cough

Cissus verticillata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : bejuco caro
  • Haiti : lyann mòl

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction with sugar, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

The topical use for abscess, ganglionar inflammation and boils is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and skin toxicity studies.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the abscess or boils last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Oral administration for cold, cough and influenza is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For abscess, ganglionar inflammation and boils:

Wash injury with boiled water and soap.  Apply the washed and crushed leaf in sufficient quantity to the affected area.  Cover the injury with a dressing or clean cloth.  Replace every 12 hours.

For colds, cough and influenza:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 PINEDA M, 1990 Fitoquímica de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Laboratorio enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 STANDLEY PC, 1937 The flora of Costa Rica, Pt. I. Bot Serv Field Mus Nat Hist 18(391):398.

6 TOLEDO MCF, REYES FGR, IADEROZA M, FRANCIS FJ, DRAETTA IS, 1983 Anthocyanins from anil trepador (Cissus sicyoides Linn.) J Food Sci 48(4):1368-1369.

7 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002 Evaluación de la actividad antiestafilocóccica de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL.Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

8 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986 Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Hollande.

9 CAMBAR P, 1992 Efecto de los extractos acuosos de Cissus verticillata L. Informe TRAMIL. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

10 GUARDARRAMA I, FRANCO A, ROMERO M, 1992 Estudio preliminar de las propiedades antiserotonínicas del Cissus sicyoides (Bejuco ubí). Informe TRAMIL. Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas, Santa Clara, Cuba. TRAMIL VI, Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, UAG/enda-caribe.

11 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, 1964 Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 16:115-117.

12 JIU J, 1966 A survey of some medicinal plants of Mexico for selected biological activities. Lloydia 29:250-259.

13 GARCIA MD, QUILEZ AM, SAENZ MT, MARTINEZ DOMINGUEZ ME, DE LA PUERTA R, 2000.

Anti-inflammatory activity of Agave intermixta Trel. and Cissus sicyoides L., species used in South Caribbean traditional medicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 71(3): 395-400.

14 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002. Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

15 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BETANCOURT J, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2002. Toxicidad aguda tópica de Cissus verticillata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

Citrus aurantiifolia


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : limón
  • Colombia : limón agrio
  • Colombia : lima
  • Dominica : lime
  • Dominican Republic : limón, limón agrio, lima
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitron-vè
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitwon péyi
  • Guadeloupe : ti sitwon vè
  • Guadeloupe : sitwon péyi
  • French Guiana : citron
  • French Guiana : citron vert
  • Honduras : limón agrio
  • Honduras : lima
  • Honduras : limón
  • Haiti : ti sitwon vè
  • Haiti : sitwon péyi
  • St Martin : sitron-vè
  • St Martin : sitwon péyi
  • Martinique : sitron-vè
  • Martinique : sitwon péyi
  • Panama : limón agrio
  • Panama : limón
  • Panama : lima
  • Puerto Rico : limón agrio
  • Puerto Rico : lima
  • Puerto Rico : limón
  • Tobago : lime
  • Venezuela : limón
  • Venezuela : limón agrio
  • Venezuela : lima

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, orally3-5,7-10,34-36,42

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for conjunctivitis, headache, ear pain, fever, flu, cough and diarrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.

In case of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation with the application of the Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of ear pain, this may be due to otitis media or interna; therefore the evaluation of a physician is recommended as the first step.  Use is contraindicated in the presence of secretions in the ear and/or possible perforation of tympanum.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should ear pain or fever last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

In cases of diarrhea, should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

In diarrhea, the use of this resource is complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Not for use by women during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity reactions.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantiifolia are widely used for human consumption and the peel is an industrial source of essential oil.

For all reported uses:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 HERRERA J,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

5 HAY YO,1998 Enquête TRAMIL (St. Georges). Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD, Cayenne, Guyane.

6 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

7 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

8 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984

Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

9 BENEDETTI MD,1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

10 SolIs PN, Espinosa A, De Gracia J, Martínez L, Gupta MP, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Emberá-Wounaann). Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

12 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOJU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991 Volatile constituents of the leaf oil of Nigerian lime (Citrus aurantiifolia). J Essent Oil Res 3(2):119-120.

13 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

14 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p45.

15 SAUVAIN M, KODJOED JF, BERGRAVE SJ, BONNEVIE O, DEDET JP, 1986 Plantes fébrifuges en médecine traditionnelle en Haïti et en République Dominicaine et thérapie du paludisme. Rapport TRAMIL. ORSTOM, Cayenne, Guyane Française.

16 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996 Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

17 CACERES A, GIRON L, ALVARADO S, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

18 EBANA RU, MADUNAGU BE, EKPE ED, OTUNG IN, 1991 Microbiological exploitation of cardiac glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and Citrus aurantiifolia. J Appl Bacteriol 71(5):398-401.

19 KOICHUSAKUL S, SATHITNIRAIMAI S, 1977 Studies of the effect of sour fruits on acid secretion in the stomach. Undergraduate special problem report. Fac Med (Siriraj Hosp) Mahidol Univ, Bangkok, Thailand.

20 DHAWAN BN, PATNAIK GK, RASTOGI RP, SINGH KK, TANDON JS, 1977 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. VI. Indian J Exp Biol 15(3):208-219.

21 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

22 EL KELTAWI N, MEGALLA S, ROSS S, 1980 Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants. Herbal Pol 26(4):245-250.

23 ADESINA S, 1982 Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medecine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

24 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

25 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman Las bases farmacológicas de la terapéutica, 9a ed. México, México:Mc Graw-Hill Interamericana.

26 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989 Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

27 PELLECUER J, 1995 Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

28 Olmedo D, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, VASQUEZ Y, Gupta MP, 2005 Ensayo antimicrobiano de algunas especies con usos significativos TRAMIL-Centroamérica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

29 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

30 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005. Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una decocción de hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

31 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Toxicidad aguda (5000 mg/kg) dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL GEF/UNEP.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

32 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

33 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, BARBOZA CJ. 2005 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

35 ZambranoLE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

36 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

37 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

38 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007 Irritabilidad dérmica (piel sana) primaria de zumo fresco de fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm) Swing var mexicana.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

39 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

40 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, hoja fresca de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

41 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009 Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, cáscara del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

42 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

43 FRIAS AI, GARCIA N, MOREJON Z, MORON F, VICTORIA MC, 2009 Efecto antiinflamatorio tópico del zumo puro del fruto fresco de Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (limón) en el edema de la oreja inducido por aceite de Croton en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

45 BOULOGNE I, 2009 Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.

46 LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, MARTINEZ MJ, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2009 Irritabilidad dérmica piel lesionada, dosis repetida de Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swing. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cuba, C. Habana.

Citrus aurantium


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Quintana Roo : naranja agria
  • Quintana Roo : naranja de babor
  • Cuba : naranja de babor
  • Cuba : naranja agria
  • Dominican Republic : naranja agria, naranja de babor
  • Grenada : sour orange
  • Haiti : zowanj si
  • Haiti : zowanj gospo
  • Martinique : zowanj anmè
  • Martinique : oranger amer
  • Puerto Rico : naranja de babor
  • Puerto Rico : naranja agria

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fruit, juice, orally2-3,39

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for colic, conjunctivitis, headache, fever, flu, intestinal parasites and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In every application in the eyes, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Additionally, contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk of increasing irritation due to the application of Citrus spp juice.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Use for diarrhea and flatulence is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

In the case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult, or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Due to the risk of interaction with cyclosporin, ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by anyone taking this medicine.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus aurantium are widely used for human consumption and the peel as an industrial source of essential oil.

For colic, headache, fever, flu:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 10-15 grams (3-5 tender leaves) in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 3-5 tender leaves, cover and leave to cool down.  Drink lukewarm, 1 cup 3 times a day1.

For fever:

Prepare a decoction with 1-2 teaspoonfuls (5-10 grams) of fruit peel in 250 mL (1 cup) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, cool down and drink 1 cup 3 times a day33.

For flatulence:

Prepare an infusion, adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to the peel of half a fruit.  Cover the pot, let it settle for 5-10 minutes and filter.  Drink 1 cup as needed5.

For intestinal parasites:

Prepare a decoction with 8-18 tender leaves in 1/2 liter (2 cups) of water.  Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Leave it to cool down, sweeten with honey and drink lukewarm, 1 cup twice a day1.

For conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough (juice):

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

4 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

5 MARCELLE G, 1996 TRAMIL survey. Produce chemist laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, St George's, Grenada.

6 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

7 OMS/WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

8 LIN Z, HUA Y, GU Y, 1986 The chemical constituents of the essential oil from the flowers, leaves and peels of Citrus aurantium. Chih Wu Hsueh Pao 28(6):635-640.

9 RIO JAD, BENAVENTE O, CASTILLO J, BORREGO F, 1992 Neodiosmin, a flavone glycoside of Citrus aurantium. Phytochemistry 31(2):723-724.

10 BENNETT RD, MIYAKE M, OZAKI Y, HASEGAWA S, 1991 Limonoid glucosides in Citrus aurantium.Phytochemistry 30(11):3803-3805.

11 WIDMER WW, 1991 Improvements in the quantitation of limonin in Citrus juice by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 39(8):1472-1476.

12 HERMAN Z, FONG CH, OU P, HASEGAWA S, 1990 Limonoid glucosides in orange juices by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 38(9):1860-1861.

13 HOSODA K, NOGUCHI M, KANAYA T, HIGUCHI M,1990 Studies on the preparation and evaluation of Kijitsu, the immature citrus fruits. III. Relation between diameter of Kijitsu and synephrine content. Yakugaku Zasshi 110(1):82-84.

14 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

15 WAGNER H, BLADT S, MUNZING-VASITIAN K, 1975 Thin-layer chromatography of bitter principle drugs. Pharm-Ztg 120:1262.

16 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, p45.

17 AVIRUTANT W, PONGPAL A, 1983 The antimicrobial activity of some Thai flowers and plants. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 10(3):81-86.

18 CACERES A, GIRON LM, ALVARADO SR, TORRES MF, 1987 Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 20(3):223-237.

19 KIM DH, SONG MJ, BAE EA, HAN MJ, 2000 Inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity. Biol Pharm Bull 23(3):356-358.

20 SANKAWA U, 1980 Screening of bioactive compounds in oriental medicinal drugs. Korean J Pharmacog 11:125-132.

21 KINOSHITA T, SAMESHIMA M, SANKAWA U, 1979 Isolation of a sympathomimetic substance from Chinese medicinal drugs originated from Citrus sp. Shoyakugaku Zassmi 33:146-149.

22 FORSTER HB, NIKLAS H, LUTZ S, 1980 Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Med 40(4):309-319.

23 YOO JS, JUNG JS, LEE TH, SON KH, SUH HW, SONG DK, KIM YH, 1995 Inhibitory effects of extracts from traditional herbal drugs on 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced diarrhea in mice. Korean J Pharmacog 26(4):355-359.

24 IWAMA H, AMAGAYA S, OGIHARA Y, 1986 Effects of five kampohozais on the mitogenic activity of lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, phorbol myristate acetate and phytohemagglutinin in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol 18(2):193-204.

25 HIRANO H, TAKASE H, YAMAMOTO K, YANASE T, ABE K, SAITO Y, 1997 The anti-ulcer effects of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Fructus and the principles in Aurantii Fructus Immaturus. Nat Med 51(3):190-193.

26 AZUMA S, YADA Y, IMOKAWA G, TAZAKI S, SHINHO T, 1996 Skin-lightening cosmetics containing plant extracts and ascorbic acid or placenta extracts. Patent-Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho-08 208,451.

27 AMEER B, WEINTRAUB RA, JOHNSON JV, YOST RA, ROUSEFF RL, 1996 Flavonone absorption after naringin, hesperidin, and Citrus administration. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60(1):34-40.

28HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9a edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editorial. p1670-1671.

29 HOU YC, HSIU SL, TSAO CW, WANG YH, CHAO PD, 2000 Acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of Citrus aurantium and the pericarps of Citrus grandis.Planta Med 66(7):653-655.

30 SATO A, 1989 Studies on anti-tumor activity of crude drugs. I. The effects of aqueous extracts of some crude drugs in short term screening test. Yakugaku Zasshi 109(6):407-423.

31 YAMAMOTO H, MIZUTANI T, NOMURA H, 1982 Studies on the mutagenicity of crude drug extracts. I. Yakugaku Zasshi 102(6):596-601.

32 MORIMOTO I, WATANABE F, OSAWA T, OKITSU T, KADA T, 1982 Mutagenicity screening of crude drugs with Bacillus subtilis REC-assay and Salmonella microsome reversion assay. Mutat Res 97(2):81-102.

33 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus aurantium. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

34 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de una infusión de corteza de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

35 MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Clases tóxicas agudas (CTA) de zumo de fruto fresco de Citrus aurantium L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

36 GarcIa-GONZALEZ M, fallas LV, 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

37 MORON FJ, MOREJON Z, GARCIA AI, LOPEZ M, BOUCOURT E, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción 30% de hojas frescas de Citrus aurantium L. (naranja agria) en ratones. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2009

Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus aurantium. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

40 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Citrus sinensis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : naranja dulce (ou china)
  • Haiti : zowanj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  fruit, juice, orally1-2

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to available information:

Use for conjunctivitis, diarrhea, flu, cough, headache, sprains, strain and fever is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In any application to the eye, strict hygiene measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection, and contact with any substance that may be irritating for the conjunctiva should be avoided.  There exists the risk or increasing irritation with the application of Citrus spp juice.

For diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.  Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, seek medical attention.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis or headache last more than 3 days, or should fever persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The essential oil of the plant can cause reactions of hypersensitivity.

The fruit and the juice of Citrus sinensis are widely used for human consumption and are an industrial source of essential oil.

For headache, flu and fever:

Prepare decoction or infusion with 5-20 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  For infusion, add boiling water to the 5-20 grams of leaf, cover pot and cool down.  Drink 2-3 cups a day36.

For conjunctivitis:

Instill (apply) in the eye 2-3 drops of fresh juice of fruit, 3 times a day.

For diarrhea, flu, cough, sprain, twist and fever:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, 1987-88 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

3 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

4 STEWART I, 1985 Identification of caffeine in Citrus flowers and leaves. J Agric Food Chem 33(6):1163-1165.

5 NICO KJ, CHANDLER BV, 1978 Roots as a probable site for Citrus limonoid biosynthesis. Proc Int Soc Citric. p40-42.

6 ABDEL-ALIM MA, ABDEL-HAFEZ OM, EL-KHRISY AM, 1990 The constituents of Citrus sinensis leaves. Fitoterapia 61(5):470-471.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 EKUNDAYO O, BAKARE O, ADESOMOIU A, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1990 Nigerian sweet orange leaf oil composition. J Essent Oil Res 2(5):199-201.

9 GUANGHAN L, YU W, LEIMING Y, SHUANGLONG H, 1994 Determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables by stripping voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode. Food Chem 51:237-239.

10 RADFORD T, KAWASHIMA K, FRIEDEL PK, POPE LE, GIANTURCO MA, 1975 Distribution of volatile compounds between the pulp and serum of some fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 22(6):1066.

11 ROUSEFF RL, SEETHARAMAN K, NAIM M, NAGY S, ZEHAVI U, 1992 Improved HPLC determination of hydroxycinnamic acids in orange juice using solvents containing thf. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1139-1143.

12 SWATSITANG P, TUCKER G, ROBARDS K, JARDINE D, 2000 Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds in Citrus sinensis. Anal Chim Acta 417(2):231-240.

13 OOGHE WC, OOGHE SJ, DETAVERNIER M, HUYGHEBAERT A, 1995 Characterization of orange juice (Citrus sinensis) by polymethoxylated flavones. J Agric Food Chem 42(10):2191-2195.

14 OOGHE WC, DETAVERNIER CM, 1999 Flavonoids as authenticity markers for Citrus sinensis juice. Fruit Process 9(8):308-313.

15 WIDMER WW, 2000 Determination of naringin and neohesperidin in orange juice by liquid chromatography with UV detection to detect the presence grapefruit juice: collaborative study. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem Int 83(5):1155-1165.

16 GROSS J, CARMON M, LIFSHITZ A, SKLARZ B, 1975 Structural elucidation of some orange juice carotenoids. Phytochemistry 14:249-252.

17 NOGATA Y, YOZA KI, KUSUMOTO KI, KOHYAMA N, SEKIYA K, OHTA H, 1996 Screening for inhibitory activity of Citrus fruit extracts against platelet cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. J Agric Food Chem 44(3):725-729.

18 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI A, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1988 Effects of the juice of certain species of Citrus on plasma and urinary uric acid levels in rats on a hyperpurinic diet. Plant Med Phytother 22(2):92-97.

19 KONOWALCHUK J, SPEIRS JI, 1978 Antiviral effect of commercial juices and beverages. Appl Environ Microbiol 35(6):1219-1220.

20 PEREZ C, ANESINI C, 1994 In vitro antibacterial activity of Argentine folk medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):41-46.

21 TROVATO A, FORESTIERI AM, GALATI EM, TUMINO G, 1984 Influence of the fruit juice of several Citrus species on steroidogenesis in the rat. Plant Med Phytother 18(1):8-14.

22 TROVATO A, MONFORTE MT, BARBERA R, ROSSITTO A, GALATI EM,

FORESTIERI AM, 1996 Effects of fruit juices of Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus limon L. on experimental hypercholesterolemia in the rat. Phytomedicine 2(3):221-227.

23 KUROWSKA EM, BORRADAILE NM, SPENCE JD, CARROLL KK, 2000 Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary Citrus juices in rabbits. Nutr Res 29(1):121-129.

24 HONG ND, KIM JW, KIM BW, SHON JG, 1982 Studies on the efficacy of the combined preparation of crude drugs. VI. Effect of “Saengkankunbi-Tang” on activities of the liver enzyme, protein contents and the excretory on bile juice in the serum of CCl4-intoxicated rabbits. Korean J Pharmacog 13:33-38.

25 GOTO M, INOUE H, SEYAMA Y, YAMASHITA S, INOUE O, YUMIOKA E., 1989 Comparative effect of traditional Chinese medicines (Dai-Saiko To, Hatimi-Ziogan and Byakko-Ka-Ninzin-To) on experimental diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Nippon Yakugaku Zasshi 93(3):179-186.

26 KAWAKAMI M, SUZUKI K, ISHIZUKA T, HIDAKA T, MATSUKI Y, NAKAMURA H, 1998 Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 36(6):306-308.

27 ADESINA SK, 1982 Studies on some plants used as anticonvulsants in Amerindian and African traditional medicine. Fitoterapia 53:147-162.

28 GUPTA M, 1987 Essential oil: a new source of bee repellents. Chem Ind (London) 5:161-163.

29 BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, PINKAS M, TORCK M, 1986 Les plantes dans la thérapeutique moderne. 2 éd. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

30 HARTMAN JG, LIMBIRD ILE, Eds., 1996 Goodman & Gilman, Las bases farmacológicas de la Terapéutica, 9ª edición. México, México: McGraw-Hill Editores. p1670-1671.

31 MIYAGI Y, OM AS, CHEE KM, BENNINK MR, 2000 Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon cancer by orange juice. Nutr Cancer 36(2):224-229.

32 BALA S, GROVER IS, 1989 Antimutagenicity of some Citrus fruits in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat Res 222(3):141-148.

33 PORTAL JA, RAMOS A, VIZOSO A, BETANCOURT J, 1995 Estudio genotóxico in vitro de una tintura al 50 % de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Medi Ciego 1(1):3-6.

34 PORTAL JA, 1995 Evaluación genotóxica in vitro e in vivo de una tintura al 50% de Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Tesis de Maestría). Universidad Médica de La Habana, La Habana, Cuba.

35 PELLECUER J, 1995 Aromaterapia y toxicidad de los aceites esenciales. Natura Medicatrix 37(8):36-40.

36 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Citrus sinensis. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Jul.20,2002. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

37 PAZOS L, COTO T, CAIZA F, 2008

Toxicidad oral aguda, dosis repetida, en ratón, de hojas frescas de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

38 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Tránsito Intestinal en ratones, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

39 PAZOS L, COTO T, REYES L, 2007 Irritación ocular, en conejos, del jugo fresco del fruto de Citrus sinensis. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, LEBi, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

 

Cymbopogon citratus


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Antigua : fever grass
  • Antigua : lemon grass
  • Barbados : fever grass
  • Barbados : lemon grass
  • Costa Rica : zacate limón
  • Costa Rica : té limón
  • Costa Rica : zacate té
  • Dominica : sitwonnèl
  • Dominica : zacate té
  • Dominican Republic : limoncillo
  • Marie-Galante Island : sitwonnèl
  • Marie-Galante Island : zacate té
  • Guatemala : té de limón
  • Honduras : té limón
  • Honduras : zacate té
  • Honduras : zacate limón
  • Saint Lucia : sitwonnèl
  • Saint Lucia : zacate té
  • St Martin : sitwonnèl
  • St Martin : zacate té
  • Martinique : sitwonnèl
  • Martinique : zacate té
  • Quintana Roo : té limón
  • Quintana Roo : zacate té
  • Quintana Roo : zacate limón
  • Puerto Rico : limoncillo
  • Tobago : lemon grass
  • Tobago : fever grass
  • Saint Vincent : fever grass
  • Saint Vincent : lemon grass
  • Venezuela : molojillo criollo

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

leaf, decoction or infusion, orally 5,13,44

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

In case of diarrhea, the use of this resource can be considered complementary to oral re-hydration therapy.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should diarrhea last more than 3 days in adult or 2 days in children, or should fever last more than 2 days, stomach pain more than 3, or cough more than 5, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

TRAMIL Research42

For diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, flatulence, flu, colds and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 15-25 grams of leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water.  For decoction, boil for at least10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to 15-25 grams of leaf.  Cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup (250 mL), 2-3 times a day.

In all the above-mentioned uses for oral administration, the preparation should be properly filtered, using a cloth, as a prerequisite for consumption, in order to avoid mechanical injuries to the mucosas, due to the microfilaments present in the leaf26.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

4 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

5 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

6 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia National Herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

7 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

8 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

9 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

10 DELENS M, 1992 Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

11 O'REILLY A, 1992 TRAMIL survey. Chemistry & Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua & Barbuda.

12 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

13 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

14 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

15 ABEGAZ B, YOHANNES P, DIETER R, 1983 Constituents of the essential oil of Ethiopian Cymbopogon citratus. J Nat Prod 46(3):424-426.

16 DE MATOUSCHEK B, STAHL-BISKUP E, 1991 Phytochemical investigation of nonvolatile constituents ofCymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (Poaceae). Pharm Acta Helv 66(9/10):242-245.

17 HANSON S, CRAWFORD M, KOKER M, MENEZES F, 1976 Cymbopogonol, a new triterpenoid from Cymbopogon citratus. Phytochemistry15:1074-1075.

18 YOKOYAMA Y, TSUYUKI T, NAKAMURA N, TAKAHASHI T, HANSON S, MATSUSHITA K, 1980 Revised structures of cymbopogone and cymbopogonol. Tetrahedron Lett21:3701-3702.

19 OLANIYI A, SOFOWORA E, OGUNTIMEHIN B, 1975 Phytochemical investigation of some Nigerian plants used against fevers. II. Cymbopogon citratus. Planta Med 28:186-189.

20 WILLAMAN JJ, LI H, 1970 Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids, 1957-1968. Lloydia33(Supp.3A):1-286.

21 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p57.

22 SAUVAIN M, MORETTI C, MUÑOZ V, 1990 Pruebas in vivo para paludismo realizadas en Bolivia sobre varias plantas TRAMIL. ORSTOM/IRD/IBBA, La Paz, Bolivia.

23 MORON F, SANCHEZ C, MARTINEZ MC, MOREJON Z, PINEDO Z, 2000 Actividad antiespasmódica in vitro de hojas frescas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

24 MORON F, FURONES J, PINEDO Z, 1996 Ausencia de efectos antiinflamatorio y analgésico del extracto fluído de Cymbopogon citratus al 30% por vía oral. Rev Cubana Plant Med 1(2):3-6.

25 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

26 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, DAGUILH R, HENRYS D, HENRYS J, ANTON R, 1986 Popular medicine of the central plateau of Haiti. 2. Ethnopharmacological inventory. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):13-30.

27 CARLINI EA, CONTAR JD, SILVA-FILHO AR, SOLVEIRA-FILHO NG, FROCHTENGARTEN ML, BUENO OF, 1986 Pharmacology of lemon-grass Cymbopogon citratus I. Effect of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):37-64.

28 SOUZA FORMIGONI ML, LODDER HM, FILHO OG, FERREIRA TM, CARLINI EA, 1986 Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero". J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):65-74.

29 CARBAJAL D, CASACO A, ARRUZAZABALA L, GONZALEZ R, TOLON Z, 1989 Pharmacological study of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. J Ethnopharmacol25(1):103-107.

30 LAM L, ZHENG B, 1991 Effects of essential oils on glutathione S-transferase activity in mice. J Agric Food Chem 39(4):660-662.

31 LORENZETTI B, SOUZA G, SARTI S, FILHO DS, FERREIRA SH, 1991 Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea. J Ethnopharmacol 34(1):43-48.

32 LEMOS TLG, MATOS FJA, ALENCAR JW, CRAVEIRO AA, CLARK AM, MC CHESNEY JD, 1990 Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants. Phytother Res4(2):82-84.

33 AWUAH R, 1989  Fungitoxic effects of extracts from some West African plants. Ann Appl Biol 115(3):451-453.

34 REYNOLDS JEF, PRASAD AB, Eds., 1982 MARTINDALE The extra pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London, England: The Pharmaceutical Press. p677.

35 SETH, G, KOKATE CK, VARMA KC, 1976 Effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on central nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol 14(3):370-371.

36 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

37 KOBAYASHI N, 1989 Pharmaceutical compositions containing lemongrass extracts and antioxidants. Patens Japan Kokai Tokio Koho., 01, 221, 320.

38 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BARCELO H, LAINEZ A, MONTES ME, REGO R, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda clásica de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

39 MARTINEZ MJ, BETANCOURT J, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, MORON F, 2000 Actividad genotóxica in vitro de hoja seca de Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

40 de la Torre RA, Espinosa-Aguirre JJ, Cortinas de Nava C, Izquierdo T, Moron F, 1994 Genotoxic activity of mebendazole in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 305(2):139-144.

41 LEITE JR, SEABRA ML, MALUF E, ASSOLANT K, SUCHECKI D, TUFIK S, KLEPACZ S, CALIL HM, CARLINI EA, 1986 Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans. J Ethnopharmacol 17(1):75-83.

42 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

43 DELAIGUE J, 2005 TRAMIL survey. UAG & PRDI, Tobago House of Assembly, Scarborough, Tobago.

44 ZambranoLE, 2007 Encuesta TRAMIL en Guareguare, Miranda. UCV, Caracas, Venezuela.

45 BALZ E, BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à Marie-Galante. U. Bordeaux 3, U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

46 BOYER A, BURAUD M, 2007 Enquête TRAMIL à La Désirade. U. Paris XI Chatenay-Malabry, UAG, Guadeloupe.

47 OCRISSE G, 2008 Enquête TRAMIL auprès de 250 familles de la moitié Est de la partie francophone de St Martin. Biologie végétale, UAG, Guadeloupe.

48 BOULOGNE I, 2009 Enquête TRAMIL, (Terre-de-Bas et Terre-de-Haut) Les Saintes, UAG, Guadeloupe.         

Eucalyptus sp.


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Colombia : eucalipto
  • Honduras : eucalipto

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction or infusion, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for flu and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should coughing last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Ingestion should be avoided in the event of gastrointestinal inflammation, inflammation of bile ducts, or acute hepatic disorder3.

Preparations containing the essential oil should not be applied facially to children younger than 3, as this may induce glottal spasm and bronchial obstruction, and can potentially lead to death from suffocation3.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

For flu and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 5-10 grams of dried leaf or 30-40 grams of fresh leaf (15-20 leaves) in 1 liter (4 cups) of water22.

For decoction, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to the leaves, cover and allow to cool.

Drink 1 cup (250 mL) 3 times a day3,23.

1 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

2 GOMEZ H, GAITAN R, DIAZ F, 2003 Encuesta TRAMIL (Norte del departamento de Bolívar). Grupo de Productos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacéuticas. Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.

3 PDR for Herbal Medicines, 2003 Eucalyptus globulus. The PDR® for Herbal Medicines, PDR Electronic Library, Medical Economics Company, PhytoPharm US Institute for Phytopharmaceuticals, Metuchen, USA, Feb.28,2003. URL: http://www.mdcc.edu/medical/library/catalog2.htm

4 SOOD VK, RIER JR JP, GHOSH RC, 1987 A gas-liquid chromatograph analysis of oil from young and old leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hooker. Parfuem Kosmet 68(8):495-498.

5 FERNANDEZ RR, SURI RK, 1981 Studies on the oil of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, grown at Dehra Dun. Indian Forestry 107(4):243-248.

6 SHEN YB, YU Z, 1986 Chemical constituents of Eucalyptus citriodora leaves. Part I. Linchan Hua Hsueh Yu Gong Yi 6(3):28-31.

7 ATAL CK, SRIVASTAVA JB, WALI BK, CHAKRAVARTY RB, DHAWAN BN, RASTOGI RP, 1978 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part VIII. Indian J Exp Biol 16:330-349.

8 BRANTNER A, GREIN E, 1994 Antibacterial activity of plant extracts used externally in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 44(1):35-40.

9 GILBERT B, MORS W, BAKER P, TOMASSINI T, COULART E, DE HOLANDA J, RIBEIRO DA COSTA J, LOPES J, DOS SANTOS FILHO D, SARTI S, TURCO A, 1972 Anthelminthic activity of essential oils and their chemical components. An Acad Brasil Cienc Suppl 44:423-428.

10 MEYER F, MEYER E, 1959 Percutaneous absorption of essential oils and their constituents. Arzneim-Forsch 9(8):516-519.

11 PARIS R, MOYSE H, 1981 Précis de Matière Médicale. Paris, France: Ed. Maloine.

12 GARNIER G, BEZANGER-BEAUQUESNE L, 1961 Ressources médicinales de la flore française. Paris, France: Ed. Vigot Frères.

13 BURROW A, ECCLES R, JONES A, 1983 The effects of camphor, eucaliptus and menthol vapour on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation. Acta Otolaringol (Stockholm) 96(1-2):157-161.

14 DUKE J, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

15 ASWAL B, BHAKUNI D, GOEL A, KAR K, MAHROTRA B, MUKHERJEE K, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

16 DHAR ML, DHAR MN, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, SRIMAL R, TANDON J, 1973 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part IV. Indian J Exp Biol11:43-54.

17 DUKE J, 1977 Phytotoxin tables. Crc Crit Rev Toxicol 5:189-237.

18 ANON, 1988 Eucalyptus citriodora oil. Food Chem Toxicol 26(4):323.

19 PAGES N, FOURNIER G, LE LUYER F, MARQUES M, 1990 The essential oils and their potential teratogenic properties: Example of the essential oils ofEucalyptus globulus preliminary study with mice. Plant Med Phytother24(1):21-26.

20 DUKE J, 1988 Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

21 SPOERKE DG, VANDENBERG SA, SMOLINSKE SC, KULIG KK, RUMACK BH, 1989 Eucaliptus oil, 14 cases of exposure. Vet Hum Toxicol 31(2):166-168.

22 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio Provincial de Producción de Medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

23 KOSSMANN I, VICENTE C, 1992 Salud y plantas medicinales. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Planeta Tierra. p113-115.

Guazuma ulmifolia


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : bwa donm
  • Dominican Republic : guácima
  • Haiti : bwa donm

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  withered leaf (senescent), decoction with sugar, orally1

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for flu, common cold and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the cough last more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

For flu, common cold and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 12 grams of old leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, leave to cool down and drink 1 cup 3-4 times a day15-16.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984 Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

3 WONG W, 1976 Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot30:103-142.

4 HOR M, HEINRICH M, RIMPLER H, 1996 Proanthocyanidin polymers with antisecretory activity and proanthocyanidin oligomers from Guazuma ulmifolia bark. Phytochemistry 42(1):109-119.

5 CARBALLO A, 1995 Plantas medicinales del Escambray cubano. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

6 GIRON L, 1988 Evaluación de la actividad antibacteriana de 4 plantas de la lista TRAMIL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos USAC, Guatemala, Guatemala.

7 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

8 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala. 22pp.

9 NASCIMENTO S, CHIAPPETA A, LIMA R, 1990 Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities in plants from Pernambuco, Brazil. Fitoterapia 61(4):353-355.

10 TSENG C, IWAKAMI S, MIKAJIRI A, SHIBUYA M, HANAOKA F, EBIZUKA Y, PADMAWINATA K, SANKAWA U, 1992 Inhibition of in vitro prostaglandin and leukotriene biosyntheses by cinnamoyl-beta-phenethylamine and N-acyldopamine derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull 40(2):396-400.

11 NEGWER M, 1987 Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms (an international survey). 6º ed. Berlin, Germany: Akademie Verlag.

12 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

13 HERRERA J, 1990 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos en vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional en la Cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

14 HOEHNE FC, 1939 Plantas e substâncias vegetais tóxicas e medicinais. São Paulo, Brazil: Dep. Bot. do Estado Sao-Paulo. Ed Graphicars.

15 CARBALLO A, 1995 Cálculo de concentración y dosis de las drogas vegetales TRAMIL: Mensuraciones farmacognósticas y aproximaciones técnico-clínicas. Laboratorio provincial de producción de medicamentos, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.

16 CACERES A, 1996 Plantas de uso medicinal en Guatemala. Guatemala, Guatemala: Editorial Universitaria de San Carlos. p126.

17 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de corteza del tallo fresco machacado deGuazuma ulmifolia Lam.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

18 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2007

Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja seca machacada deGuazuma ulmifolia Lam. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas “Dr. Salvador Allende”, La Habana, Cuba.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Guadeloupe : rose kayenn
  • Haiti : choublak
  • Martinique : kokliko wouj

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  flower or leaf, infusion or decoction, orally2-3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Topical use for conjunctivitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

In the event of conjunctivitis, there is a risk of increasing irritation further as a result of applying the leaf juice.  In any application to the eye, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.  Contact with any substances that may be irritating to the conjunctiva should be avoided.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should conjunctivitis last more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Oral use for fever, flu and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should fever last more than 2 days, or cough persist for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Due to risk of abortion, not for oral use during pregnancy nor during lactation or by children under 10 years old.

The flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is widely used for human consumption or as a spice.

For conjunctivitis:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

For fever, flu and cough:

Prepare a decoction or infusion with 1–2 flowers in 250 mL (1 cup) of water.

For decoction, boil for at least 3-4 minutes2-3 in a covered pot; for infusion, add boiling water to the flowers, cover and leave to cool down.  Filter and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

3 EDOUARD JA, 1992 Enquête TRAMIL. Lycée agricole, Baie-Mahault, Guadeloupe.

4 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

5 MEDITSCH J, BARROS E, 1978 Hibiscus dyes as acid-base indicators. An Assoc Bras Quim 29(1):89.

6 SHRIVASTAVA D, 1974 Phytochemical analysis of japakusum. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 9(4):103-104.

7 LIN Y, 1975 The study of red pigments in Taiwan plants. Proc Natl Sci Counc Part I (Taiwan) 1975(8):133-137.

8 PATTANAIK S, 1949 A comparative study of the catalase activity of the petals and leaves ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis. Curr Sci 18:212-213.

9 GRIFFITHS L, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plant. J Exp Biol 10:437.

10 AGARWAL S, SHINDE S, 1967 Studies onHibiscus rosa-sinensis II. Preliminary pharmacological investigations. Indian J Med Res 55:1007-1010.

11 SRIVASTAVA D, BHATT S, UDUPA K, 1976 Gas chromatographic identification of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and hydrocarbons ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 53:607.

12 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p84.

13 HERRERA J, 1994 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

14 VAN DEN BERGHE D, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK A, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities II: Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41:463-467.

15 BHAKUNI O, DHAR M, DHAWAN B, MEHROTRA B, 1969 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

16 SINGH N, NATH R, AGARWAL A, KOHLI R, 1978 A pharmacological investigation of some indigenous drugs of plant origin for evaluation of their antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 13:58-62.

17 KHOLKUTE S, CHATTERJEE S, UDUPA K, 1976 Effect ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis on estrous cycle and reproductive organs in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 14:703-704.

18 PRAKASH A, 1979 Acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in the uterus of rat treated withHibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts. Curr Sci 48:501-503.

19 SINGH M, SINGH R, UDUPA K, 1982 Antifertility activity of a benzene extract ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers on female albino rats. Planta Med 44:171-174.

20 PRAKASH A, 1984 Biological evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for contraceptive efficacy. Contracept Deliv Syst5(3):9-10.

21 KHOLKUTE S, UDUPA K, 1974 Antifertility properties ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 9(4):99-102.

22 TIWARI P, 1974 Preliminary clinical trial on flowers ofHibiscus rosa-sinensis as an oral contraceptive agent. J Res Indian Med Yoga Homeopathy 9(4):96-98.

23 TRIVEDI V, SHUKLA K, 1980 A study of effects of an indigenous compound drug on reproductive physiology. J Sci Res Pl Med 1(3/4):41-47.

24 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FERRADA C, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

25 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL.Informe TRAMIL,Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Kalanchoe pinnata


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • San Andrés : tree of life
  • Dominican Republic : bruja
  • Costa Rica : leaf of life
  • Guatemala : hoja del aire
  • Honduras : hoja del aire
  • Haiti : fey choche
  • Haiti : lou gawou
  • Martinique : zèb maltèt

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally6

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

The use as an amulet against vomiting is a traditional cultural use and is not classified in the TRAMIL program.

According to published and other information:

Use for cough is categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for headache and cold are categorized as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, validation, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should the cold last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or in children.

For topical use for headache and oral use for cold and cough:

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

1 WENIGER B, 1987-88
Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95
Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996
Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988
Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 PINZON M, 1994
Encuesta TRAMIL (Isla de San Andrés). Laboratorio de Fitofarmacología, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

7 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986
Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

8 WENIGER B, SAVARY H, DAGUIHL R, 1984
Tri phytochimique de plantes de la liste TRAMIL. Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université d'Etat d'Haïti, Port au Prince, Haïti.

9 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1971
Flavonoid glycosides from Kalanchoe pinnata. Planta Med 20(4):368-373.

10 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1973
Phenolic components from the leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata. Planta Med 23(12):149-153.

11 YAMAGISHI T, YAN X, WU R, MC PHAIL D, MC PHAIL A, LEE K, 1988
Structure and stereochemistry of bryophyllin-A, a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide orthoacetate from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Chem Pharm Bull 36(4):1615-1617.

12 YAN,XZ: LEE,KS: YAMAGISHI,T, 1992
Isolation and identification of cytotoxic components from Bryophyllum pinnatum. Shanghai Yike Daxue Xuebao 19(3):206-208.

13 AKIHISA T, KOKKE W, TAMURA T, MATSUMOTO T, 1991
Sterols of Kalanchoe pinnata: first report of the isolation of both C-24 epimers of 24-alkyl-delta-25-sterols from a higher plant. Lipids 26(8):660-665.

14 GAIND KN, GUPTA RL, 1972
Alkanes, alkanols, triterpenes and sterols from Kalanchoe pinnata. Phytochemistry 11(4):1500-1502.

15 SIDDIQUI S, FAIZI S, SIDDIQUI B, SULTANA N, 1989
Triterpenoids and phenanthrenes from leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Phytochemistry 28(9):2433-2438.

16 BULEN WA, VARNER JE, BURRELL RC, 1952
Separation of organic acids from plant tissues. Anal Chem 24:187-190.

17 PAL S, SEN T, CHAUDHURI AK, 1999
Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(3):313-318.

18 MORAES V, COSTA S, BERGMANN R, 1992
Immunomodulatory activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. Dept. of Biochemistry, ICB, URFJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

19 OBASEIKI-EBOR EE, 1985
Preliminary report on the in vitro antibacterial activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf juice. Afr J Med Sci 14(3-4):199-202.

20 SINGH K, PATHAK R, 1984
Effect of leaves extracts of some higher plants on spore germination of Ustilago maydes and U. nuda. Fitoterapia 55(5):318-320.

21 NAOVI S, KHAN M, VOHORA S, 1991
Antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic investigation on Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 62(3):21-228.

22 HEMA D, TIDJANI M, BASSENE E, POUSSET JL, GIONO-BARBER H, 1986
African medicinal plants. XXIV. Study of the antiinflammatory activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Plant Med Phytother 20(3):231-235.

23 FENG P, HAYNES L, MAGNUS K, PLIMMER J, SHERRAT H, 1962
Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol 14:556-561.

24 ANDRONOVA L, 1972
Antitussive properties of certain medical plants. Rast Resur 8:588-591.

25 BERSHTEJN E, 1972
Utilisation du jus de Kalanchoe pinnata dans le traitement des ulcères trophiques de la jambe. Vest Khir URSS 108(3):116-118.

26SVANIDZE N, LANOVENKLY V, SÁNCHEZ A, RODRÍGUEZ P, 1975
Kalanchoe pinnata como planta medicinal en Cuba. Rev Cub Farm 9(3):225-228.

27 YAMAGISHI T, HARUNA M, YAN XZ, CHANG JJ, LEE KH, 1989
Antitumor agents. 110. Bryophylline B., a novel potent cytotoxic bufadienolide from Bryophyllum pinnatum. J Nat Prod 52(5):1071-1079.

28 BOAKYE-YIADOM K, 1977
Antimicrobial properties of some West African medicinal plants. 1. Antimicrobial action of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Quart J Crude Res 15:201-202.

29 PERRY LM, METZGER J, 1980
Medicinal plants of East and Southeast Asia: attributed properties and uses. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.

30 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

31 DUKE JA, 1992
Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS Herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

32 OLIVER B, 1960
Medicinal plants in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology.

33 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratones, de la hoja de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

34 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Toxicidad oral, aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso del zumo de la hoja de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

35 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003
Estudio de irritabilidad dérmica, en piel lesionada de conejo, de hoja fresca machacada de Kalanchoe pinnata. Informe TRAMIL.Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

36 YOKEL R, OGZEWALLA CD, 1981
Effects of plant ingestion in rats determined by the conditioned taste aversion procedure. Toxicon 19(2):223-232.

37 BHAKUNI O, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969
Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7:250-262.

38 PAL S, SEN T, CHAUDHURI AKN,1999
Neuropsychopharmacological profile of the methanolic fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract. J Pharm Pharmacol 51(3):313-318.

39 REPPAS GP, 1995
Bryophyllum pinnatum poisoning of cattle. Aust Vet J 72(11):425-427.

40 MCKENZIE RA, FRANKE FP, DUNSTER PJ, 1987
The toxicity to cattle and bufadienolide content of six Bryophyllum species. Aust Vet J 64(10):298-301.

Mangifera indica


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Guatemala : mango
  • Haiti : mango
  • Saint Lucia : mango
Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for indigestion (burn) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of the flower for bronchitis is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of the flower for weakness, pneumonia and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should bronchitis, pneumopathy or cough last more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

The fruit ofMangifera indica is widely used for human consumption.

For cough and pneumonia:

Prepare a decoction with 15-20 leaves in 1 liter of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, allow to cool, and drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

For bronchitis, indigestion (burn) and weakness:

Prepare an infusion, adding 250 mL (1 cup) of boiling water to 3 leaves.  Cover and allow cool down for 5-10 minutes, and then filter.  Drink 1 cup 3 times a day.

1 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

2 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia

3 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

4 CRAVEIRO AA, ANDRADE CH, MATOS FJ, ALENCAR JW, MACHADO MI, 1980 Volatile constituents of Mangifera indica Linn. Rev Latinoamer Quim 11:129.

5 TANAKA T, SUEYASU T, NONAKA G-I, NISHIOKA I, 1984 Tannins and related compounds. XXI. Isolation and characterization of galloyl and p-hydroxybenzoyl esters of benzophenone and xanthone c-glucosides from Mangifera indica L. Chem Pharm Bull 32(7):2676-2686.

6 PROCTOR JTA, CREASY LL, 1969 The anthocyanin of the mango fruit. Phytochemistry 8:2108.

7 SHAFT N, IKRAM M, 1982 Quantitative survey of rutin-containing plants. Part 1. Int J Crude Drug Res 20(4):183-186.

8 NIGAM IC, 1962 Studies in some Indian essential oils. Agra Univ J Res Sci 11:147-152.

9 LU ZY, MAO HD, HE MR, LU SY, 1982 Studies on the chemical constituents of mangguo (Mangifera indica) leaf. Chung Ts'ao Yao 13:3-6.

10 PHARM XS, PHARM GK, 1991 The extraction and determination of the flavonoid mangiferin in the bark and leaves of Mangifera indica. Tap Chi Duoc Hoc 5:8-19.

11 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, 1982 Triterpenoids of the leaves of Mangifera indica. Indian J Pharm Sci 44:58-59.

12 GRIFFITHS LA, 1959 On the distribution of gentisic acid in green plants. J Exp Biol 10:437-442.

13 GHOSAL S, BISWAS K, CHATTOPADHYAY BK, 1978 Differences in the chemical constituents of Mangifera indica infected with Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliformae. Phytochemistry 17:689-694.

14 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1989 Alkyl gallates of flowers of Mangifera indica. Fitoterapia 60(3):284.

15 KHAN MA, KHAN MNI, 1993 Studies in the chemical constituents of flowers of Mangifera indica. Part-II. Isolation and characterization of some alkylgallates from blossoms of Mangifera indica. Pak J Sci Ind 35(7/8):276-278.

16 BANDYOPADHYAY C, 1983 Contribution of gas chromatography to food flavor research. Pafai J 5(3):26-30.

17 SAEED AR, KARAMALLA KA, KHATTAB AH, 1976 Polyphenolic compounds in the pulp of Mangifera indica L. J Food Sci 41(4):959-960.

18 MAC LEOD AJ, DE TROCONIS NG, 1982 Volatile flavour components of mango fruit. Phytochemistry 21:2523-2526.

19 GAYDOU EM, BOUCHET P, 1984 Sterols, methyl sterols, triterpene alcohols and fatty acids of the kernel fat of different Malagasy mango (Mangifera indica) varieties. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 61(10):1589-1593.

20 ANJANEYULU V, RAVI K, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, CONNOLLY JD, 1989 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 28(5):1471-1477.

21 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA K, RAVI PK, CONNOLLY JD, 1985 Triterpenoids from Mangifera indica. Phytochemistry 24(10):2359-2367.

22 ANJANEYULU V, HARISCHANDRA PRASAD K, SAMBASIVA RAO G, INDIAN J, 1982 Triterpenoids of the root-bark of Mangifera indica. Pharm Sci 44(4):85-87.

23 KHAN MA, NIZAMI SS, KHAN MNI, AZEEM SW, AHMED Z, 1994 New triterpenes from Mangifera indica. J Nat Prod 57(7):988-991.

24 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p105.

25 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1998 Velocidad del tránsito intestinal en ratón, del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

27GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 SOUZA BRITO ARM, HIRUMA-LIMA CA, LIMA ZP, 2003 Atividades biológicas obtidas dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas e flores da Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL, Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP y Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil.

29 POUSSET J, 1989 Plantes médicinales africaines. Utilisation pratique. Paris, France: ACCT.

30 RAY BN, PAL AK, 1967 Estrogenic activity of tree leaves as animal feed. Indian J Physiol Allied Sci 20:6.

31 TRIPATHI RKR, TRIPATHI RN, 1982 Reduction in bean common mosaic virus (bcmv) infectivity vis-a-vis crude leaf extract of some higher plants. Experientia 38(3):349-349.

32 CACERES A, JAUREGUI E, HERRERA D, LOGEMANN H, 1991 Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal infections. 1: Screening of 38 plant extracts for anticandidal activity. J Ethnopharmacol 33(3):277-283.

33 GEORGE M, PANDALAI KM, 1949 Investigations on plant antibiotics. Part IV. Further search for antibiotic substances in Indian medicinal plants. Indian J Med Res 37:169-181.

34 PATEL VK, VENKATAKRISHNA-BHATT H, 1988 Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26(4):176-184.

35 VIJAYALAKSHIMI K, MISHRA SD, PRASAD SK, 1979 Nematicidal properties of some indigenous plant materials against second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (koffoid and white) chitwood. Indian J Entomol 41(4):326-331.

36 JAIN SR, SHARMA SN, 1967 Hypoglycaemic drugs of Indian indigenous origin. Planta Med 15(4):439-442.

37 MALCOLM SA, SOFOWORA EA, 1969 Antimicrobial activity of selected Nigerian folk remedies and their constituent plants. Lloydia 32:512-517.

38 VAN DEN BERGHE DA, IEVEN M, MERTENS F, VLIETINCK AJ, LAMMENS E, 1978 Screening of higher plants for biological activities. II. Antiviral activity. J Nat Prod 41: 463-467.

39 KLOOS H, THIONGO FW, OUMA JH, BUTTERWORTH AE, 1987 Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos district, Kenya. J Trop Med Hyg 90(4):197-204.

40 ASWAL BS, BHAKUNI DS, GOEL AK, KAR K, MEHROTRA BN, MUKHERJEE KC, 1984 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity: Part X. Indian J Exp Biol 22(6):312-332.

41 HERRERA J, 1992 Determinación de parámetros farmacológicos usados en medicina tradicional popular en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

42 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de flores frescas de Mangifera indica. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBi, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

43 OLIVER-BEVER B, 1986 Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.

44 GUPTA MP, ARIAS TD, CORREA M, LAMBA SS, 1979 Ethnopharmacognostic observations on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part I. Q J Crude Drug Res 17(3/4):115-130.

Persea americana


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Dominican Republic : aguacate
  • Guatemala : aguacate
  • Martinique : zaboka
  • Quintana Roo : aguacate

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  leaf, decoction, orally4

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for amenorrhea is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

Use for asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma, bronchitis or cough last more than 5 days, or should urinary infection persist for more than 3 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the risks of documented interactions with warfarin and monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), ingestion of the fruit decoction should be avoided by persons taking these medicines5.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

 

Not for use during pregnancy because it may have abortifacient effect.

The fruit of Persea americana is widely used for human consumption.

For amenorrhea, asthma, bronchitis, flatulence, urinary infection and cough:

Prepare a decoction with 20 grams (3 spoonfuls) of ground leaf in 1 liter (4 cups) of water, boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1/2-1 cup 3-4 times a day26.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LONGUEFOSSE JL, NOSSIN E, 1990-95 Enquête TRAMIL. Association pour la valorisation des plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe AVPMC, Fort de France, Martinique.

4 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

5 CANIGUERAL S, VILA R, RISCO E, PEREZ F, PORTILLO A, FREIXA B, MILO B, VANACLOCHA B, RIOS JL, MORALES MA, ALONSO JR, BACHILLER LI, PERIS JB, STUBING G, 2002 Persea americana. Vademecum de Fitoterapia, Editorial Masson, Barcelona, España, Feb. 26, 2003. URL: http://www.masson.es/book/fitoterapia.html

6 BERGH BO, SCORA RW, STOREY WB, 1973 Comparison of leaf terpenes in Persea subgenus persea. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 134:130-134.

7 KING JR, KNIGHT RJ, 1992 Volatile components of the leaves of various avocado cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 40(7):1182-1185.

8 DE ALMEIDA AP, MIRANDA MMFS, SIMONI IC, WIGG MD, LAGROTA MHC, COSTA SS, 1998 Flavonol monoglycosides isolated from the antiviral fractions of Persea americana (Lauraceae) leaf infusion. Phytother Res 12(8):562-567.

9 MERIÇLI F, MERIÇLI AH, YILMAZ F, YÜNCÜLER G, YÜNCÜLER O, 1992 Flavonoids of avocado (Persea americana) leaves. Acta Pharm Turc 34(2):61-63.

10 BATE-SMITH EC, 1975 Phytochemistry of proanthocyanidins. Phytochemistry 14(4):1107-1113.

11 MURAKOSHI S, ISOGAI A, CHANG CF, KAMIKADO T, SAKURAI A, TAMURA S, 1976 The effects of two components from avocado leaves (Persea americana) and related compounds on the growth of silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. Nippon Oyo Dobutsu Konchu Gakkaishi 20:87-91.

12 HIRAI N, KOSHIMIZU K, 1983 A new conjugate of dihydrophaseic acid from avocado fruit. Agr Biol Chem 47(2):365-371.

13 WILSON C, WILSON III CW, SAW PE, NAGY S, 1979 Analysis of monosaccharides in avocado by HPLC. Liq Chromat Anal Food Beverages 1:225-236.

14 SARDI JC, TORRES OA, 1978 Study on avocado (Persea americana) oil. Arch Bioquim Quim Farm 20:45-49.

15 DUKE JA, ATCHLEY AA, 1986 Handbook of proximate analysis tables of higher plants. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press. p324.

16 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas TRAMIL en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de ciencias químicas y farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

17 HERRERA J, 1986 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

18 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 1999 Actividad bronquial del extracto acuoso de hoja fresca de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

19 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003 Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

20 ADEYEMI OO, OKPO SO, OGUNTI OO, 2002 Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of leaves of Persea americana Mill Lauraceae. Fitoterapia 73(5):375-380.

21 MIWA M, KONG ZL, SHINOHARA K, WATANABE M, 1990 Macrophage stimulating activity of foods. Agric Biol Chem 54(7):1863-1866.

22 HERRERA J, 1988 Determinación de actividades biológicas de vegetales utilizados en medicina tradicional. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de fitofarmacología, Dep. de Farmacología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

23 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Toxicidad aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de hojas frescas de Persea americana. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

24 CRAIGMILL AL, SEAWRIGHT AA, MATTILA T, FROST AJ, 1989 Pathological changes in the mammary gland and biochemical changes in milk of the goat following oral dosing with leaf of the avocado (Persea americana). Aust Vet J 66(7):206-211.

25 GRANT R, BASSON PA, BOOKER HH, HOFHERR JB, ANTHONISSEN M, 1991 Cardiomyopathy caused by avocado (Persea americana Mill.) leaves. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62(1):21-22.

26 ALONSO J, 1998 Tratado de fitomedicina. Bases clínicas y farmacológicas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: ISIS ediciones SRL. p185.

27 LOPEZ M, MARTINEZ MJ, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F. 2005 Irritabilidad dérmica primaria de hoja fresca machacada de Persea americana Mill. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina “Dr. Salvador Allende”, Cerro, C. Habana, Cuba.

28 MORON FJ, GARCIA AI, VICTORIA MC, MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, BACALLAO Y, FUENTES V, 2008 Acción analgésica de la decocción de hojas frescas de Persea americana Mill. (aguacate) en ratones. Trabajo TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología. Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana.

Plectranthus amboinicus


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Cuba : orégano frances
  • Quintana Roo : orégano grueso

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

fresh leaf, fried, orally17

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Use for asthma is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, and on available published scientific information.

Due to the health risks involved with asthma, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should asthma persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 3 years old.

The leaves ofPlectranthus amboinicus are widely used as a spice.

For asthma:

Prepare an infusion adding 1 liter (4 cups) of boiling water to 35 grams of half-roasted leaves (5-7 leaves).  Cover pot, let infusion settle for 5-10 minutes.  Filter, allow to cool and drink 1 cup as required by symptomatic indication, up to 3 times per day14.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 MENDEZ M, MEDINA ML, DURAN R, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Unidad de recursos naturales, Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán CICY, Mérida, México.

2 HAQUE I, 1988 Analysis of volatile constituents of PakistaniColeus aromaticus plant oil by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Chem Soc Pak 10(3):369-371.

3 TIMOR CE, MANZINI ME, FERNANDEZ A, GONZALEZ ML, 1992 Physicochemical assessment of the essential oil from the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng. growing in Cuba. Rev Cubana Farm 25(1):63-68.

4 BRIESKORN CH, RIEDEL W, 1977 Flavonoids fromColeus amboinicus. Planta Med 31:308.

5 BRIESKORN CH, RIEDEL W, 1977 Triterpene acids fromColeus amboinicus. Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 310(11):910-916.

6 ATAL CK, SRIVASTAVA JB, WALI BK, CHAKRAVARTY RB, DHAWAN BN, ROSTOGI RP, 1978 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part. VIII. Indian J Exp Biol 16(3):330-349.

7 COLLIER WA, VAN DE PIJI L, 1949 The antibiotic actions of plants, especially the higher plants,with results with Indonesian plants. Chron Nat 105:8-22.

8 LLANIO M, PEREZ-SAAD H, FERNANDEZ MD, GARRIGA E, MENENDEZ R, BUZNEGO MT, 1999 Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés): efecto antimuscarínico y potenciación de la adrenalina. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(4):29-32.

9 MENENDEZ RA, PAVON V, 1999 Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Rev Cubana planta Med 3(3):110-115.

10 BUZNEGO MT, FERNANDEZ MD, LLANIO M, LEON N, ACEVEDO ME, PEREZ-SAAD H, 1999

Perfil neurofarmacológico del Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Potenciación de las estereotipias inducidas por anfetamina. Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(4):15-17.

11 GARCIA J, GARCIA T, MENENDEZ R, BUZNEGO M, 1996 Efecto antioxidante de los extractos fluídos y de flavonoides del Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Rev Cubana Planta Med 1(2):27-30.

12 Solis PN, Olmedo D, Buitrago de Tello RE, Gupta MP, 2000 Estudio fitoquímico y toxicológico de algunas plantas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

13 VIZOSO A, RAMOS A, EDREIRA A, BETANCOURT J, DECALO M, 1999 Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (orégano francés). Estudio toxicogenético de un extracto fluido y del aceite esencial. Rev Cubana Plant Med 3(2):68-73.

14 ALBORNOZ A, 1993 Medicina Tradicional Herbaria. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Instituto Farmacoterápico Latino S.A. p102.

15 GarcIa-GONZÁLEZ M, fallas L.V. 2005 Toxicidad aguda dosis repetida, en ratones, del extracto acuoso (decocción) de las hojas frescas de Plectrantus amboinicus . Informe TRAMIL.PRONAPLAMED. Depto de Fisiología, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 LUCIANO-MONTALVO C, GAVILLAN-SUAREZ J, 2009 Actividades antimicrobianas de partes de plantas con usos significativos en encuestas etnofarmacológicas TRAMIL. Informe TRAMIL, Instituto de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias, Cayey, Universidad de Puerto Rico.

17 MOREJON Z, LOPEZ M, GARCIA MJ, BOUCOURT E, VICTORIA M, FUENTES V, MORON F, BOULOGNE I, ROBINEAU L, 2009 Encuesta TRAMIL preliminar a grupos de vecinos en los municipios 10 de Octubre, Lisa, Marianao, Habana del Este (Cojímar) en la Ciudad de la Habana. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba.

Vetiveria zizanioides


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Guatemala : valeriana
  • Honduras : valeriana
  • Haiti : vetivè

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

  root and entire plant, decoction, orally and in baths3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

The uses of root decoction against insomnia, nervousness and cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of root decoction against abdominal pain, and the use of leaf and root decoction for headache are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of apical bud decoction for stomach pain is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies, scientific validation and available published scientific information.

The use of apical bud decoction for urinary infection is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

The use of root and entire plant decoction by ingestion and in baths for high temperature (fever) is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys and toxicity studies.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should symptoms persist for more than 2 days for high temperature (fever) and headache, for more than 3 days for stomach pain and urinary infection, or for more than 7 days for nervousness, seek medical attention.

There is no available information establishing a means of preparation and dosage other than that referred to by traditional use.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 WENIGER B, ROUZIER M, 1986 Enquête TRAMIL. Service Oecuménique d'Entraide SOE, Port au Prince, Haïti.

2 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Dep. de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio fitoquímico de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

5 SHIBAMOTO T, NISHIMURA O, 1982 Isolation and identification of phenols in oil of vetiver. Phytochemistry 21:793.

6 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1997 New cis-eudesm-6-ene derivatives from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem 8:1783-1787.

7 WEYERSTAHL P, MARSCHALL H, SPLITTGERBER U, WOLF D, 1996 New sesquiterpene ethers from vetiver oil. Liebigs Ann Chem (7):1195-1199.

8 LU Y, 1989 Extraction of khusimol and other components fromVetiveria zizanioides roots. Patent Faming Zhuanli Shenging Gongkai Shuomingshu, 1, 033, 462

9 CACERES A, GONZALEZ S, GIRON L, 1998 Demostración de la actividad antimicrobiana de plantas tramil en base a los usos populares en la cuenca del Caribe. Laboratorio de productos fitofarmacéuticos Farmaya y Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala, Guatemala.

10 SOLIS PN, RODRIGUEZ N, ESPINOSA A, GUPTA MP, 2004 Estudio antimicrobiano de algunas plantas TRAMIL con usos en Martinica. Informe TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

11 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

12 GarcIa GM, Coto MT, GonzAlez CS, Pazos L, 2000 Potenciación del sueño, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos LEBI, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

13 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2003 Tránsito intestinal, en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

14 CAMBAR P, COUSIN L, SANTOS A, ALGER J, 1989 Efecto del extracto acuoso de Chrysopogon zizanioides en la prevención de la producción de úlceras gástricas según el método Shay. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones progresivas. Unidad de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

15 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, QUIROS S, 2004 Actividad antiulcerosa en rata, dosis repetidas, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

16 CAMBAR P, 1996 Efectos broncopulmonares y cardiovasculares de los extractos acuosos de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small en conejos. Informe TRAMIL. Serie de comunicaciones. Facultad de Ciencias Fisiológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

17 AMDUR MD, MEAD J, 1958 Mechanics of respiration in unanesthetized guinea pigs. Amer J Physiol, 192(2):364-368.

18 JAIN SC, NOWICKI S, EISNER T, MEINWALD J, 1982 Insect repellents from vetiver oil: I. Zizanal and epizizanal. Tetrahedron Letr 23(45):4639-4642.

19 DIKSHIT A, HUSAIN A, 1984 Antifungal action of some essential oils against animal pathogens. Fitoterapia 55(3):171-176.

20 SINGH B, AGRAWAL S, 1988 Efficacy of odoriferous organic compounds on the growth of keratinophilic fungi. Curr Sci 57(14):807-809.

21 KINDRA K, SATYANARAYANA T, 1978 Inhibitory activity of essential oils of some plants against pathogenic bacteria. Indian Drugs 16:15-17.

22 CHAUMONT J, BARDEY I, 1989 In vitro antifungal activity of essential oils. Fitoterapia 60(3):147-153.

23 GANGRADE SK, SHRIVASTAVA RD, SHARMA OP, JAIN NK, TRIVEDI KC, 1991 In vitro antifungal effect of the essential oils. Indian Perfum 35(1):46-49.

24 PELLEGRINO J, 1967 Protection against human Schistosome cercariae. Exp Parasitol 21(1):112-131.

25 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

26 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de la planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

27 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Toxicidad oral aguda en ratones, del extracto acuoso de cogollos de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

28 Hiruma-Lima CA, Souza Brito AR, 2002 Atividades biológicas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de Vetiveria zizanoides. Informe TRAMIL. Depto. Fisiologia, Inst. Biociências UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

29 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de planta entera de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

30 PAZOS L, COTO T, GONZALEZ S, 2003 Irritabilidad dérmica, de piel lesionada en conejos, de raíz de Vetiveria zizanioides. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Ensayos Biológicos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.

Zingiber officinale


(In territories with significant traditional TRAMIL use)

  • Antigua : ginger
  • Barbados : ginger
  • Costa Rica : jengibre
  • Dominica : ginger
  • Guatemala : jengibre
  • Honduras : jengibre
  • Saint Lucia : ginger
  • Puerto Rico : jengibre
  • Puerto Rico : ginger
  • Saint Vincent : ginger
  • Venezuela : jengibre

Significant uses found by the TRAMIL surveys

rhizome, decoction, orally3

Recommandations
Preparation and posology
References

According to published and other information:

Uses for catarrh, flu, cold, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, flatulence and indigestion are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use documented in the TRAMIL surveys, toxicity studies and available published scientific information.

Uses for asthma, cough and whooping cough are classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)13 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should stomach pain, fever or vomiting persist for more than 2 days, seek medical attention.

Due to the health risks involved with whooping cough, an initial medical evaluation is recommended.  The use of this resource can be considered complementary to medical treatment.

Not for use during lactation or by children under 6 years old14.

Ginger may increase bioavailability of sulfaguanidine by maximizing its absorption.

Patients who are receiving oral anticoagulants or anti-platelet aggregation treatments should seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations, due to increased risks of hemorrhage.

It is recommended that patients with gallstones seek the advice of their physician before taking any ginger preparations15.

The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is widely used for human consumption and is an industrial source of essential oil.

According to ESCOP, ginger rhizome has been prescribed for the prevention of nausea and vomiting resulting from motion sickness (sea sickness) and as a post-surgical anti-emetic in minor surgeries.  The effectiveness of both indications has been confirmed by clinical assays.  The indications approved by Commission E are: dyspepsia and prevention of the gastrointestinal symptoms of motion sickness68.

For asthma, catarrh, flu, cold, stomach pain, fever, indigestion, cough, whooping cough, vomiting and flatulence:

Prepare a decoction with 5 grams of fresh rhizome in 250 mL (1 cup) of water. Boil for at least 10 minutes in a covered pot, leave to cool down and drink 2 to 4 times a day.

Any medicinal preparation must be preserved cold and used within the 24 hours.

1 DELENS M, 1990 Encuesta TRAMIL en Barlovento, Edo. Miranda de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

2 BENEDETTI MD, 1994 Encuesta TRAMIL. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico.

3 LAGOS-WITTE S, 1988-89, 1996 Encuesta TRAMIL. Laboratorio de Histología Vegetal y Etnobotánica, Departamento de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras UNAH, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.

4 DELENS M, 1992 Encuesta TRAMIL en los Estados Lara y Sucre de Venezuela. Centro al Servicio de la Acción Popular CESAP, Caracas, Venezuela.

5 OCAMPO R, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica), Instituto de Desarrollo Agrario, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

6 O'REILLY A, WILSON V, PHILLIP M, JOSEPH O, 1992 TRAMIL survey. Chemistry and Food Technology Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dunbars, Antigua and Barbuda.

7 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

8 GIRON L, 1988 Encuesta TRAMIL (Costa atlántica). Centro Mesoamericano de Tecnología CEMAT, Guatemala, Guatemala.

9 JEAN-PIERRE L, 1988 TRAMIL survey. St. Lucia national herbarium, Castries, St. Lucia.

10 CHARLES C, 1988 TRAMIL survey. Movement for Cultural Awareness MCA, Roseau, Dominica.

11 FAUJOUR A, MURREY D, CHELTENHAM-CORBIN B, CARRINGTON S, 2003 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA & UAG, Saint Thomas, Barbados.

12 BALLAND V, GLASGOW A, SPRINGER F, GAYMES G, 2004 TRAMIL survey. enda-caribbean, IICA, UAG & U.PARIS XI, Saint Vincent.

13 WHO, 1991 Pautas para la evaluación de medicamentos herbarios WHO/TRM/91.4 (original inglés). Programa de Medicina Tradicional, OMS, Ginebra, Suiza.

14 WHO, 1999 Rhizoma zingiberis. WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, Volume I. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. p284.

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