Eupatorium odoratum

scientific name: 
Eupatorium odoratum L.
synonym: 
Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & H. Rob.
Botanical family: 

Botanical description

Perennial shrub, erect or scrambling 1-3 m high. Stems round, pubescent; leaves opposite, 6-12 cm long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, blades three-nerved from the base, pubescent above and below with copious yellow glands among the hairs beneath, margins irregularly dentate; capitula in terminal corymbs, up to 5-10 cm wide; florets 14-25 pale mauve or white; achenes ribbed 4-5mm long.

Voucher(s)

Jiménez,103,JBSD

cutaneous ulcers:

  leaf, dried in fire (faded), applied locally1

boil:

  leaf, warm and greased (lamb fat), applied locally1

For furuncles and skin ulcer:

Wash the affected area with boiled water and soap.  Wash leaf thoroughly, warm it slightly over a fire, take 5-10 grams of this vegetal material and apply topically either directly or mixed with animal fat.  Cover with a pad or with clean cloth and replace twice a day.

According to published and other information:

External use for furuncles and skin ulcer is classified as REC, based on the significant traditional use (OMS/WHO)4 documented in the TRAMIL surveys.

For topical application, strict hygienic measures should be observed in order to avoid contamination or additional infection.

Should there be a notable worsening of the patient’s condition, or should furuncles or skin ulcer last for more than 5 days, seek medical attention.

Not for use during pregnancy, during lactation or by children under 5 years old.

Trabajo TRAMIL22 (will be Translated in 3rd Edition)

La hoja fresca calentada, vía tópica (0.6 g/12 cm2), durante 24 horas, a rata Wistar (5 machos y 5 hembras por grupo), modelo de toxicidad aguda tópica, observadas durante las primeras 4 horas constantemente y diariamente por 14 días, no mostró muertes ni signos de toxicidad, en la necropsia no se evidenció daño macroscópico en ningún órgano.

The LD50 of the hydroalcoholic extract (50%) administered intraperitoneally to mice was 1 g/kg20-21.

There is no available information documenting the safety of medicinal use in children or in women during pregnancy or while breast feeding.

The plant contains flavonoids: acacetin, velutine, tamarixetine, mikanine, sakuranetine, iso-sakuranetine, salvigenine; chalcones: odoratine3-6.

The leaf contains terpenes: ß-amyrin, lupeol and epoxylupeol7; steroids: ß and α-sitosterol, flavonoids: quercetin; tannins; essential oil: (+) and (-) eupatenol8-10.

The aerial parts contain polyphenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids, ferulic acid and terpenoids3-4,11-12.

Proximate analysis of 1 kg of dried leaf13: phosphorus: 4352 mg; magnesium: 3202 mg; copper: 37 mg; manganese: 71 mg; iron: 79 mg.

TRAMIL Research14

The ethanolic extract (95%) of the dried leaf (100 µg/mL) did not demonstrate activity in vitro against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger orCandida albicans.

TRAMIL Research15

The ethanolic extract (80%) of the dried leaf, obtained through percolation and defattening with petroleum ether, did not exhibit in vitro activity against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

TRAMIL Research16

The aqueous extract from the leaf, in concentrations greater than or equal to 0.5 mg/mL, counteracted tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH)-induced cellular necrosis and showed antiradical activity, without modifying lipoperoxidation.

TRAMIL Research17

The aqueous extract from the fresh leaf (10 g /100 mL) inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis.  The hydroalcoholic extract (95%) showed significant activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans; it demonstrated more activity againstPseudomonas aeruginosa and less activity against Escherichia coli.  None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum orAspergillus niger.

The chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaf showed activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, and Staphylococcus aureus.  The aqueous and alcoholic extracts exhibited less activity.  None of the extracts was active against Aspergillus niger11.

The leaf tincture was active in vitro against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, with 100% inhibition18.

The essential oil is claimed to have antimicrobial properties12; acacetin, antiallergic properties; lupeol, antirheumatic and antiuretic properties, and sakuranetine, antiseptic and bactericidal properties19.

The essential oil of the leaf, obtained by steam distillation was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli12.

References:  

1 GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU L, GERONIMO M, AMPARO C, 1984 Encuesta TRAMIL. enda-caribe, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

2 WHO, 1991 Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. WHO/TRM/91.4. Programme on Traditional Medicines, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

3 BOSE P, CHAKRABARTI D, CHAKRAVARTI S, DUTTA S, BARVA A, 1973 Flavonoid constituents ofEupatorium odoratum. Phytochemistry12(3):667-668.

4 ARENE E, PETTIT G, ODE R, 1978 The isolation of isosakuranetin methyl ether from Eupatorium odoratum. Lloydia 41:68-70.

5 FARNSWORTH N, CORDELL GA, KAAS CJ, 1980 What is odoratin?. J Pharm Sci 69(9):1107.

6 METWALLY A, EKEJIUBA E, 1981 Methoxylated flavonols and flavanones fromEupatorium odoratum. Planta Med 42:403-405.

7 HAI M, SAHA K, AHMAD M, 1995 Chemical constituents ofEupatorium odoratum Linn (Compositae). J Bangladesh Chem Soc 8(2):139-142.

8 AHMAD M, NABI M, 1967 Chemical investigations on the leaves of Eupatorium odoratum. Sci Res 4:154-157.

9 TALAPATRA SK, BHAR DS, TALAPATRA B, 1977 Terpenoids and related compounds : Part XIII. Epoxylupeol, a new triterpenoid from Eupatorium odoratum. Indian J Chem 15B(9):806-807.

10 IWU M, CHIORI C, 1984 Antimicrobial activity of Eupatorium odoratum extracts. Fitoterapia 55(6)354-356.

11 BOSE P, CHAKRABARTI P, CHAKRAVARTI S, DUTTA SP, BARUA AK, 1974 Chemical examination of the leaves ofEupatorium odoratum. Trans Bose Res Inst Calcutta 37(1-2):25-30.

12 INYA-AGHA S, OGUNTIMEIN B, SOFOWORA A, BENJAMIN T, 1987 Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on the essential oil of Eupatorium odoratum. Int J Crude Drug Res 25(1):49-52.

13 NWOKOLO E, 1987 Leaf meals of Siam weed Eupatorium odoratum L. as nutrient source in poultry diet. Nutr Rep Int 36(4):819-826.

14 LE GRAND A, WONDERGEM PA, 1986 Activités antimicrobiennes et études bibliographiques de la toxicologie de dix plantes médicinales de la Caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Dép. de Pharmacognosie, Universités de Groningen & Leyden, Hollande.

15 GUPTA M, ESPOSITO AVELLA M, 1988 Evaluación química y farmacológica de algunas plantas medicinales de TRAMIL. Centro de Investigaciones Farmacognósticas de la Flora Panameña CIFLORPAN, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Panamá, Panamá, Panamá.

16 JOYEUX M, FLEURENTIN J, DORFMAN P, MONTIER F, 1988 Recherche d'une activité hépatotrope et antiradicalaire de plantes médicinales de la caraïbe. Rapport TRAMIL. Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Centre des Sciences pour l'Environnement, Metz, France.

17 FIALLO M, VAZQUEZ TINEO M, 1992 Evaluación in vitro de plantas usadas en afecciones de la piel: Extractos vegetales antimicóticos y antimicrobianos. Informe TRAMIL. CIBIMA, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma UASD, Santo Domingo, Rep. Dominicana.

18 CACERES A, MENENDEZ H, MENDEZ E, COHOBON E, SAMAYAO BE, JAUREGUI E, PERALTA E, CARRILLO G, 1992 Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 48(2):85-88.

19 DUKE JA, 1992 Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their bioactivities. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press.

20 FENG PC, HAYNES LJ, MAGNUS KE, PLIMMER JR, SHERRAT HSA, 1962 Pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants. J Pharm Pharmacol14:556-561.

21 BHAKUNI O, DHAR ML, DHAR MM, DHAWAN BN, MEHROTRA BN, 1969 Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part II. Indian J Exp Biol 7(4):250-262.

22 MARTINEZ MJ, LOPEZ M, MOREJON Z, BOUCOURT E, FUENTES V, MORON F, 2000 Toxicidad aguda tópica hojas frescas calentadas de Eupatorium odoratum L. Informe TRAMIL. Laboratorio Central de Farmacología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas "Dr. Salvador Allende", La Habana, Cuba.

DISCLAIMER

The information provided is for educational purposes only for the benefit of the general public and health professionals. It is not intended to take the place of either the written law or regulations. Since some parts of plants could be toxic, might induce side effects, or might have interactions with certain drugs, anyone intending to use them or their products must first consult with a physician or another qualified health care professional. TRAMIL has no responsibility whatsoever towards the user for any decision, action or omission made in relation to the information contained in this Pharmacopoeia.