amino acids in the endosperm of some Amazonian Palmae. Chiba Daigaku Buurii Gakuba Kiyo Shizen Kagaku 3:321-325.

11 JANSZ ER, JEYA RAJ EE, PIERIS N, ABEYRATNE DJ, 1974 Cyanide liberation from linamarin. J Natl Sci Counc Sri Lanka 2:57-65.

12 KINDERLERER JL, KELLARD B, 1987 Alkylpyrazines produced by bacterial spoilage of heat-treated and gamma-irradiated coconut. Chem Ind (London) 16:567-568.

13 MANNAN A, AHMAD K, 1966 Studies on vitamin E in foods of East Pakistan. Pak J Biol Agr Sci9:13.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

15 CAMBAR P, ALGER J, 1989 Efectos broncopulmonares del aceite de coco en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

16 CAMBAR P, 1987 Prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas experimentales por algunos extractos de plantas.Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

18 VENKATARAMAN S, RAMANUJAN T, VENKATASUBBU V, 1980 Antifungal activity of the alcoholic extract of coconut shellCocos nucifera L. J Ethnopharmacol2(3):291-293.

19 JAIN SK, AGRAWAL SC, 1992 Sporostatic effect of some oils against fungi causing otomycosis. Indian J Med Sci 46(1):1-6.

20 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1992 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

21 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1995 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol48(2):85-88.

22 CACERES A, GIRON LM, MARTINEZ AM, 1987 Diuretic activity of plants used for the treatments of urinary ailments in Guatemala. J Ethnopharmacol19(3):233-245.

23 RODRÍGUEZ M, SÁNCHEZ C, 1982 Diuresis del agua de pipa (Cocos nucifera) en ratas. Rev Méd Panamá 7(3):186-19l.

24 KETUSINH O, 1954 Risks associate with intravenous infusion of coconut juice. J Med Ass Thailand 37(5):249-271.

25 MORTON J, 1981 Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America.Springfield, USA: III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

26 BOOTH AN, BICKOFF EM, KOHLER GO, 1960 Estrogen-like activity in vegetable oils and mill by-products. Science 131:1807.

27 SALERNO JW, SMITH DE, 1991 The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibiting of human colon cancer growth in vitro. Anticancer Res 11(1):209-215.

28 LOCNISKAR M, BELURY MA, CUMBERLAND AG, PATRICK KE, FISCHER SM, 1991 The effect of dietary lipid on skin tumor promotion by benzoyl peroxide, comparison of fish, coconut and corn oil. Carcinogenesis 12(6):1023-1028.

29 BERTON TR, FISCHER SM, CONTI CJ, LOCNISKAR MF, 1996 Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil. Nutr Cancer 26(3):353-363.

30 CHINDAVANIG A, 1971 Effect of vegetable oils in plasma cholesterol in man and dog. Master Thesis, Dept. Biochemistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

31 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

32 Olmedo D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005 Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

33 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso del aceite del fruto de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ, 2005 Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) del fruto fresco de Cocos nucifera. Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Toxicidad oral subcrónica, dosis repetida, en ratón, de aceite del fruto fresco de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2006 Irritabilidad dérmica, piel lesionada en conejos, del aceite del fruto puro de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Antiinflamatorio tópico, en ratones, del aceite del fruto de Cocus nucifera. Informe TRAMIL, Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

Coffea arabica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: café
 Haiti: kafé

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for asthma and pneumonia, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma and pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for hepatitis, intestinal worms and vertigo is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice or vertigo last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Use for after anger and poor blood quality is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Not for use if gastritis, peptic ulcer and hyperthyroidism are present.

The roasted and ground seeds of Coffea arabica are widely used for human consumption.

For asthma:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 grams (2 hearts) of fresh leaf 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  Leave to cool down, filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 16 grams of roasted and ground seeds in 1.5 liter (6 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink one and a half cup 3 times a day.

To obtain beneficial effects on pneumonia and even bronchodilator effects, take one and a half cup of the traditional coffee preparation made with roasted and ground seed31.

For after anger, hepatitis, poor blood quality, intestinal parasites and vertigo:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4(original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 MIYAKE T, SHIBAMOTO T, 1993 Quantitative analysis of acetaldehyde in foods and beverages. J Agric Food Chem 41(11):1968-1970.

6 KASAI H, KUMENO K, AMAIZUMI Z, NISHIMURA S, NAGAO M, FUJITA Y, SUGIMURA T, NUKAYA H, KOSUGE T, 1982 Mutagenicity of methylglyoxal in coffee. Jpn J Cancer Res (GANN) 73:681-683.

7 NEURATH GB, DUNGER M, PEIN FG, AMBROSIUS D, SCHREIBER O, 1977 Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:275-282.

8 AMORIM HV, CORTEZ JG, 1973 Methods of organic analysis of coffee. II. Comparison of methods of caffeine determination in green coffee. An Esc Super Agr Luiz De Queiroz Univ Sao Paulo 30:281.

9 DEISINGER PJ, HILL TS, ENGLISH JC, 1996 Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone. J Toxicol Environ Health 47(1):31-46.

10 NISHINA A, KAJISHIMA F, MATSUNAGA M, TEZUKA H, INATOMI H, OSAWA T, 1994 Antimicrobial substance, 3',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone, in coffee residue. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2):293-296.

11 AESCHBACH R, KUSY A, MAIER HG, 1982 Diterpenes of coffee. I. Atractyligenin. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 175(5):337-341.

12 GROSS G, JACCAUD E, HUGGETT AC, 1997 Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol 35(6):547-554.

13 DUPLATRE A, TISSE C, ESTIENNE J, 1984 Identification of arabica and robusta [coffee] species by studying the sterol fraction. Ann Falsif Expert Chim Toxicol 77(828):259-270.

14 ANDRADE PB, LEITAO R, SEABRA RM, OLIVEIRA MB, FERREIRA MA, 1997 Development of an HPLC/diode-array detector method for simultaneous determination of seven hydroxy-cinnamic acids in green coffee. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 20(13):2023-2030.

15 SONDHEIMER E, 1958 On the distribution of caffeic acid and the chlorogenic acid isomers in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 74(1):131-138.

16 MEISSNER W, PODKOWINSKA H, WALKOWSKI A, 1974 Determination of chlorogenic acids in green coffee. Zesz Nauk Akad Ekon Poznaniu Ser 1(58):71.

17 OKUDA T, HATANO T, AGATA I, NISHIBE S, KIMURA K, 1986 Tannins in Artemisia montana, A.princeps and related species of plant. Yakugaku Zasshi 106(10):894-899.

18 HAGGAG MY, 1975 A study of the lipid content of Coffea arabica seeds. Pharmazie 30:409.

19 MAZAAFERA P, 1991 Trigonelline in coffee. Phytochemistry 30(7):2309-2310.

20 TSUJI S, SHIBATA T, OHARA K, OKADA N, ITO Y, 1991 Factors affecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide in coffee. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 32(6):504-512.

21 STOFFELSMA J, SIPMA G, KETTENES DK, PYPKER J, 1968 New volatile components of roasted coffee. J Agric Food Chem 16(6):1000.

22 SPIRO M, 1997 Coffee, tea and chemistry. Chem Rev 6(5):11-15.

23 KOENIG WA, RAHN W, VETTER R, 1980 Identify and quantify emetic active constituents in roast coffee. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 9:145-149.

24 HOFMANN E, SCHLEE D, REINBOTHE H, 1969 On the occurrence and distribution of allantoin in Boraginaceae. Flora Abt A Physiol Biochem (Jena) 159:510-518.

25 MOLINA MR, DE LA FUENTE G, BATTEN MA, BRESSANI R, 1974 Decaffeination. A process to detoxify coffee pulp. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1055.

26 KOLLING-SPEER I, SPEER K, 1997 Diterpenes in coffee leaves. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 17(15):1-154.

27 WALLER GR, JURZYSTE M, KARNS TKB, GENO PW, 1991 Isolation and identification of ursolic acid from Coffea arabica L. (coffee) leaves. Colloq Sci Int Cafe [C.R.] 14:245-247.

28 HIGUCHI K, SUZUKI T, ASHIHARA H, 1995 Pipecolic acid from the developing fruits (pericarp and seeds) of Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis. Colloq Sci Int Café[C.R.] 16:389-395.

29 GONZALEZ J, NORIEGA R, SANDOVAL R, 1975 Contribution to the study of flavonoids of coffee tree (Coffea) leaves. Rev Colomb Quim 5:85.

30 CHOU C, WALLER G, 1980 Isolation and identification by mass spectrometry of phytotoxins inCoffea arabica. Bot Bull Acad Sinica (Taiwan) 21(1):25-34.

31 SERAFIN WE, 1996 Drugs used in the treatment of asthma. In: Hardman JG, Gilman AG, Limbird LE Eds. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, International Edition. p672-679.

32 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

33 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, CASTRO E, CASTRO C, MEJIA A, MEDINA F, LAGOS K, AGUILAR J, 1996 Efectos respiratorios y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

34 GARCIA M,Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, GAMES V, CASTRO E, MEJIA A, CASTRO C, 1996 Efectos de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en la producción de úlceras gástricas por ligadura del píloro en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

36 DAGLIA M, CUZZONI MT, DACARRO C, 1994 Antibacterial activity of coffee. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2270-2272.

37 TODA M, OKUBO S, HIYOSHI R, SHIMAMURA T, 1989 The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 8(4):123-125.

38 KOLEY J, KOLEY BN, MAITRA SR, 1973 Effect of drinking tea, coffee and caffeine on work performance. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 27:96.

39 ESTLE C, 1982 Caffeine psychotrope agents. Berlin, Germany: Springer verlag, 17:369-389.

40 CURATOLO PW, ROBERTSON D, 1983 The health consequences of caffeine. Ann Intern Med 98:641-653.

41 GREDEN R, 1974 Anxiety of caffeinism. Am J Psychiatry 131:1089-1092.

42 REY H, 1979 Effet d'un gel de caféine par voie cutanée sur la lipolyse locale. Thèse doctorat Médecine, Bordeaux, France.

43 THIERMAM-DUFFAUD D, 1983 Le café augmente-t-il la cholestérolémie? La Presse Médicale 12(34):2062.

44 DEBAS HT, COHEN MM, HOLUBITSKY IB, HARRISON RC, 1971 Caffeine simulated gastric and pepsine secretion: dose-response studies. Scand J Gastroenterol 6(5):453-457.

45 WRIGHT LF, GIBSON RG, HIRSCHOWITZ RI, 1977 Lack of caffeine stimulation of gastric secretion release in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 154(4):538-539.

46 MCARTHUR K, HOGAN D, ISENBERG JI, 1982 Relative stimulatory effects of commonly ingested beverages on gastric secretion in human. Gastroenterology 83(1/2):199-203.

47 GARCIA M,Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

48 STADLER RH, TURESKY RJ, MULLER O, MARKOVIC J, LEONG-MORGENTHALER PM, 1994 The inhibitory effects of coffee on radical-mediated oxidation and mutagenicity. Mutat Res 308(2):177-190.

49 STICH HF, ROSIN MP, BRYSON L, 1982 Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea. Mutat Res 95:119-128.

50 OBANA H, NAKAMURA SI, TANAKA RI, 1986 Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens. Mutat Res 175(2):47-50.

51 FUJITA FY, WAKABAYASHI K, NAGAO M, SUGIMURA T, 1985 Characteristics of major mutagenicity of instant coffee. Mutat Res 142(4):145-148.

52 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977 A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. I. Body weight, food comsumption, hematological parameters and plasma chemistry. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:7.

53 NOLEN GA, 1981 The effect of brewed and instant coffee on reproduction and teratogenesis in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 58(2):171-183.

54 ABRAHAM SK, 1995 Inhibitory effects of coffee on transplacental genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res 347(1):45-52.

55 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977 A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. II. Incidence and types of neoplasms. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:289.

56 NAGASAWA H, YASUDA M, SAKAMOTO S, INATOMI H, 1995 Protection by coffee cherry against spontaneous mammary tumour development in mice. Anticancer Res 15(1):141-146.

57 HASEGAWA R, ITO N, 1992 Liver medium-term bioassay in rats for screening of carcinogens and modifying factors in hepatocarcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol 30(11):979-992.

58 WILLETT WC, STAMPFER MJ, MANSON JE, COLDITZ GA, ROSNER BA, SPEIZER RE, HENNEKENS CH, 1996 Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. J Amer Med Assoc 275(6):458-462.

59 TAVANI A, PREGNOLATO A, LA VECCHIA C, NEGRI E, TALAMINI R, FRANCESCHI S, 1997 Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int J Cancer 73(2):193-197.

60 BARON JA, GREENBERG ER, HAILE R, MANDEL J, SANDLER RS, MOTT L, 1997 Coffee and tea and the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(1):7-10.

61 LUBIN F, RON E, WAX Y, MODAN B, 1985 Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 74(3):569-573.

62 WILLIAMS MA, MONSON RR, GOLDMAN MB, MITTENDORF R, 1990 Coffee and delayed conception. Lancet 335(8705):1603.

63 PIRACCINI BM, BARDAZZI F, VINCENZI C, TARDIO MP, 1990 Occupational contact dermatitis due to coffee. Contact Dermatitis 23(2):114.

64 NISHIBE Y, TOMONO N, HIRASAWA H, OKADA T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing extracts of Coffea arabica seeds. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 92,057.

 

Datura stramonium


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Haiti: datira

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

smoke of dried flower and leaf, inhaled1

Warnings
References

According to published and other information:

Use of the flower and the dried leaf for asthma attack and dyspnea is classified as tOxic (TOX).

Given the toxicity of the aerial parts of this plant, its use is discouraged, regardless of how recognized its alleged therapeutic properties may be.

In the event of poisoning from ingestion and/or inhalation of the aerial parts, seek medical attention.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 ALAMI RR, CHRISTENSEN BV, BEAL JL, 1955 A note on the alkaloidal ratios in certain species of Datura. J Am Pharm Assoc Sci Ed 44:710-711.

3 HEGNAUER R, 1973  Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag. 6:882.

4 SONANINI D, RZADKOWSKA-BODALSKA H, STEINEGGER E, 1970 Solanaceae flavones. 7. Flavonol glycosides from folium stramonii. Pharm Acta Helv 45(2):153-156.

5 TURSUNOVA R, MASLENNIKOVA V, ABUBAKIROV N, 1976  Withanolides of Datura stramonium. Khim Prir Soedin 12:670A.

6 PATE D, AVERETT J, 1986 Flavonoids of datura. Biochem Syst Eco 14(6):647-649.

7 SCHMITZ BOURGEOIS M, AMIRI I, REINBOLT J, BOULANGER Y, UNGERER A, 1988 Isolation and structure of a pseudopeptide gamma-L-glutamyl-L-aspartic acid fromDatura stramonium that impairs learning retention in mice. Biochimie 70(9):1179-1184.

8 PINKAS M, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1986  Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. Paris, France: 2 éd. Ed. Maloine.

9 VINCENT D, LESOBRE R, KAUFMAN E, 1965 An antiasthmatic smoke as an anticholinergic and antihistamic effect. Therapie 20(4):931-952.

10 ITOKAWA H, MIHASHI S, WATANABE K, NATSUMOTO H, HAMANAKA T, 1983 Studies on the constituents of crude drugs having inhibitory activity against contraction of the ileum caused by histamine or barium chloride (1) screening test for the activity of commercially available crude drugs and the related plant materials. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 37(3):223-228.

11 FORNO JR FJ, TERRY RA 1998 Accidental ingestion of jimsonweed by an adolescent. J Am Osteopath Assoc 98(9):502-565.

12 UNGERER A, SCHMITZ-BOURGEOIS M, MELAN C, BOULANGER Y, REINBOLT J, AMIRI I, BARRY J, 1988 Gamma-L-glutamyl-L-aspartate induces specific deficits in long term memory and inhibits [3H]glutamate binding. Brain Res 446(2):205-211.

13 Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica. 9a ed. México: McGraw-Hill Interamericana: p158-163.

14 ZHANG J, 1990 Preliminary report on the serum level of pancreatic polypeptide in patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma during attacks. Chung Hua Chieh Ho Hu Hsi Tsa Chih 12(3):141-142.

15 KEELER RF, 1981 Absence of arthrogryposis in newborn Hampshire pigs from sows ingesting toxic levels of jimsonweed during gestation. Vet Hum Toxicol 23(6):413-415.

16 GOTO M, NOGUCHI T, WATANABE T, ISHIKAWA I, KOMATSU M, ARAMAKI Y, 1957 Uterus-contracting ingredients in plants. Takeda Kenkyusho Nempo 16:21.

17 HARVEY RB, LARSO AH, LANDON RH, BOYD WL, ERICKSON LC, 1945 Weeds poisonous to livestock. Bull Minnesota Agr Exp Sta 388:1.

18 FERNANDO R, FERNANDO DN, 1990 Poisoning with plants and mushrooms in Sri Lanka: a retrospective hospital based study. Vet Hum Toxicol 32(6):579-581.

19 BALLANTYNE A, LIPPIETT P, PARK J, 1976 Herbal cigarettes for kicks. Brit Med J 2:1539.

20 PEREIRA CAL, NISHIOKA SDA, 1994 Poisoning by the use of Datura leaves in a homemade toothpaste. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 32(3):329-331.

21 GOWANLOCH JN, BROWN CA, 1943 Poisonous snakes, plants and black widow spider of Louisiana. New Orleans, USA: Dept. Conservation, Book.

22 HARRISON EA, MORGAN DH, 1976 Abuse of herbal cigarettes containing stramonium. Brit Med J 2:1195.

23 ODERDA GM, 1975 Jimson weed. J Am Med Assoc 232:597.

24 SCHMIDT A, 1943 Poisoning with stinging nettle tea. Pharm Zentralhalle Dtschl 84:238-239.

25 LAMENS D, DE HERT S, VERMEYEN K, 1994 Tea of thornapple leaves, a rare cause of atropine intoxication. Acta Anaesth Belg 45(2):55-57.

26 SIEGEL RK, 1976 Herbal intoxication. Psychoactive effects from herbal cigarettes, tea, and capsules. J Am Med Assoc 236(5):473-476.

27 GUHAROY SR, BARAJAS M, 1991 Atropine intoxication from the ingestion and smoking of jimson weed (Datura stramonium). Vet Hum Toxicol 33(6):588-589.

28 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de matière médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

29 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe (Thèse Pharmacie). Faculté de Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

30 HARDIN J, ARENA J, 1974 Human poisoning from native and cultivated plants. 2nd ed. Durham, USA: Duke University Press.

31 TAH S, MAHDI A, 1984 Datura intoxication in Riyadh. Soc Trop Med Hyg 78(1):134-135.

32 PARRA AL, YHEBRA RS, SARDINAS IG, BUELA LI, 2001 Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine 8(5):395-400.

Persea americana


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: aguacate
 Guatemala: aguacate
 Martinique: zaboka
 Mexico: aguacate

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for amenorrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma, bronchitis or cough last more than 5 days, or should urinary infection persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the risks of documented interactions with warfarin and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by persons taking these medicines5.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

 

Not for use during pregnancy because it may have abortifacient effect.

The fruit of Persea americana is widely used for human consumption.

For amenorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1/2-1 cup 3-4 times a day26.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

5 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Persea americana. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Feb. 26, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

6 BERGH BO, SCORA RW, STOREY WB, 1973 Comparison of leaf terpenes in Persea subgenus persea. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 134:130-134.

7 KING JR, KNIGHT RJ, 1992 Volatile components of the leaves of various avocado cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1182-1185.

8 DE ALMEIDA AP, MIRANDA MMFS, SIMONI IC, WIGG MD, LAGROTA MHC, COSTA SS, 1998 Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion. Phytother Res 12(8):562-567.

9 MERIÇLI F, MERIÇLI AH, YILMAZ F, YÜNCÜLER G, YÜNCÜLER O, 1992 Flavonoids of avocado (Persea americana) leaves. Acta Pharm Turc 34(2):61-63.

10 BATE-SMITH EC, 1975 Phytochemistry of proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 14(4):1107-1113.

11 MURAKOSHI S, ISOGAI A, CHANG CF, KAMIKADO T, SAKURAI A, TAMURA S, 1976 The effects of two components from avocado leaves (Persea americana) and related compounds on the growth of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkaishi 20:87-91.

12 HIRAI N, KOSHIMIZU K, 1983 A new conjugate of dihydrophaseic acid from avocado fruit. Agr Biol Chem 47(2):365-371.

13 WILSON C, WILSON III CW, SAW PE, NAGY S, 1979 Analysis of monosaccharides in avocado by HPLC. Liq Chromat Anal Food Beverages 1:225-236.

14 SARDI JC, TORRES OA, 1978 Study on avocado (Persea americana) oil. Arch Bioquim Quim Farm 20:45-49.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p324.

16 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas TRAMIL en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de ciencias químicas y farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

17 HERRERA J, 1986 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

18 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003 Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 ADEYEMI OO, OKPO SO, OGUNTI OO, 2002 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill Lauraceae. Fitoterapia 73(5):375-380.

21 MIWA M, KONG ZL, SHINOHARA K, WATANABE M, 1990 Macrophage stimulating activity of foods. Agric Biol Chem 54(7):1863-1866.

22 HERRERA J, 1988 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 CRAIGMILL AL, SEAWRIGHT AA, MATTILA T, FROST AJ, 1989 Pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (Persea americana). Aust Vet J 66(7):206-211.

25 GRANT R, BASSON PA, BOOKER HH, HOFHERR JB, ANTHONISSEN M, 1991 Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leaves. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62(1):21-22.

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p185.

27 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca machacada de Persea americana Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

28 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Plectranthus amboinicus


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Cuba: orégano frances
 Mexico: orégano grueso

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf (half-roasted), infusion, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for asthma is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The leaves ofPlectranthus amboinicus are widely used as a spice.

For asthma:

Prepare an infusion adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to 35 grams of half-roasted leaves (5-7 leaves).  Cover pot, let infusion settle for 5-10 minutes.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup as required by symptomatic indication, up to 3 times per day14.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 HAQUE I, 1988 Analysis of volatile constituents of PakistaniColeus aromaticus plant oil by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Chem Soc Pak 10(3):369-371.

3 TIMOR CE, MANZINI ME, FERNANDEZ A, GONZALEZ ML, 1992 Physicochemical assessment of the essential oil from the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. growing in Cuba. Rev Cubana Farm 25(1):63-68.

4 BRIESKORN CH, RIEDEL W, 1977 Flavonoids fromColeus amboinicus. Planta Med 31:308.

5 BRIESKORN CH, RIEDEL W, 1977 Triterpene acids fromColeus amboinicus. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 310(11):910-916.

6 ATAL CK, SRIVASTAVA JB, WALI BK, CHAKRAVARTY RB, DHAWAN BN, ROSTOGI RP, 1978 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part. VIII. Indian J Exp Biol 16(3):330-349.

7 COLLIER WA, VAN DE PIJI L, 1949 The antibiotic actions of plants, especially the higher plants,with results with Indonesian plants. Chron Nat 105:8-22.

8 LLANIO M, PEREZ-SAAD H, FERNANDEZ MD, GARRIGA E, MENENDEZ R, BUZNEGO MT, 1999 Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés): efecto antimuscarínico y potenciación de la adrenalina. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(4):29-32.

9 MENENDEZ RA, PAVON V, 1999 Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Rev Cubana planta Med 3(3):110-115.

10 BUZNEGO MT, FERNANDEZ MD, LLANIO M, LEON N, ACEVEDO ME, PEREZ-SAAD H, 1999

Perfil neurofarmacológico del Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Potenciación de las estereotipias inducidas por anfetamina. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(4):15-17.

11 GARCIA J, GARCIA T, MENENDEZ R, BUZNEGO M, 1996 Efecto antioxidante de los extractos fluídos y de flavonoides del Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):27-30.

12 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, EDREIRA A, BETANCOURT J, DECALO M, 1999 Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Estudio toxicogenético de un extracto fluido y del aceite esencial. Rev Cubana Plant Med 3(2):68-73.

14 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p102.

15 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, fallas L.V. 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Plectrantus amboinicus . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL, Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

17 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: castor oil
 Dominica: cawapat
 Dominican Republic: higuera
 Guadeloupe: karapat blanc , karapat , carapate
 Haiti: maskèti
 Saint Lucia: cawapat
 Martinique: ricin , palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, syrup, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: castor oil
 Dominica: cawapat
 Dominican Republic: higuera
 Guadeloupe: karapat blanc , karapat , carapate
 Haiti: maskèti
 Saint Lucia: cawapat
 Martinique: ricin , palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, orally4,6

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: castor oil
 Dominica: cawapat
 Dominican Republic: higuera
 Guadeloupe: karapat blanc , karapat , carapate
 Haiti: maskèti
 Saint Lucia: cawapat
 Martinique: ricin , palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, rubbed on chest1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Zingiber officinale


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Antigua and Barbuda: ginger
 Barbados: ginger
 Costa Rica: jengibre
 Dominica: ginger
 Guatemala: jengibre
 Honduras: jengibre
 Saint Lucia: ginger
 Puerto Rico: ginger , jengibre
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: ginger
 Venezuela: jengibre

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

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