pneumopathy

Allium cepa


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: cebollín
 Haiti: zechalot

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  bulb, macerated in water, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for pneumonia is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the respiratorydisorder last more than 5 days or 3 days in case of fever, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Use for sapito (thrush) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The bulb of Allium cepa var. aggregatumis widely used for human consumption.

For pneumopathy:

Grind, mash and squeeze one to two bulbs in a cloth.  Mix 15 to 30 mL (1-2 spoons) of juice with honey.  Drink before breakfast once a day for 3 weeks.

For sapito (mouth candidiasis = thrush):

Apply drops of the fresh bulb juice directly on affected area.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 BLOCK E, NAGANATHAN S, PUTMAN D, ZHAO SH, 1992
Allium chemistry: hplc analysis of thiosulfinates from onion, garlic, wild garlic (ramsoms), leek, scallion, shallot, elephant (great-headed) garlic, chive, and Chinese chive. Uniquely high allyl to methyl ratios in some garlic samples. J Agr Food Chem 40(12):2418-2430.

4 WU JB, CHENG YD, HUANG SC, CHANG KH, HSIEH MT, 1992
Quantitative determination of active compounds in Allium genus (Liliaceae) by hplc. China Med Coll J 1(2):123-128.

5 TOKITOMO Y, KOBAYASHI A, 1992
Isolation of the volatile components of fresh onion by thermal desorption cold trap capillary gas chromatography. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56(11):1865-1866.

6 DONNER H, GAO L, MAZZA G, 1997
Separation and characterization of simple and malonylated anthocyanins in red onions, Allium cepa L. Food Res Int 30(8):647-643.

7 FULEKI T, 1969
The anthocyanins of strawberry, rhubarb, radish and onion. J Food Sci 34(4):365-369.

8 PATIL BS, PIKE LM, YOO KS, 1995
Variation in the quercetin content in different colored onions (Allium cepa L.). J Amer Soc Hort Sci 120(6):909-913.

9 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978
Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41(4):463-467.

10 ABOU M, SHIER W, 1990
A simplified plaque reduction assay for antiviral agents from plants. Demonstration of frequent occurrence of antiviral activity in higher plants. J Nat Prod53(2):340-344.

11 SRINIVASAN D, NATHAN S, SURESH T, PERUMALSAMY PL, 2001
Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 74:217-220.

12 SHARMA KC, SHANMUGASUNDRAM SSK, 1979
Allium cepa as an antiasthmatic. RRL Jammu Newsletter 6(2):8.

13 DORSCH W, ETTL M, HEIN G, SCHEFTNER P, WEBER J, BAYER T, WAGNER H, 1987
Antiasthmatic effects of onion. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction by onion oils. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82(3/4):535-536.

14 DORSCH W, ADAM O, WEBER J, ZIEGELTRUM T,1985
Antiasthmatic effects of onion extracts -detection of benzyl- and other isothiocyanates (mustard oil) as antiasthmatic compounds of plant origin. Eur J Pharmacol 107(1):17-24.

15DORSCH W, RING J, 1984
Suppression of immediate and late anti-IgE-induced skin reactions by topically applied alcohol/onion extract. Allergy 39:43-49.

16 DORSCH W, WAGNER H, 1991
New antiasthmatic drugs from traditional medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94(1/2):262-265.

Allium cepa


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: cebollín
 Haiti: zechalot

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  bulb, natural juice, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for pneumonia is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the respiratorydisorder last more than 5 days or 3 days in case of fever, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Use for sapito (thrush) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

The bulb of Allium cepa var. aggregatumis widely used for human consumption.

For pneumopathy:

Grind, mash and squeeze one to two bulbs in a cloth.  Mix 15 to 30 mL (1-2 spoons) of juice with honey.  Drink before breakfast once a day for 3 weeks.

For sapito (mouth candidiasis = thrush):

Apply drops of the fresh bulb juice directly on affected area.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 BLOCK E, NAGANATHAN S, PUTMAN D, ZHAO SH, 1992
Allium chemistry: hplc analysis of thiosulfinates from onion, garlic, wild garlic (ramsoms), leek, scallion, shallot, elephant (great-headed) garlic, chive, and Chinese chive. Uniquely high allyl to methyl ratios in some garlic samples. J Agr Food Chem 40(12):2418-2430.

4 WU JB, CHENG YD, HUANG SC, CHANG KH, HSIEH MT, 1992
Quantitative determination of active compounds in Allium genus (Liliaceae) by hplc. China Med Coll J 1(2):123-128.

5 TOKITOMO Y, KOBAYASHI A, 1992
Isolation of the volatile components of fresh onion by thermal desorption cold trap capillary gas chromatography. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56(11):1865-1866.

6 DONNER H, GAO L, MAZZA G, 1997
Separation and characterization of simple and malonylated anthocyanins in red onions, Allium cepa L. Food Res Int 30(8):647-643.

7 FULEKI T, 1969
The anthocyanins of strawberry, rhubarb, radish and onion. J Food Sci 34(4):365-369.

8 PATIL BS, PIKE LM, YOO KS, 1995
Variation in the quercetin content in different colored onions (Allium cepa L.). J Amer Soc Hort Sci 120(6):909-913.

9 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978
Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41(4):463-467.

10 ABOU M, SHIER W, 1990
A simplified plaque reduction assay for antiviral agents from plants. Demonstration of frequent occurrence of antiviral activity in higher plants. J Nat Prod53(2):340-344.

11 SRINIVASAN D, NATHAN S, SURESH T, PERUMALSAMY PL, 2001
Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 74:217-220.

12 SHARMA KC, SHANMUGASUNDRAM SSK, 1979
Allium cepa as an antiasthmatic. RRL Jammu Newsletter 6(2):8.

13 DORSCH W, ETTL M, HEIN G, SCHEFTNER P, WEBER J, BAYER T, WAGNER H, 1987
Antiasthmatic effects of onion. Inhibition of platelet-activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction by onion oils. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 82(3/4):535-536.

14 DORSCH W, ADAM O, WEBER J, ZIEGELTRUM T,1985
Antiasthmatic effects of onion extracts -detection of benzyl- and other isothiocyanates (mustard oil) as antiasthmatic compounds of plant origin. Eur J Pharmacol 107(1):17-24.

15DORSCH W, RING J, 1984
Suppression of immediate and late anti-IgE-induced skin reactions by topically applied alcohol/onion extract. Allergy 39:43-49.

16 DORSCH W, WAGNER H, 1991
New antiasthmatic drugs from traditional medicine? Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 94(1/2):262-265.

Brassica rapa



Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root, syrup (decoction + sugar), orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for pneumonia is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to health risks associated with pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the respiratory disorder last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use by women intending to become pregnant, during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old, or by patients with thyroidal disease.

It should not be used as a therapeutic resource for more than 7 consecutive days.

The seed should not be ingested, due to toxicity risk.

The leaf and the root of Brassica rapa are widely used for human consumption.

For “pneumonia”:

Prepare a syrup from a decoction made with 50 grams of ground fresh root in 500 mL (2 cups large glasses or one pint) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, filter, add 850 grams of sugar and mix until a translucent solution is obtained, pour into a container and fill with water to make up one liter (two pints).

1 CHARLES C, 1988
TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 TSUMURAYA Y, NAKAMURA K, HASHIMOTO Y, YAMAMOTO S, 1984
Immunological properties of arabinogalactan proteins from leaves of cruciferous plants. Agr Biol Chem 48(11):2915-2917.

3 GUSTINE DL, 1985
Determination of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide in Brassica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 319(3):450-453.

4 IGARASHI K, ABE S, SATOH J, 1990
Effects of atsumi-kabu (red turnip, Brassica campestris L.) anthocyanin on serum cholesterol levels in cholesterol-fed rats. Agr Biol Chem 54(1):171-175.

5 YAO G, LI YJ, CHANG XQ, LU J, 1983
Vitamin C content in vegetables and fruits in Shenyang (China) market during four seasons. Yingyang Xuebao 5(4):373-379.

6 TAWFIQ N, HEANEY RK, PLUMB JA, FENWICK GR, MUSK SR, WILLIAMSON G, 1995
Dietary glucosinolates as blocking agents against carcinogenesis: glucosinolate breakdown products assessed by induction of quinone reductase activity in murine hepa1c1c7 cells. Carcinogenesis 16(5):1191-1194.

7 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

8 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986
Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p30.

9 EL-SAYED AM, EL-SAKHEWY FS, 1993
Furochromone and thiooxazolidone principles of Brassica rapa (Turnip). Az J Pharm Sco 11(6):11-20.

10 YAMAZAKI M, NISHIMURA T, 1992
Induction of neutrophil accumulation by vegetable juice. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56(1):150-151.

11 KOSHIMIZU K, OHIGASHI H, TOKUDA H, KONDO A, YAMAGUCHI K, 1988
Screening of edible plants against possible anti-tumor promoting activity. Cancer Lett 39(3):247-257.

12 SARKAR S, SINGH LR, UNIYAL BP, MUKHERJEE SK, NAGPAL KK, 1983
Effect of common vegetables on thyroid function in rats. A preliminary study. Def Sci J 33(4):317-321.

13 GLASER E, WITTNER L, 1924
The blood sugar lowering effect of plant extracts and oxidases, as well as the occurrence of enzymes in insulin. Biochem Z 151:279-295.

14 GREER MA, ASTWOOD EB, 1948
The antithyroid effect of certain foods in man as determined with radioactive iodine. Endocrinology 43:105-119.

15 BADRIA FA, 1994
Is man helpless against cancer? An environmental approach: antimutagenic agents from Egyptian food and medicinal preparations. Cancer Lett 84(1):1-5.

16 MORITA K, HARA M, KADA T, 1978
Studies on natural desmutagens: Screening for vegetable and fruit factors active in inactivation of mutagenic pyrolysis products from amino acids. Agr Biol Chem 42(6):1235-1238.

17 KADA T, MORITA K, INOUE T, 1978
Anti-mutagenic action of vegetable factor(s) on the mutagenic principle of tryptophan pyrolysate. Mutat Res 53(3):351-353.

18 YAMAGUCHI T, YAMASHITA Y, ABE T, 1980
Desmutagenic activity of peroxidase on autoxidized linolenic acid. Agr Biol Chem 44(4):959-961.

19 KRAMER J, MAHADEVAN S, HUNT JR, SAUER FD, CORNER AH, CHARLTON KM, 1973
Growth rate, lipid composition, metabolism and myocardial lesions of rats fed rapeseed oils (Brassica campestris var. arlo, Echo and Span, and B. napus var. oro.) J Nutr 103(12):1696-1708.

20 KRAMER J, FRIEND D, HULAN H, 1975
Lipid changes in tissue of young boars fed rapeseed oil or corn oil. Nutr Metab 19(5-6):279-290.

21 KRAMER JK, HULAN HW, MAHADEVAN S, SAUER FD, CORNER AH, 1975
Brassica campestrisvar. span: II. Cardiopathogenicity of fractions isolated from span rapeseed oil when fed to male rats. Lipids 10(9):511-516.

22 GRANDHI RR, SLINGER SJ, SUMMERS JP, 1977
Productive performance and liver lesions in two strains of laying hens receiving two rapeseed meals. Poult Sci 56(6):1904-1908.

23 MALIK C, VERMANI S, BHATIA D, 1976
III Histochemical characteristics of suspensor during embryo development in Brassica campestris Linn. var. sarson. Acta Histochem 57(2):178-182.

Coffea arabica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominican Republic: café
 Haiti: kafé

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  seed, decoction, orally2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for asthma and pneumonia, asthenia and weakness is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation, and available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma and pneumonia, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Use for hepatitis, intestinal worms and vertigo is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should jaundice or vertigo last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Use for after anger and poor blood quality is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Not for use if gastritis, peptic ulcer and hyperthyroidism are present.

The roasted and ground seeds of Coffea arabica are widely used for human consumption.

For asthma:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 grams (2 hearts) of fresh leaf 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in covered pot.  Leave to cool down, filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 16 grams of roasted and ground seeds in 1.5 liter (6 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink one and a half cup 3 times a day.

To obtain beneficial effects on pneumonia and even bronchodilator effects, take one and a half cup of the traditional coffee preparation made with roasted and ground seed31.

For after anger, hepatitis, poor blood quality, intestinal parasites and vertigo:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4(original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

5 MIYAKE T, SHIBAMOTO T, 1993 Quantitative analysis of acetaldehyde in foods and beverages. J Agric Food Chem 41(11):1968-1970.

6 KASAI H, KUMENO K, AMAIZUMI Z, NISHIMURA S, NAGAO M, FUJITA Y, SUGIMURA T, NUKAYA H, KOSUGE T, 1982 Mutagenicity of methylglyoxal in coffee. Jpn J Cancer Res (GANN) 73:681-683.

7 NEURATH GB, DUNGER M, PEIN FG, AMBROSIUS D, SCHREIBER O, 1977 Primary and secondary amines in the human environment. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:275-282.

8 AMORIM HV, CORTEZ JG, 1973 Methods of organic analysis of coffee. II. Comparison of methods of caffeine determination in green coffee. An Esc Super Agr Luiz De Queiroz Univ Sao Paulo 30:281.

9 DEISINGER PJ, HILL TS, ENGLISH JC, 1996 Human exposure to naturally occurring hydroquinone. J Toxicol Environ Health 47(1):31-46.

10 NISHINA A, KAJISHIMA F, MATSUNAGA M, TEZUKA H, INATOMI H, OSAWA T, 1994 Antimicrobial substance, 3',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone, in coffee residue. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2):293-296.

11 AESCHBACH R, KUSY A, MAIER HG, 1982 Diterpenes of coffee. I. Atractyligenin. Z Lebensm-Unters Forsch 175(5):337-341.

12 GROSS G, JACCAUD E, HUGGETT AC, 1997 Analysis of the content of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee brews. Food Chem Toxicol 35(6):547-554.

13 DUPLATRE A, TISSE C, ESTIENNE J, 1984 Identification of arabica and robusta [coffee] species by studying the sterol fraction. Ann Falsif Expert Chim Toxicol 77(828):259-270.

14 ANDRADE PB, LEITAO R, SEABRA RM, OLIVEIRA MB, FERREIRA MA, 1997 Development of an HPLC/diode-array detector method for simultaneous determination of seven hydroxy-cinnamic acids in green coffee. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 20(13):2023-2030.

15 SONDHEIMER E, 1958 On the distribution of caffeic acid and the chlorogenic acid isomers in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 74(1):131-138.

16 MEISSNER W, PODKOWINSKA H, WALKOWSKI A, 1974 Determination of chlorogenic acids in green coffee. Zesz Nauk Akad Ekon Poznaniu Ser 1(58):71.

17 OKUDA T, HATANO T, AGATA I, NISHIBE S, KIMURA K, 1986 Tannins in Artemisia montana, A.princeps and related species of plant. Yakugaku Zasshi 106(10):894-899.

18 HAGGAG MY, 1975 A study of the lipid content of Coffea arabica seeds. Pharmazie 30:409.

19 MAZAAFERA P, 1991 Trigonelline in coffee. Phytochemistry 30(7):2309-2310.

20 TSUJI S, SHIBATA T, OHARA K, OKADA N, ITO Y, 1991 Factors affecting the formation of hydrogen peroxide in coffee. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 32(6):504-512.

21 STOFFELSMA J, SIPMA G, KETTENES DK, PYPKER J, 1968 New volatile components of roasted coffee. J Agric Food Chem 16(6):1000.

22 SPIRO M, 1997 Coffee, tea and chemistry. Chem Rev 6(5):11-15.

23 KOENIG WA, RAHN W, VETTER R, 1980 Identify and quantify emetic active constituents in roast coffee. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 9:145-149.

24 HOFMANN E, SCHLEE D, REINBOTHE H, 1969 On the occurrence and distribution of allantoin in Boraginaceae. Flora Abt A Physiol Biochem (Jena) 159:510-518.

25 MOLINA MR, DE LA FUENTE G, BATTEN MA, BRESSANI R, 1974 Decaffeination. A process to detoxify coffee pulp. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1055.

26 KOLLING-SPEER I, SPEER K, 1997 Diterpenes in coffee leaves. Colloq Sci Int Café [C.R.] 17(15):1-154.

27 WALLER GR, JURZYSTE M, KARNS TKB, GENO PW, 1991 Isolation and identification of ursolic acid from Coffea arabica L. (coffee) leaves. Colloq Sci Int Cafe [C.R.] 14:245-247.

28 HIGUCHI K, SUZUKI T, ASHIHARA H, 1995 Pipecolic acid from the developing fruits (pericarp and seeds) of Coffea arabica and Camellia sinensis. Colloq Sci Int Café[C.R.] 16:389-395.

29 GONZALEZ J, NORIEGA R, SANDOVAL R, 1975 Contribution to the study of flavonoids of coffee tree (Coffea) leaves. Rev Colomb Quim 5:85.

30 CHOU C, WALLER G, 1980 Isolation and identification by mass spectrometry of phytotoxins inCoffea arabica. Bot Bull Acad Sinica (Taiwan) 21(1):25-34.

31 SERAFIN WE, 1996 Drugs used in the treatment of asthma. In: Hardman JG, Gilman AG, Limbird LE Eds. Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 9th ed. New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing, International Edition. p672-679.

32 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p47.

33 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, CASTRO E, CASTRO C, MEJIA A, MEDINA F, LAGOS K, AGUILAR J, 1996 Efectos respiratorios y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

34 GARCIA M,Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 CAMBAR P, CANALES M, GAMES V, CASTRO E, MEJIA A, CASTRO C, 1996 Efectos de los extractos acuosos de las hojas de Coffea arabica L. en la producción de úlceras gástricas por ligadura del píloro en ratas. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

36 DAGLIA M, CUZZONI MT, DACARRO C, 1994 Antibacterial activity of coffee. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2270-2272.

37 TODA M, OKUBO S, HIYOSHI R, SHIMAMURA T, 1989 The bactericidal activity of tea and coffee. Lett Appl Microbiol 8(4):123-125.

38 KOLEY J, KOLEY BN, MAITRA SR, 1973 Effect of drinking tea, coffee and caffeine on work performance. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 27:96.

39 ESTLE C, 1982 Caffeine psychotrope agents. Berlin, Germany: Springer verlag, 17:369-389.

40 CURATOLO PW, ROBERTSON D, 1983 The health consequences of caffeine. Ann Intern Med 98:641-653.

41 GREDEN R, 1974 Anxiety of caffeinism. Am J Psychiatry 131:1089-1092.

42 REY H, 1979 Effet d'un gel de caféine par voie cutanée sur la lipolyse locale. Thèse doctorat Médecine, Bordeaux, France.

43 THIERMAM-DUFFAUD D, 1983 Le café augmente-t-il la cholestérolémie? La Presse Médicale 12(34):2062.

44 DEBAS HT, COHEN MM, HOLUBITSKY IB, HARRISON RC, 1971 Caffeine simulated gastric and pepsine secretion: dose-response studies. Scand J Gastroenterol 6(5):453-457.

45 WRIGHT LF, GIBSON RG, HIRSCHOWITZ RI, 1977 Lack of caffeine stimulation of gastric secretion release in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 154(4):538-539.

46 MCARTHUR K, HOGAN D, ISENBERG JI, 1982 Relative stimulatory effects of commonly ingested beverages on gastric secretion in human. Gastroenterology 83(1/2):199-203.

47 GARCIA M,Coto MT, González CS, Pazos L, 1998 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Coffea arabica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

48 STADLER RH, TURESKY RJ, MULLER O, MARKOVIC J, LEONG-MORGENTHALER PM, 1994 The inhibitory effects of coffee on radical-mediated oxidation and mutagenicity. Mutat Res 308(2):177-190.

49 STICH HF, ROSIN MP, BRYSON L, 1982 Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea. Mutat Res 95:119-128.

50 OBANA H, NAKAMURA SI, TANAKA RI, 1986 Suppressive effects of coffee on the SOS responses induced by UV and chemical mutagens. Mutat Res 175(2):47-50.

51 FUJITA FY, WAKABAYASHI K, NAGAO M, SUGIMURA T, 1985 Characteristics of major mutagenicity of instant coffee. Mutat Res 142(4):145-148.

52 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977 A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. I. Body weight, food comsumption, hematological parameters and plasma chemistry. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:7.

53 NOLEN GA, 1981 The effect of brewed and instant coffee on reproduction and teratogenesis in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 58(2):171-183.

54 ABRAHAM SK, 1995 Inhibitory effects of coffee on transplacental genotoxicity in mice. Mutat Res 347(1):45-52.

55 WURZNER HP, LINDSTROM E, VUATAZ L, LUGINBUHL H, 1977 A 2-year feeding study of instant coffees in rats. II. Incidence and types of neoplasms. Food Cosmet Toxicol 15:289.

56 NAGASAWA H, YASUDA M, SAKAMOTO S, INATOMI H, 1995 Protection by coffee cherry against spontaneous mammary tumour development in mice. Anticancer Res 15(1):141-146.

57 HASEGAWA R, ITO N, 1992 Liver medium-term bioassay in rats for screening of carcinogens and modifying factors in hepatocarcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol 30(11):979-992.

58 WILLETT WC, STAMPFER MJ, MANSON JE, COLDITZ GA, ROSNER BA, SPEIZER RE, HENNEKENS CH, 1996 Coffee consumption and coronary heart disease in women. J Amer Med Assoc 275(6):458-462.

59 TAVANI A, PREGNOLATO A, LA VECCHIA C, NEGRI E, TALAMINI R, FRANCESCHI S, 1997 Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int J Cancer 73(2):193-197.

60 BARON JA, GREENBERG ER, HAILE R, MANDEL J, SANDLER RS, MOTT L, 1997 Coffee and tea and the risk of recurrent colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6(1):7-10.

61 LUBIN F, RON E, WAX Y, MODAN B, 1985 Coffee and methylxanthines and breast cancer: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 74(3):569-573.

62 WILLIAMS MA, MONSON RR, GOLDMAN MB, MITTENDORF R, 1990 Coffee and delayed conception. Lancet 335(8705):1603.

63 PIRACCINI BM, BARDAZZI F, VINCENZI C, TARDIO MP, 1990 Occupational contact dermatitis due to coffee. Contact Dermatitis 23(2):114.

64 NISHIBE Y, TOMONO N, HIRASAWA H, OKADA T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing extracts of Coffea arabica seeds. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-08 92,057.

 

Lantana camara


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominica: mabizou , red sage
 Guatemala: siete negritos
 Trinidad and Tobago: graterwood , guanatel , kayakeet
 Venezuela: cariaquito , cariaquillo

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

aerial parts, syrup or infusion, orally1,24

Warnings
References

According to published and other information:

Use of aerial parts for fever, flu, pneumonia and skin diseases is classified as tOxic (TOX).

Given the toxicity of the aerial parts of this plant, its oral and topical uses are discouraged, regardless of how recognized its alleged therapeutic properties may be.

In the event of poisoning from ingestion, seek medical attention.

1 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 DELENS M, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

4 SUNDARARAMAIAH T, BAI VV, 1973 Chemical examination of Lantana camara. J Indian Chem Soc 50(9):620.

5 HART N, LAMBERTON J, SIOUMIS A, SUARES H, 1976 New triterpenes of Lantana camara H. A comparative study of the constituents of several taxa. Aust J Chem 29:655-671.

6 TAOUBI K, FAUVEL M, GLEYE J, MOULIS C, FOURASTE I, 1997 Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Lantana camara and Lippia multiflora. Planta Med 63(12):192-193.

7 PAN WD, MAI LT, LI YJ, XU XL, YU DQ, 1993 Studies on the chemical constituents of the leaves of Lantana camara. Yao Xue Xue Bao 28(1):35-39.

8 VERMA D, SINGH S, TRIPATHI V, 1997 A rare antibacterial flavone glucoside from Lantana camara. Indian Drugs 34(1):32-35.

9 WOLLENWEBER E, DORR M, MUNIAPPAN R, SIEMS K, 1997 Flavonoid aglycones and triterpenoids from the leaf exudate of Lantana camara and Lantana montevidensis. Biochem Syst Ecol 25(3):269-270.

10 AHMED Z, EL-MOGHAZY SHOAIB A, WASSEL G, EL-SAYYAD S, 1972 Phytochemical study of Lantana camara. I. Planta Med 21(3):282-288.

11 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p280.

12 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 OCCHIUTO F, CIRCOSTA C, COSTA DE PASQUALE R, 1989 Studies on some medicinal plants on Senegal: effects on isolated guinea pig ileum. J Ethnopharmacol 26(2):205-210.

14 CACERES A, FIGUEROA L, TARACENA A, SAMAYOA B, 1993 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 2: Evaluation of activity of 16 plants against gram + bacteria. J Ethnopharmacol 39(1):77-82.

15 WANJARI D, 1983 Antihaemorrhagic activity of Lantana camara. Nagarjun 27(2):40-41.

16 AYENSU E, 1982 Medicinal plants of the West Indies. Algonac, USA: Reference Publications Inc.

17 DUKE JA, 1988 Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

18 AKHTER MH, MATHUR M, BHIDE NK, 1990 Skin and liver toxicity in experimental Lantana camara poisoning in albino rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 34(1):13-16.

19 SHARMA VK, KAUR S, 1987 Contact dermatitis due to plants in Chandigarh. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 53(1):26-30.

20 SHARMA OP, DAWRA RK, MAKKAR HP, 1989 Toxicity of isolated lantana (Lantana camara L.) constituents to male and female guinea pigs. Vet Hum Toxicol 31(1):10-13.

21 FOURIE N, VAN DER LUGT JJ, NEWSHOLME SJ, NEL PW, 1990 Acute Lantana camara toxicity in cattle. J South African Vet Assoc 58(4):173-178.

22 NAOUAR-LABOUP M, 1984 Connaissance sur des Verbénacées: Lantana camara L., espèce hépatotoxique. Constituants chimiques du genre Clerodendron. Doctorat d'Etat n°98, mention pharmacie. Université de Toulouse, France.

23 PASS MA, STEWART C, 1984 Administration of activated charcoal for the treatment of Lantana poisoning of sheep and cattle. J Appl Toxicol 4(5):267-269. 

24 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

Mangifera indica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Guatemala: mango
 Haiti: mango
 Saint Lucia: mango
Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for indigestion (burn) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of the flower for bronchitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of the flower for weakness, pneumonia and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should bronchitis, pneumopathy or cough last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit ofMangifera indica is widely used for human consumption.

For cough and pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 leaves in 1 liter of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For bronchitis, indigestion (burn) and weakness:

Prepare an infusion, adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 leaves.  Cover and allow cool down for 5-10 minutes, and then filter.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 CRAVEIRO AA, ANDRADE CH, MATOS FJ, ALENCAR JW, MACHADO MI, 1980 Volatile constituents of Mangifera indica Linn. Rev Latinoamer Quim 11:129.

5 TANAKA T, SUEYASU T, NONAKA G-I, NISHIOKA I, 1984 Tannins and related compounds. XXI. Isolation and characterization of galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoyl esters of benzophenone and xanthone c-glucosides from Mangifera indica L. Chem Pharm Bull 32(7):2676-2686.

6 PROCTOR JTA, CREASY LL, 1969 The anthocyanin of the mango fruit. Phytochemistry 8:2108.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 NIGAM IC, 1962 Studies in some Indian essential oils. Agra Univ J Res Sci 11:147-152.

9 LU ZY, MAO HD, HE MR, LU SY, 1982 Studies on the chemical constituents of mangguo (Mangifera indica) leaf. Chung Ts'ao Yao 13:3-6.

10 PHARM XS, PHARM GK, 1991 The extraction and determination of the flavonoid mangiferin in the bark and leaves of Mangifera indica. Tap Chi Duoc Hoc 5:8-19.

11 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, 1982 Triterpenoids of the leaves of Mangifera indica. Indian J Pharm Sci 44:58-59.

12 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

13 GHOSAL S, BISWAS K, CHATTOPADHYAY BK, 1978 Differences in the chemical constituents of Mangifera indica infected with Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliformae. Phytochemistry 17:689-694.

14 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1989 Alkyl gallates of flowers of Mangifera indica. Fitoterapia 60(3):284.

15 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1993 Studies in the chemical constituents of flowers of Mangifera indica. Part-II. Isolation and characterization of some alkylgallates from blossoms of Mangifera indica. Pak J Sci Ind 35(7/8):276-278.

16 BANDYOPADHYAY C, 1983 Contribution of gas chromatography to food flavor research. Pafai J 5(3):26-30.

17 SAEED AR, KARAMALLA KA, KHATTAB AH, 1976 Polyphenolic compounds in the pulp of Mangifera indica L. J Food Sci 41(4):959-960.

18 MAC LEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of mango fruit. Phytochemistry 21:2523-2526.

19 GAYDOU EM, BOUCHET P, 1984 Sterols, methyl sterols, triterpene alcohols and fatty acids of the kernel fat of different Malagasy mango (Mangifera indica) varieties. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 61(10):1589-1593.

20 ANJANEYULU V, RAVI K, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, CONNOLLY JD, 1989 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 28(5):1471-1477.

21 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA K, RAVI PK, CONNOLLY JD, 1985 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 24(10):2359-2367.

22 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, INDIAN J, 1982 Triterpenoids of the root-bark of Mangifera indica. Pharm Sci 44(4):85-87.

23 KHAN MA, NIZAMI SS, KHAN MNI, AZEEM SW, AHMED Z, 1994 New triterpenes from Mangifera indica. J Nat Prod 57(7):988-991.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p105.

25 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

27GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 SOUZA BRITO ARM, HIRUMA-LIMA CA, LIMA ZP, 2003 Atividades biológicas obtidas dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas e flores da Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL, Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP y Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil.

29 POUSSET J, 1989 Plantes médicinales africaines. Utilisation pratique. Paris, France: ACCT.

30 RAY BN, PAL AK, 1967 Estrogenic activity of tree leaves as animal feed. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 20:6.

31 TRIPATHI RKR, TRIPATHI RN, 1982 Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia 38(3):349-349.

32 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

33 GEORGE M, PANDALAI KM, 1949 Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

34 PATEL VK, VENKATAKRISHNA-BHATT H, 1988 Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26(4):176-184.

35 VIJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA SD, PRASAD SK, 1979 Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 JAIN SR, SHARMA SN, 1967 Hypoglycaemic drugs of Indian indigenous origin. Planta Med 15(4):439-442.

37 MALCOLM SA, SOFOWORA EA, 1969 Antimicrobial activity of selected Nigerian folk remedies and their constituent plants. Lloydia 32:512-517.

38 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41: 463-467.

39 KLOOS H, THIONGO FW, OUMA JH, BUTTERWORTH AE, 1987 Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos district, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 90(4):197-204.

40 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

41 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

42 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986 Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.

44 GUPTA MP, ARIAS TD, CORREA M, LAMBA SS, 1979 Ethnopharmacognostic observations on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Q J Crude Drug Res 17(3/4):115-130.

Myristica fragrans


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Dominica: nutmeg
 Dominican Republic: nuez moscada
 Saint Lucia: nutmeg

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  nutmeg, powdered, rubbed on skin2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for headache and pneumonia is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should headache last more than 3 days or pneumonia more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

There is no available information in scientific literature to validate the effects attributed to nutmeg powder for juma (vertigo and weakness).

For adults, do not take more than 500 mg of nutmeg powder per day.

The nut of Myristica fragrans is widely used for human consumption.

TRAMIL Research25

For headache and pneumopathy:

Grate seed (nutmeg powder) and apply 3-5 grams locally on forehead and 10-15 grams on chest and back.

For juma (vertigo and weakness):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

2 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

3 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

5 NUÑEZ MELENDEZ E, 1964 Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Univ. of Puerto Rico - Est. Exper. Agricola, 245.

6 SCHENK H, LAMPARSKY D, 1981 Analysis of nutmeg oil using chromatographic methods. J Chromatogr204(1):391-395.

7 JANSSEN AM, CHIN NLJ, SCHEFFER JJC, BAERHEIM-SVENDSEN A, 1980 Screening for antimicrobial activity of some essential oils by the agar overlay technique. PharmWeekbl (Sci Ed) 8(6):289-292.

8 SUSUKI H, HARADA M, 1990 Identification of nutmeg by thin-layer chromatography and its introduction to Japanese standards for nonpharmacopoeial crude drugs. Eisei Shikensho Hokoku 108:98-100.

9 ORABI KY, MOSSA JS, EL-FERALY FS, 1991 Isolation and characterization of two antimicrobial agents from mace (Myristica fragans). J Nat Prod 54(3):856-859.

10 MATSUMOTO A, MATSUMOTO T, TOKUDA H, 1991 Lignans from mace as neoplasm inhibitors. Patent Japan Kokai Tokkio Koho, 03,287, 527.

11 HOSTETTMANN K, LEA P (Eds.), 1987 Biologically Active Natural Products. Oxford, England: Oxford Science Publications.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 SAITO Y, KIMURA Y, SAKAMOTO T, 1976 The antioxidant effects of petroleum ether soluble and insoluble fractions from spices. Eiyo to shokuryo vryo29:505-510.

14 OZAKI Y, SOEDIGDO S, WATTIMENA YR, SUGANDA AG, 1989 Antiinflammatory effect of mace, aril ofMyristica fragans Houtt and its active principles. Jpn J Pharmacol 49(2):155-163.

15 ICHIKAWA K, KINOSHITA T, SANKAWA U, 1989 The screening of Chinese crude drugs for Ca2+ antagonist activity: identification of active principles from the aerial part of Pogostemon cablin and the fruits of Prunus mume. Chem Pharm Bull 37(2):345-348.

16 WESLEY-HADZIJA B, BOHING P, 1956 Influence of some essential oils on the central nervous system of fish. Ann Pharm Fr14:283-289.

17 MORII L, 1987 Topical antitussive, expectorant, analgesic and sedative agents. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62(59):219.

18 CARR CJ, 1973 Evaluation of the health aspects of nutmeg, mace and their essential oils as food ingredients. US NTIS PB REP PB-266-878:1-17.

19 DUKE J, 1985 Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

20 TRUITT EB, CALLAWAY E, BRAUDE MC, KRANTZ JC, 1961 The pharmacology of myristicin. A contribution to the psychopharmacology of nutmeg. J Neuropsychiatry 2(4):205-210.

21 BARTLETT B, 1911 Nutmeg poisoning. Brit Med J 2:269.

22 JOHNSON J, 1906 Nutmeg poisoning. Brit Med J 2:984.

23 STAGER J, WUTHRICH B, JOHANSSON SG, 1991 Spice allergy in celery-sensitive patients. Allergy 46(6):475-478.

24 CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, 2002 Food and drugs. Chapter I - Food and drug administration, department of health and human services. Part 182 - Substances generally recognized as safe. Sec. 182.10. Spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings. U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access, USA. 21(3):451-452. Feb. 24, 2003, URL: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CF...

25 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

26 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación dérmica, dosis repetida en piel sana de conejos, del polvo del fruto de Myristica fragans. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: castor oil
 Dominica: cawapat
 Dominican Republic: higuera
 Guadeloupe: carapate , karapat blanc , karapat
 Haiti: maskèti
 Saint Lucia: cawapat
 Martinique: ricin , palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, rubbed on chest1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: castor oil
 Dominica: cawapat
 Dominican Republic: higuera
 Guadeloupe: carapate , karapat blanc , karapat
 Haiti: maskèti
 Saint Lucia: cawapat
 Martinique: ricin , palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, syrup, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).

Ricinus communis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

 Barbados: castor oil
 Dominica: cawapat
 Dominican Republic: higuera
 Guadeloupe: carapate , karapat blanc , karapat
 Haiti: maskèti
 Saint Lucia: cawapat
 Martinique: ricin , palma Kristi

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

seed oil, orally4,6

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information: Use for constipation is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information. Uses for ganglionar disorder, headache, toothache, earache, pneumonia, asthma, burns, rheumatism, twisting and trauma are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and, when the leaf is topically applied, based on toxicity studies. When the seed oil is taken orally, a single dose should be used. For topical application to burns, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Limit traditional use only to superficial burns (skin injuries) that are not extensive (covering less than 10% of body surface) and are located away from high risk areas such as face, hands, feet and genitals. Due to the health risks involved with pneumonia, asthma, earache and ganglionar disorder, an initial medical evaluation is recommended. The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment, unless it is contraindicated. Due to the possibility that an earache could signal a middle or inner ear infection, immediate medical evaluation is recommended.  Do not use if there are secretions from the ear and/or possible perforation of the eardrum. The seed can cause reactions of hypersensitivity. Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, the asthma persisting for more than 2 days, the headache and the twisting lasting more than 3 days or the pneumonia 5 days, seek medical attention. Only the oil that has been hand-made following traditional procedures, or the oil purchased in a pharmacy or authorized center should be used.  Industrially-produced ricin oil has not been subject to albumin detoxification through vaporization, and is a highly toxic product whose ingestion may lead to an imminently life-threatening situation.  

For constipation: Take the seed oil - purchased in a pharmacy or authorized health center- at doses of: 1-3 spoonfuls (15-45 mL) for adults, 1-3 teaspoonfuls (5-15 mL) for children older than 2 years, and 1-5 mL for children younger than 2 years.  Take orally in a single dose away from meals.  Can be taken with milk, tea or fruit juice28. For other uses: There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than the documented traditional uses. Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.  

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St Lucia.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

6 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

7 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

8 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

9 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

10 HEGNAUER R, 1973 Chemotaxonomy der Pflanzen. Basel, Schweiz: Birkhauser Verlag.

11 CHONKEL A, 1985 A propos de quelques graines toxiques existant à la Guadeloupe. Thèse Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants.Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p140.

14 DE SOUSA M, Matos ME, Matos FJ, MACHADO MI, CRAVEIRO AA,1991 Constituintes químicos ativos de plantas medicinais Brasileiras.Laboratorio de produtos naturais, Fortaleza, Brasil: Ceará Edições UFC.

15 TSUPRIENKOVA T, 1982 Patente de autor de champú para el lavado del cabello (título original en ruso). URSS, A61K 7/06(53).

16 WENIGER B, 1992 Activités biologiques (cytotoxicité, effet sur la croissance, effet immunomodulateur) de drogues végétales de la Caraïbe utilisées par voie locale contre les brûlures, dans des systèmes de cellules animales et humaines en culture. Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

17 VERPOORTE R, DIHAL PP, 1987 Medicinal plants of Surinam IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants. J Etnopharmacol 21(3):315-318.

18 MISAS CA, HERNANDEZ NM, ABRAHAM AM, 1979 Contribution to the biological evaluation of Cuban plants. I. Rev Cub Med Trop 31:5-12.

19 TANIRA MO, AGEEL AM, AL-SAID MS, 1989 A study on some Saudi medicinal plants used as diuretics in traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 60(5):443-447.

20 CECIL, RUSELL LA FAYETTE, 1987 Compendio de Medicina Interna. Madrid, España: Ed. Interamericana.

21 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de semillas frescas peladas y machacadas de Ricinus communisL. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca y de hoja fresca de Ricinus communis L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

23 WEE YC, GOPALAKRISHNAKONE P, CHAN A, 1988 Poisonous plants in Singapore - a colour chart for identification with symptoms and signs of poisoning. Toxicon 26(1):47.

24 FERNANDO R, 1988 Plant poisoning in Sri Lanka. Toxicon 26(1):20.

25 CANIGUERAL S, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p840.

27 KANERVA L, ESTLANDER T, JOLANKI R, 1990 Long-lasting contact urticaria from castor bean. J Amer Acad Dermatol 23(2):351-355.

28 PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2003 Ricinus comunis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.30,2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

29 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

30 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

31 BOULOGNE Isabelle, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL à Terre-de-Haut, Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe (FWI).